Presentation on theme: "CHAPTER 31 CONFRONTING GLOBAL AND NATIONAL DILEMMAS 1989 TO THE PRESENT."— Presentation transcript:
CHAPTER 31 CONFRONTING GLOBAL AND NATIONAL DILEMMAS 1989 TO THE PRESENT
I. America in the Global Economy ◦ A. The Rise of the European Union and China ◦ 1. Europe – Nations of Western Europe formed the European Union (EU) in 1992 and moved toward the creation of a single federal state (similar to U.S.); by the end of the 1990s, the EU included more than 20 countries and 450 million people; introduced a single currency, the euro, in 2002.
America in the Global Economy Cont. ◦ 2. China – Between 2000 and 2008, China quadrupled its gross domestic product; embraced capitalism by producing inexpensive products for consumer markets; ◦ Relationship with China negatively impacted manufacturing in the U.S. by providing inexpensive products manufactured in China instead of American-made products for sale in U.S.
America in the Global Economy Cont. ◦ B. An Era of Globalization ◦ 1. International Organizations and Corporations – The Group of Seven (leading capitalist industrial nations) joined together to better manage global economic policy; Russia joined in 1997, creating the Group of Eight (G8): U.S., Britain, Germany, France, Italy, Japan, Canada, and Russia; in 1993, the U.S., Canada, and Mexico signed the North Atlantic Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) to create a free-trade zone covering all of North America; corporations sought cheap labor (“outsourcing”) in Mexico, Eastern Europe, and Asia (ex: Nike manufacturing in Vietnam and China).
America in the Global Economy Cont. ◦ 2. Financial Deregulation – U.S. and Britain called for deregulation of banks, brokerage houses, investment firms, and financial markets; led to high profits but a more fragile economy.
America in the Global Economy Cont ◦ C. Revolutions in Technology ◦ 1. Digitization – Personal computers, smartphones, cell phones, and other digital devices changed the world and altered work, leisure, and access to knowledge in stunning ways that enhanced globalization. ◦ 2. World Wide Web – Use of personal computers increased with the introduction of the World Wide Web; by 1980s, e-mail was spreading to universities, businesses, and general public; by 2011, 78 percent of all Americans used the Internet; e- commerce transactions generated nearly $500 billion in 2010; the Web proved instantly democratic, providing ordinary people with easy access to knowledge.
II. Politics and Partisanship in a New Era ◦ A. An Increasingly Plural Society ◦ 1. New Immigrants – The U.S. population grew from 203 million in 1970 to 280 million in 2000; immigrants accounted for approximately 28 million of this increase (with 25 million from Latin America and East Asia); Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965 had created opportunity for immigrants to enter country more easily; in addition, 700,000 refugees came to U.S. from Southeast Asia (Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia) after the Vietnam War. ◦ 2. Multiculturalism and Its Critics – “Illegal aliens” became a topic of debate as conservatives (ex: Patrick Buchanan) warned Americans of an “invasion” of illegal aliens from Mexico; initiatives began in states with large immigrant populations to make English the official language (ex: CA); debates arose over affirmative action (ex: CA and MI) and bilingual education (ex: CA). Not Mr. Alian’s View
II. Politics and Partisanship in a New Era Cont. ◦ B. Clashes over “Family Values” ◦ 1. Abortion – Debate continued between “prolife” (claiming rights for the unborn fetus) and “prochoice” (claiming rights for the pregnant woman); fundamentalist Protestants led antiabortion movement by the 1980s; state laws required limitations on public funding for abortions, parental notification for minors wanting an abortion, and mandated waiting periods.
II. Politics and Partisanship in a New Era Cont. ◦ 2. Gay Rights – By the 1990s, many cities and states had bans on discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation; Human Rights Campaign (HRC) focused on full marriage equality: a legal recognition of same-sex marriage that was on par with opposite-sex marriages; in 1998, Congress passed the Defense of Marriage Act, which allowed states to refuse to recognize gay marriage or civil unions formed in other jurisdictions.
II. Politics and Partisanship in a New Era Cont. ◦ 3. Culture Wars and the Supreme Court – Divisive cases came before the Court: Webster v. Reproductive Health Services (1989) allowed state governments to limit funding for abortion; Planned Parenthood of Southeastern Pennsylvania v. Casey (1992) upheld a law requiring a twenty-four-hour waiting period prior to an abortion.
II. Politics and Partisanship in a New Era ◦ C. The Clinton Presidency, 1993 – 2001 ◦ 1. New Democrats and Public Policy – Clinton won 43 percent of vote in 1992; was a self-proclaimed New Democrat with a middle-of-the-road stand on divisive issues; effort to enact national health care failed in 1994, leaving 15 percent of Americans without health coverage; by 1998, balanced federal budget achieved with reduction in the federal debt. ◦ 2. The Republican Resurgence – The midterm election of 1994 went poorly for Democrats, and Republicans gained fifty-two seats in the House; Clinton moved to the right by avoiding expansive social-welfare proposals for the remainder of his presidency; in August 1996, the government abolished Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC).
II. Politics and Partisanship in a New Era ◦ 3. Clinton’s Impeachment – Clinton’s second term unraveled when a sex scandal emerged; Clinton denied a sexual affair with Monica Lewinsky, a former White House intern; Republicans wanted an impeachment, which was narrowly achieved in the House but failed in the Senate. Americans paid a high price as attention was drawn away from pressing national problems.
II. Politics and Partisanship in a New Era Cont. ◦ D. Post-Cold War Foreign Policy (Debate over whether to admit former Soviet-bloc nations to NATO including Czechoslovakia, Poland, Hungary, Ukraine, Georgia, and Armenia; twelve new nations were admitted by 2010.) ◦ 1. The Breakup of Yugoslavia – Dissolution of Yugoslavia led to war and a ruthless campaign of “ethnic cleansing,” led by Slobodan Milosevic, an uncompromising Serbian nationalist; NATO intervened; by 2008, the former Yugoslavia was seven independent nations.
II. Politics and Partisanship in a New Era Cont. ◦ 2. America and the Middle East – Radical Islamic movements grew in post-Cold War Middle East; Muslim nations were angry about a long list of grievances, including the ruthless colonialism by British and French in early decades of twentieth century, and U.S. support for Israel and for the Iranian shah during revolution; radical fundamentalists were fanatically opposed to Western imperialism and consumer culture; opposed U.S. presence in Saudi Arabia; in 1993, radical Muslims bombed World Trade Center in NYC, killed six people, and injured 1,000+; in 1998, terrorists used truck bombs to blow up U.S. embassies in Kenya and Tanzania, and they bombed the USS Cole in Yemen in 2000; Clinton ordered air strikes against Al Qaeda (led by Osama bin Laden) in Afghanistan; threat remained.
III. Into a New Century ◦ A. The Ascendance of George W. Bush (Vice President Al Gore won 50.9 million votes to Bush’s 50.4 million; Bush held electoral college, 271 to 267; hand recounts were demanded in several counties of Florida, which resulted in a month of debate and turmoil; in Bush v. Gore, the Supreme Court upheld the victory for Bush.) ◦ 1. Tax Cuts – Bush’s Economic Growth and Tax Relief Act of 2001 cut income tax rates, extended income credit for the poor, and marked the estate tax to be phased out by 2010; additional cuts followed in 2003; federal expenditures increased 33 percent by 2006; national debt stood at over $8 trillion by 2007.
III. Into a New Century ◦ 2. September 11, 2001 – Nineteen Islamic terrorists hijacked four commercial jets; two were flown into New York City’s World Trade Center, destroying its twin towers and killing over 2,900 people; a third plane crashed into the Pentagon; the fourth, presumably headed for the White House or the U.S. Capitol, crashed in a Pennsylvania field when passengers fought back and thwarted the hijackers; Bush proclaimed a “war on terror”; U.S. began military campaign against bin Laden’s forces in Afghanistan.
The Recap ◦ Rise of European Union ◦ China’s Economy & US Relations ◦ US Economy & Deregulation ◦ Digital Marketplace and Internet ◦ New Immigration & Impact ◦ Abortion Issues ◦ Gay Rights Movement ◦ Clinton Presidency Success & Scandal ◦ Al Queda ◦ Bush- Gore ◦ September 11 th and Effects