Soft Tissue Trauma - Sprain Ligament injury (Excessive stretching of a ligament) Twisting motion Overstretching or tear ◦ Grade I—mild bleeding and inflammation ◦ Grade II—severe stretching and some tearing and inflammation and hematoma ◦ Grade III—complete tearing of ligament ◦ Grade IV—bony attachment of ligament broken away
Soft Tissue Trauma To decrease swelling and pain, and encourage rest ◦ Ice for first 48 hours ◦ Splint to support extremities and limit movement ◦ Compression dressing ◦ Elevation to increase venous return and decrease swelling ◦ NSAIDs
Acute Compartment Syndrome Serious condition in which increased pressure within one or more compartments causes massive compromise of circulation to the area Prevention of pressure buildup of blood or fluid accumulation Pathophysiologic changes sometimes referred to as ischemia- edema cycle
Emergency Care - Acute Compartment Syndrome Within 4 to 6 hr after the onset of acute compartment syndrome, neuromuscular damage is irreversible; the limb can become useless within 24 to 48 hr. Monitor compartment pressures. (Continued)
Emergency Care (Continued) Fasciotomy may be performed to relieve pressure. Pack and dress the wound after fasciotomy.
Other Complications of Fractures Shock Fat embolism syndrome: serious complication resulting from a fracture; fat globules are released from yellow bone marrow into bloodstream Venous thromboembolism (Continued)
Other Complications of Fractures (Continued) Infection Ischemic necrosis Fracture blisters, delayed union, nonunion, and malunion
Musculoskeletal Complications (continued) Muscle Atrophy, loss of muscle strength range of motion, pressure ulcers, and other problems associated with immobility Embolism/Pneumonia/ARDS ◦ TREATMENT – hydration, albumin, corticosteroids Constipation/Anorexia UTI DVT