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Flashcards for Unit 1

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Anything that has mass & occupies space. Matter

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Weight A measure of the gravitational pull on matter. You would weigh less on the moon!

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Mass A measure of the quantity of matter. You would have the same mass on the moon.

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Scientific Method A series of steps followed to solve problems, including collecting data, forming a hypothesis, testing the hypothesis, and stating conclusions.

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Observation A fact you take in with your senses.

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Hypothesis A testable statement

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Conclusion An inference

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Scientific Law Describes what happens. Often stated mathematically. Summarizes many (thousands of) observations.

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Theory A model that tries to explain why nature behaves a certain way. May be modified.

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How many fundamental units in the SI system? 7

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Physical quantity that must be measured. It cannot be calculated. Fundamental or Base Unit

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A unit defined as a combination of fundamental units. Derived Unit

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Unit of Mass Unit of Time Unit of Length Unit of Temperature Unit of Amount of Substance Unit of Volume: derived unit (Space or capacity) Kilogram Second Meter Kelvin Mole Liter, milliliter, cubic centimeter

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Liter Metric Unit of Volume 10 cm X 10 cm 10 cm Derived Unit

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? cm 3 = 1 Liter 1000 cm 3 = 1 Liter Derived Unit

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? milliliter = 1 Liter 1000 mL = 1 Liter Derived Unit

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? milliliter = 1 cm 3 1 mL = 1 cm 3 Derived Unit

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What is the mass of 1 liter of pure H 2 O? 1 kilogram Mass/Volume relationship

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What is the volume of 1 kg of pure H 2 O? 1 liter Mass/Volume relationship

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What is the mass of 1 cm 3 of pure H 2 O? 1 gram Mass/Volume relationship

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What is the volume of 1 gram of pure H 2 O? 1 cm 3 or 1 mL Mass/Volume relationship

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Freezing Point of water in the Kelvin scale. 273 K Physical Constant

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Boiling Point of water in the Kelvin scale. 373 K Physical Constant

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Freezing Point of water in the centigrade scale. 0 C0 C0 C0 C Physical Constant

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Boiling Point of water in the centigrade scale. 100 C Physical Constant

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Ice / water equilibrium Another name for freezing point.

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Steam / water equilibrium Another name for boiling point.

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? cm in 1 meter 100 cm = 1 meter Conversion Fact

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? mm in 1 meter 1000 mm = 1 meter Conversion Fact

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? m in 1 km 1000 m = 1 kilometer Conversion Fact

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? mg in 1 g 1000 mg = 1 gram Conversion Fact

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Density Mass / Volume

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Density Describes how matter is packed into space.

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Units of Density grams / cm 3 for solids grams / ml for liquids

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Density D M V

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Accuracy How close a measured value is to an accepted value.

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Precision How close a series of measurements are to one another.

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High Precision Low Scatter

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Percent Error Measured value – Accepted value x 100% Table T, reference tables Accepted value

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Temperature A measure of the average kinetic energy of the particles of a system.

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C to K Table T, reference tables K = C + 273

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Scientific Notation The number is written as a product of 2 numbers: - a number between 1 & 10 - a power of 10

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2 X 10 -3 Negative exponent so the number is between 0 and 1: 0.002

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5 X 10 2 Positive exponent so the number is greater than 1: 500

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Convert 345 X 10 -19 to scientific notation. 3.45 X 10 -17 The 1st factor got smaller by a factor of 100. So the 2 nd factor must increase by a factor of 100.

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Significant Figures All known digits plus 1 estimated digit. From the perspective of the person MAKING the measurement.

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5400.145 cm Interpreting someone else’s measurements. Decimal Present – Pacific side Start counting at 1 st nonzero # and count until the end of the number. 7 sig figs 1234 567

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0.0175 g Decimal Present – Pacific side Start counting at 1 st nonzero # and count until the end of the number. 3 sig figs 123 Interpreting someone else’s measurements.

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4855 g Decimal Absent – Atlantic side Start counting at 1 st nonzero # and count until the end of the number. 4 sig figs 1234

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4000 mm Decimal Absent – Atlantic side Start counting at 1 st nonzero # and count until the end of the number. 1 sig fig 1

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Rule for sig figs in Addition and Subtraction Answer has same number of decimal places as the addend with the least number of decimal places.

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28.0 cm 23.538 cm 25.68 cm + 77.218 cm But what do you report? 77.2 cm is correct! Least # of decimal places !

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Rule for sig figs in Multiplication & Division Answer has same number of significant figures as the factor with the least number of significant figures.

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24 m X 3.26 m = 78.24 m 2 But what do you report? 78 m 2 is correct! 2 sig figs 3 sig figs

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An aluminum cube has a mass of 4.75 grams. The dimensions of the cube are 1.2 cm X 1.2 cm X 1.2 cm. What is the density of the cube? a) 2.749 g/cm 3 b) 2.75 g/cm 3 “Volume” = 1.728 cm 3 c) 2.7 g/cm 3 d) 0.36 cm 3 /g 3 sig figs 2 sf

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Calculating density by water displacement. Final Volume = 46.0 mL Initial Volume = 40.0 mL Volume of rock = 6.0 mL Mass of rock = 54.0 g Density of rock = 9.0 g/mL 2 sig figs – determined by the digits in the difference not by the raw data!

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A solution contains 43.875 grams of NaCl dissolved in 1.0 Liter of H 2 O. What is the molarity expressed to the correct sig figs? Molar Mass of NaCl = 58.5 grams. Calculated from P.T. 43.875 g 1 mole = 0.75000 moles 58.5 grams 58.5 grams 0.75000 moles/1.0 Liter = 0.75 M 5 sig figs 2 sig fig

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Data Table 2 columns plus title independent variable – controlled by scientist (column 1) dependent variable – measured variable (column 2)

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Graph 2 axes plus title independent variable – controlled by scientist (column 1) – GOES on X-AXIS dependent variable – measured variable (column 2) – GOES on Y-AXIS

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Linear Relationship X-axis Y-axis Y = mX + b

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Direct Relationship X-axis Y-axis Y = mX

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Inverse Relationship X-axis Y-axis XY = k where k is a constant

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Graph of a Constant X-axis Y-axis

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