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HUMAN POPULATION & ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES. Major human cultural changes: TimeHuman Cultural changes 4-6 million year ago Human fossil was found 90,000 –

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Presentation on theme: "HUMAN POPULATION & ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES. Major human cultural changes: TimeHuman Cultural changes 4-6 million year ago Human fossil was found 90,000 –"— Presentation transcript:

1 HUMAN POPULATION & ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES

2 Major human cultural changes: TimeHuman Cultural changes 4-6 million year ago Human fossil was found 90,000 – 176,000 years ago Homo sapiens has walked on the earth 12,000 years ago Humans were mostly hunter gatherers 10,000 -12,000 years ago 275 years ago 50 years ago Agricultural revolution Industrial revolution Information and globalization revolution 2

3 Major human cultural changes have: Developed energy and new technologies which alter and control of the planet to meet our basic needs increasing wants Allowed expansion of human population, mostly because of increased food supplies, improved health and longer life spans  exponential growth  over population Increased our environmental impact such as increase in resources use, pollution, and environmental degradation 3

4 Cultural changes have led an expanding human population 4

5 HUMAN POPULATION 5

6 Human population Human population has been growing exponentially for centuries World population has more than doubled in 50 years: from 2.5 billion (1950) to 6.8 billion (2010) It may reach 8 billion by 2028, 9 billion by 2054, and 10-14 billion by 2100 6

7 Exponential world population growth with prediction beyond 2100 7

8 Factors affecting human population : Births, deaths and migration Population Change: (Births+immigration – deaths+emigration) Population growth can be controlled under family-planning program 8

9 Slowing population growth under family- planning program: slowing population growth in Thailand: In 1971, growth rate was 3.2% per year, the average number of children was 6.4 In 1986, growth rate was cut into 1.6% per year, by 2000 the growth rate was fallen to 1.0% and the average number of children was 1.9 Declining population growth in Japan: Japan's population in 2000 was 127 million, by 2050 is projected to fall to 100 million and 67 million in 2100. 9

10 Case studies: slowing population growth in India In 1952 when its population was nearly 400 million, family- planning begun in India In 2000, after 48 years of population control effort, India was the world’s second most populous country (1billion) India’s people are among the poorest in the world, nearly half of India’s unemployed, about 40% of India’s suffers from malnutrition, mostly because of poverty India has 2.3% of the world’s land resources and 1.7% of the world’s forest but has 16% of the world’s people. About half of India’s cropland is degraded and 70% of India’s water is seriously polluted Without its long-standing family planning program, India’s population and environmental problems would be growing even faster Even though the government has provided information about the advantages of small family for years, Indian women still have an average of 3.3 children 10

11 Slowing population growth in China China has 21% of the world’s population but only 7% of its fresh water and cropland, 3% of its forests and 2% of its oil Since 1970, China bring its population growth under control, between 1972-2000, China cut its crude birth rate in half and cut its total fertility rate from 5.7 to 1.8 children per women To achieve its sharp drop fertility, China has established the most extensive and strict population control program in the world: -Couples are strongly urged to have no more than one child and free access to sterilization -Couples have no more than one child receive extra food, larger pension, better housing, free medical care, salary bonuses, free school tuition and preferential treatment in employment when their child enters the job market The result is 81% of married women China are under program of family -planning 11

12 ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES Due to the increasing of human population that affected environment, there are several 12

13 Several Environmental Issues: Over Population Resources depletion Energy use Waste Pollution: Ozone depletion; Climate change and global warming Destructions and degradation of wild life habitats  Lost of Biodiversity Environment degradation Poverty Genetically modified food controversies 13

14 Over population The main reason for rapid growth of human that cause overpopulation is the increase in food supply and better health Over population is suggested to cause several environmental problems: 14

15 Change of Pyramid shape as increasing of human population 15 Producers Primary consumers Secondary consumers Tertiary consumers (human) Normal Over population of human

16 Increasing of human population have increased: Resources use  depletion of natural resources  increasing waste Pollution :Water, soil and air pollution environmental degradation 16

17 RESOURCES USE 17

18 A major types of material resources 18

19 A model Interconnected environmental problem and resources problem 19 Depletion of nonrenewable energy (fossil fuel)

20 Use of Energy (1) In 2007 it was estimated that sources of energy consisted of: - petroleum (36.0%) - coal (27.4 %) fossil fuel energy - natural gas (23.0%) - hydroelectric (6.3%) - nuclear (8.5%) non fos sil - geothermal, solar, tide, sources wind, wood, waste (0.9%) World energy consumption is growing about 2.3% per year 20

21 Use of Energy (2) As the use of fossil fuels energy increase year to year, reserves fossil fuels are being depleted Because the accumulation of fossil fuels much slower than that used for energy, in the last decades there is a global movement to use renewable energy (non fossil fuel sources) Burning fossil fuels produces billions tones of CO 2, one of gases that contribute global warming 21

22 WASTE 22

23 Waste Waste is unwanted or unusable materials There many types of waste: - municipal, construction, commercial, industrial, medical solid waste - hazardous waste: radioactive; mercury, nickel, cadmium batteries - biodegradable waste Waste can contaminate surface and ground water; soil; and air which cause problems for humans, other species and ecosystem Exposure to waste can cause various diseases to human including cancer 23

24 24 Waste of modern life

25 POLLUTION 25

26 Pollution Pollution is any addition to air, water, soil or food that threatens the health, survival, or activities of humans or other living organism Environmental pollution causes a range of human health problem from allergies & infertility to cancer and premature death 26

27 Pollution are included: Water pollution: fertilizer, solid waste, toxin (DDT), heavy metal Air pollution : (CFC)  Ozone depletion (CO2)  global warming and climate change Soil pollution 27

28 WATER POLLUTION 28

29 Water pollution Is any chemical, biological, or physical change in water quality that has harmful effect on living organism or makes water unsuitable for desired use 29

30 Polluted and clean lake 30

31 Ground water pollution 31

32 Pesticides can pollute water Pesticides kill insects that will damage crops They also kill harmless insects or can get washed into rivers and pollute the water They may even end up in the food chain (DDT)

33 DDT and Bioaccumulation 33

34 AIR POLLUTION 34

35 Air pollution can cause Several disease Ozone Depletion Climate change Noise Particle 35

36 Sources of air pollutions 36

37 Sources of air pollutions 37

38 Chlorofluorocarbons destroy ozone in the stratosphere 38

39 Air pollution can cause emphysema 39

40 Ozone depletion cause skin cancer 40

41 Burning fossil fuels in cars and power stations produces carbon dioxide, sulphur dioxide and other greenhouse gases 41 Carbon dioxide traps heat in the atmosphere and causes the temperature of the earth to rise

42 Change in temperature 42

43 An increase in global temperature could have many negative effects –Change in climate patterns –Melting of polar ice –Flooding of coastal regions –Increase in the rate of species loss

44 LOST OF BIODIVERSITY Destructions and degradation of wild life habitats cause: 44

45 Destructions and degradation of wild life habitats Recent studies suggest that roughly > 73% of the earth’s habitable land has been partially or heavily disturbed by human activities. What will happen to the remaining wildlife habitat and wildlife species if the human population increase from 6.4 billion (2010) to 8 billion by 2028, and perhaps 9 billion by 2054? Lost / depletion of Biodiversity 45

46 Biodiversity Biodiversity: the number of species, the enormous of genes in the species, and the different ecosystems Why is biodiversity is important? -biodiversity boots ecosystems productivity where each species, no matter how small, all have important role - for example, a large number of plant species means greater variety of crops, greater species diversity ensures natural sustainability for all life form - healthy ecosystems can better withstand and recover from a variety of disasters -while we dominate this planet, we still need to preserve the diversity in wildlife 46

47 GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOOD CONTROVERSIES 47

48 Genetically modified food controversies Controversy of genetically modified organism (GMO) in food production is dispute over the relative advantages and disadvantages The five areas key of controversy are food safety, the effect on natural ecosystems, gene flow into no GM crops, moral/religious concern, and corporate control of the food supply Safety is major issue in this controversy To date no adverse health effect caused by genetically modified food which has been approved for sale, only two products failed initial safety testing and discontinued due to allergic reactions 48

49 Tempeh is probably a genetically modified food 49

50 POVERTY 50

51 Correlation between poverty and health 51

52 52 Poverty cause the health problem in developing country


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