Presentation on theme: "Writing 2 ENG 221 Norah AlFayez. Lecture Contents Revision of Writing 1. Introduction to basic grammar. Parts of speech. Parts of sentences. Subordinate."— Presentation transcript:
Writing 1 Revision: We’ve learned how to write 5 types of paragraphs: Descriptive Paragraph. Example Paragraph. Process Paragraph. Opinion Paragraph. Narrative Paragraph.
Formatting a paragraph Leave margins Double-space Indent Connect sentences Write a title
Paragraph Organization The topic Sentence. (Introduces a new idea. Not too general. Not too specific.) The supporting sentences. (definitions, explanations or examples.) The concluding sentence. (warning, prediction or opinion)
Punctuation and Capitalization The first word in a sentence is always capitalized. A complete sentence can end in a period. A question ends with a question mark. Use exclamation mark to give emphasis to a sentence.
Important Terms A Fragment: An incomplete sentence that is missing a subject or a verb. Run-on sentences: Two sentences that run together without correct punctuation between them.
The 8 types of pronouns are: 1. Personal pronouns 2. Possessive pronouns 3. Intensive and Reflexive pronouns 4. Relative pronouns 5. Interrogative pronouns 6. Demonstrative Pronouns 7. Indefinite Pronouns 8. Reciprocal pronouns
Parts of Speech: VERBS A verb usually expresses action (jump, think) or being (is, become). It is composed of a main verb possibly preceded by one or more helping verbs. There are twenty-three helping verbs in English: forms of have, do, and be; and nine modals. Have, do, and be change form to indicate tense; the nine modals do not.
Parts of Speech: ADJECTIVES An adjective is a word used to modify, or describe, a noun or pronoun. Adjectives usually precede the words they modify. They may also follow linking verbs, in which case they describe the subject. Some pronouns and nouns can function as adjectives.
Parts of Speech: PREPOSITIONS A preposition is a word placed before a noun or pronoun to form a phrase modifying another word in the sentence.
Parts of Speech: CONJUNCTIONS Conjunctions join words, phrases, or clauses, and the indicate the relation between the elements they join. Using conjunctions takes your writing to the next level. There are 4 type of conjunctions: Coordinating conjunctions, Correlative Conjunctions, Subordinating conjunctions, and Conjunctive adverbs.
Parts of Speech: INTERJECTIONS An interjection is a word used to express surprise or emotion. E.g. Oh! Hey! Wow! Interjections are usually followed by exclamation marks.
Basic Grammar: Parts of Sentences S + V + O or Complement Yara is leaving tomorrow morning. V +O = predicate The Subject can be simple (one noun or pronoun) or complete (simple subject + any words modifying it)
Basic Grammar: Parts of Sentences In imperative sentences the subject is understood to be you. Sometimes the subject comes after the verb. i.e. when a sentence begins with (there is, there are). In questions, the subject comes between the helping verb and the main verb.
Basic Grammar: Parts of Sentences Linking verbs connect subjects to complements. The forms of be – be, am, is, are, was, were, being, been- usually function as linking verbs when they appear as main verbs. Verbs such as appear, become, feel, grow, look, make, seem, smell, sound, and taste are linking when they are followed by a word group that describes the subject.
Basic Grammar: Parts of Sentences A transitive verb takes a direct object, which is the receiver of the action. The direct object is sometimes followed by an indirect object, a noun or pronoun telling to whom or for whom the action is done. Intransitive verbs take no objects or complements. Dictionaries tell you if the verb is transitive or not.
Basic Grammar: Subordinate Word Groups Subordinate word groups include phrases and clauses. Phrases lack a subject and a verb; they are classified as prepositional, verbal, appositive, and absolute. Clauses have a subject and a verb, but they begin with a word (such as although, that, or when).
Subordinate Word Groups: Prepositional Phrases A prepositional phrase begins with a preposition such as at, by, for, from, in, of, on, to, or with and usually ends with a noun which is the object of the preposition. They function either as adjectives (appear after nouns) or adverbs (anywhere in the sentence).
Subordinate Word Groups: Verbal Phrases A verbal is a verb that doesn’t function as the verb of a clause. Verbals include: Infinitives (e.g. Can you wait to celebrate?) Gerunds (e.g. Eating is prohibited.) Participles (e.g. Broken promises cannot be fixed.)
Subordinate Word Groups: Appositive Phrases Appositive phrases describe nouns or pronouns. Instead of modifying noun or pronouns, however, appositive phrases rename them.
Subordinate Word Groups: Absolute Phrases An absolute phrase modifies a whole clause or sentence, not just one word. It consists of a noun usually followed by a participial phrase.
Subordinate Word Groups: Subordinate Clauses Subordinate clause are patterned like sentences, having subjects and verbs. But they function within sentences as adjectives, adverbs, or noun. They cannot stand alone as complete sentences.
Basic Grammar: Sentence Types Sentences are classified in two ways: According to their structure (simple, compound, complex, and compound complex) According to their purpose (declarative, imperative, interrogative, and exclamatory).
Lecture’s Summary Revision of Writing 1. Introduction to basic grammar. Parts of speech. Parts of sentences. Subordinate word groups. Sentence Types. Introduction to Chapter 1.
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