Presentation on theme: "Chapter 17 Organizing Life's Diversity. A. How Classification Began 1. Classification - grouping of objects or information based on similarities 2. Taxonomy."— Presentation transcript:
A. How Classification Began 1. Classification - grouping of objects or information based on similarities 2. Taxonomy - branch of biology that groups and names organisms based on characteristics. I. Classification
3. Original organization by Aristotle Plants Animals Herb ShrubTrees Land Air Water *According to this birds, bats, and insects are classified together, they have little in common except they can fly. *As time passed, organisms were discovered that didn't fit into this system.
4. Carolus Linnaeus - organized organisms based on physical and structural similarities Organisms that descended from the same ancestor tend to be similar in structure so this system revealed evolutionary relationships.
5. Binomial nomenclature - two-word naming system a. Latin is used because it is a "dead" language, therefore it does not change b. Needs to be italicized (if typed) or underlined (if handwritten) c. First word begins with capital letter d. Second word begins with lower-case letter ex. Genus species or Genus species 6. Genus - group of similar species. 7. Species name is usually descriptive, or honors a place or person
Biological classification 1. Taxonomy- the science of classification. 2. Classifying organism helps to study the relationship of organisms. e.g. Birds are related to dinosaurs. 3. Classification can help people identify organisms for medical reasons. e.g. Identifying poison ivy or a poisonous snake so medical professionals know how to treat it. 4. Classification can help people economically e.g. If one species is economically valuable, a closely related species may also be valuable.
How Living Things are Classified 1. Kingdom - taxon of similar phyla 2. Phylum - taxon of similar classes (Plants-Divisions) 3. Class - taxon of similar orders 4. Order - taxon of similar families 5. Family - group of similar genera 6. Genus 7. Species
How Living Things are Classified 1. Taxa- a category of biological classification 2. Organisms are ranked in broad taxa down to narrow taxa. Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species
F. Changing Taxonomy Protista Fungi Animalia Plantae Monera Archaea Eubacteria 1. Until a several years ago, most classifications schemes used the 5 kingdom system- Protista, Fungi, Animalia, Plantae, and Monera. 1. Until a several years ago, most classifications schemes used the 5 kingdom system- Protista, Fungi, Animalia, Plantae, and Monera. 2. Monera is now usually split into two kingdoms- Archaea and Eubacteria. 2. Monera is now usually split into two kingdoms- Archaea and Eubacteria. Kangaroo and eucalyptus pictures by Dr. Gene Bakko, St. Olaf College
The 6 Kingdoms Categories for grouping organisms Structural similarities – how are its parts similar Breeding behavior – how does it mate Geographical distribution – where is it found Biochemistry & Chromosome comparison – DNA and chromosome # and size
The Six Kingdoms of Organisms *distinguished by cellular structure & methods of obtaining energy
Now, go to the following link and complete the webquest. This is due at the end of the hour (unless your teacher says otherwise) so work efficiently. If you can’t open it from here, go to my website, under Biology A Notes, Unit 3-Classification and look for “Classifying Organisms Webquest”. Classifying Organisms Webquest