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Developing Human Resources Unit III. Human Resource Development Becoming increasingly important because jobs have become more sophisticated and influenced.

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Presentation on theme: "Developing Human Resources Unit III. Human Resource Development Becoming increasingly important because jobs have become more sophisticated and influenced."— Presentation transcript:

1 Developing Human Resources Unit III

2 Human Resource Development Becoming increasingly important because jobs have become more sophisticated and influenced by technological changes Means increasing knowledge, skills & capacities of employees It comprises needs assessment, training & management development Determining training and development need of the employees in line with business strategy Linked with productivity and performance efficiency Future oriented 2

3 Concept of developing HR "Human Resource Development is concerned with preparing employees to work effectively and efficiently in the organization." - Decenzo, D. A. and Robbins 3

4 Importance of developing HR Links business strategy and employees' performance. Employees can discover their fullest potential. Equipped to implement operational effectiveness. Human resources are viewed as an asset in the organization. 4

5 Human Resources Development System Concerned with the provision of learning, development & training opportunities in order to improve individual, team & organizational performance Is a process where the employees in an organization are helped in a continuous, planned way to acquire capabilities required to perform present/future roles develop their general capabilities as individuals & discover & exploit their own inner potentials for their own & organizational development purposes develop an organizational culture in which supervisor-subordinate relationship, team work & collaboration among sub-units are strong & contribute to the professional well-being, motivation & pride of employees T. V. Rao, 1999 5

6 Need for Human Resource Development System Ensures availability of capable & committed manpower in the organization Provides career development opportunities time to time counseling to determine career path Implement performance management practices in the organization policies in performance evaluation, training & devt. career counseling etc. Provides training & development opportunities evaluates standard & actual performance, decides on training needs Increases employees' commitment on the job know about employees' attitude towards the given jobs helps understand the employees' level of commitment in the job Improve quality of worklife (QWL) enhances effective communication, teamwork, good working conditions etc. 6

7 Process of adaptation of new employee & the new employer to one another All passages undergone by employees The move from being an outsider to being an insider Is a process of adaptation that takes place when an individual passes from outside the organization to the role of an inside member “Socialization is generalized norm conformity that occurs when a person makes the transition from beginning to understand and accept the values, norms and beliefs held by others in the organization.” Werther and Davis Meaning of Socialization 7

8 Employee Socialization Objectives Welcomes and makes new employees at ease Helps understand the organization Clarifies job requirements Moulds new employees into organization Ensures predictability of employee behavior Substitutes rules guiding employee behavior Increases employee performance and satisfaction Reduces anxiety 8

9 Organizational Culture: Every organization has a culture that defines appropriate behaviors for organizational members Often unwritten rules & regulations Roles: Behavior expected of persons who are identified with certain jobs. Roles are significantly influenced by values Values: Basic convictions about what is right or wrong, good or bad, desirable or not. Every individual has a value system Norms: Standards of acceptable behavior. Tells members what they ought or ought not to do under certain circumstances To understand socialization… 9

10 Socialization Process 10

11 Pre-arrival Stage  Each individual arrives with a set of organizational values, attitudes & expectations  These cover both the work to be done and the organization  For e.g. in many jobs, new members will have undergone a considerable degree of prior socialization in the training and in school  Selection process is used in most organizations to inform prospective employees about the organization & to ensure the inclusion of the “right type” that will fit in  The success depends on the degree to which the aspiring member has correctly anticipated the expectations and desires of those in the organization in charge of selection The Socialization Process 11

12 Encounter Stage  Entry into the organization  Individuals confront the possible dichotomy between their expectations – about their job, co-workers, boss & the organization in general & the reality  Where expectations & reality differ, the new employees must undergo socialization  At the extreme, new members may become totally disillusioned with the actualities of their job & resign 12

13 Metamorphosis Stage  Going through changes – new members must work out any problems discovered during the encounter stage  New members become comfortable with the organization & their job  They understand & accept norms  Feel accepted by peers  Self confident & competence to complete their job  Understand the system – rules, procedures  Knows what is expected of them 13

14 Formal and informal (no special attention and segregated explicit role) Individual and collective (preserve indi. differences and formation of alliances) Fixed and variable – time constraints (standardized and no advanced notice of transition time) Serial and disjunctive (random) (guidance/mentor and no predecessor) Investiture and divestiture (confirms the incoming identity and dismantle) Types of Socialization 14

15 Formal and informal (no special attention and segregated explicit role) Individual and collective (preserve indi. differences and formation of alliances) Fixed and variable – time constraints (standardized and no advanced notice of transition time) Serial and disjunctive (random) (guidance/mentor and no predecessor) Investiture and divestiture (confirms the incoming identity and dismantle) Types of Socialization 15

16 Concept of Training & Development Every organization needs to have well-trained & experienced people to perform the activities that have to be done As jobs have become more complex, the importance of employee training has increased Traditionally, lower-level employees were 'trained', higher level employees were 'developed' Training helps employees to do their current work better. Development prepares indis. for the future, focusing on learning & personal development 16

17 Training vs. Development Training Development Focus: PresentFocus: Future Time Span: Short term and periodicTime Span: Long term and ongoing Target: OperationsTarget: Management Area: Hands-on skills and knowledge Area: conceptual, interpersonal, technical, decision making skills etc Move: Reactive to current needsMove: Proactive to future needs Initiation: Management, participated by employees Initiation: Employees, facilitated by management 17

18 Concept of Training Is a learning experience. Planned attempt to improve employee performance. Should be designed to meet the goals of the individual, groups and the organization as a whole. Seeks a relatively permanent change in an individual that will improve his ability to perform on the job Involves changing of skills, knowledge, attitudes etc. Is imp. for new or present employees Is the systematic process of altering the behavior of employees in a direction that will achieve organizational goals 18

19 Determining Training Needs What deficiencies, if any, do incumbents have in the skills, knowledge or abilities required to exhibit the necessary job behaviors What behaviors are necessary for each job incumbent to complete his arranged tasks? Person need analysis What behaviors are necessary for each job incumbent to complete his arranged tasks? Person need analysis What are the organization's goals? Organizational need analysis What are the organization's goals? Organizational need analysis What tasks must be completed to achieve its goals? Job need analysis What tasks must be completed to achieve its goals? Job need analysis Is there a need for training 19

20 Determining Training Needs Organizational need analysis Short-run & long run objectives Analysis of organizational resources Budgets allocation for training Job need analysis (operational analysis) Information on the tasked to be performed on each job Skills required performing it Person need analysis Finding out the employee deficiency Compares the actual performance with standard performance 20

21 Determining Training Needs Training need is the gap between skills needed for a job and the present skill level of employees. It should be properly determined to get the job done efficiently and effectively. Job Requirements – Employee Capabilities = Training Need 21

22 Signals that warn a manager that employee training is necessary Inadequate job performance or a drop in productivity Changes imposed on the worker as a result of a job redesign Technological breakthrough 22

23 Training Process 1. Needs Analysis Identifies the specific job performance skills needs Assesses the prospective trainees' skills Devts. specific, measurable knowledge & performance objectives based on deficiencies 2. Instructional Design You decide on, compile & produce the training program content including workbooks, exercises & activities You probably use techniques like on-the-job training & computer-assisted learning (need not create own training methods) 3. Validation Step The bugs are worked out of the training program by presenting it to a small representative audience 4. Implementation Step Actually training the targeted employee group 5. Evaluation Step Mgmt. assessed the program's successes or failures 23

24 Considerations in Design of Training Programs Organizational commitment to invest the necessary resources, to provide sufficient time and money for training. Top management is committed to training and development. Training is tied to business strategy and objectives and linked to bottom line results. Emphasis on a comprehensive and systematic approach to training. Note: While 100 percent guarantee in returns from training programs is inappropriate, considerable planning and evaluation are necessary in order to realize these returns. 24

25 Training Methods On – the – Job Training Advantages Disadvantages Less costly to operate Places employee in an actual work situation Learning by doing it First hand experience Practical, easy delivery Better chances of placement Multi-skill Can be low productive while employees develop their skills Errors may be made by the trainees while they learn Low productivity during development phase Higher damages E.g.: Apprenticeship, internship, JIT – Job Instructional Training 25

26 Training Method Off – the – Job Training AdvantagesDisadvantages Opportunity to use the ability of the best instructor & the best planned materials Training a large no. of trainees in a classroom Involves many at one go Lesser damages Less time consuming, more content Can develop in-house faculty and capacity Better contacts As large no. of trainees are involved, it is difficult to meet specific job needs of the trainees May not transfer all knowledge/skills acquired from the training Not useful to develop interpersonal skills at work Lesser chances of obtaining job Lesser involvement, low motivation E.g.: Lectures or conferences, simulation exercise, programmed instruction, experiential exercise 26

27 On-the-job Training Learn by doing – 4 steps to success Step 1 Prepare 1.Put the learner at ease—relieve the tension. 2.Explain why he or she is being taught. 3.Create interest, find out what the learner knows. 4.Explain the whole job and relate it to a known job. 5.Place close to the normal working positions. 6.Familiarize with equipment, materials, & tools. Step 2 Present 1.Explain quantity and quality requirements. 2.Go through the job at the normal work pace. 3.Go through the job several times, giving each step. 4.Repeat slowly again. 5.Have the learner explain the steps as you go through. Step 3 Tryout 1.Have the learner go through the job several times. 2.Run the job at the normal pace. 3.Learner does the job, building up skill and speed. 4.Let the work begin – stick around for a while. Step 4 Follow-up 1.Designate to whom the learner should go for help. 2.Gradually decrease supervision, monitor quality. 3.Correct faulty work before it becomes a habit. 4.Compliment good work; goal is to achieve quality. 27

28 Training Methods On - the –Job Training Off – the – Job Training Internships Apprentice training Job instruction training Classroom lectures or conferences Films Computer-assisted instructions Simulation Exercises Experiential Exercises Computer Modeling Vestibule Training 28

29 On – the – Job Training 1.Internships Combines job trainings with classroom instructions Interns get the 'real world' exposure 2.Apprenticeship Programs People seeking to enter skilled trades (plumbers, electricians) During this period, the trainee is paid less than a fully qualified worker Trainee is under the guidance of a master worker 29

30 On – the – Job Training (conti…) 3.Job Instruction Training (JIT) Devt.ed during the WW II JIT was part of the Training within Industry Program Consists of 4 basic steps: 1.Preparing the trainees by telling them about job (overcoming their uncertainties) 2.Presenting the instruction (essential information in a clear manner) 3.Having the trainees try out the job (demonstrating their understanding) 4.Placing the workers into their jobs on their own with a designated resource person (for assistance) 30

31 Example of Job Instruction Training List each step in order with key steps Start motor Set cut distance Read scale carefully Place paper on cutting table Verify paper is even Push paper to cutter Verify paper is tight Grasp release with left hand Don’t release to prevent injury Grasp release with right hand Don’t release to prevent injury Pull cutter & safety releases Keep both hands in place Wait for cut To finish Maintain grip Retract paper Verify cutter is done Shut off motor 31

32 Off – the – Job Training 1.Classroom lectures or conferences Well-adapted to conveying specific information – rules, procedures or methods Lack of active involvement by the trainees Possible lack of feedback 2.Films Provides information & Explicitly demonstrate skills that are not easily presented by other techniques 32

33 Off – the – Job Training (conti…) 3. Computer Aided Instruction Learning is more self-initiated & individualized Allows trainee to learn at their own pace, areas that need improvement, flexibility Electronic Performance Support Systems Distance and Internet based – Tele-training – Videoconferencing – Internet training (interactive tutorials, virtual classrooms, intranet, CD- Rom based training etc.) 33

34 Off – the – Job Training (conti…) 4. Simulation Exercises Explicitly places the trainee in an artificial environment that closely mirrors actual working conditions Includes many types: a.Experiential Exercises Short, structured learning experiences where individuals learn by doing E.g. Rather than talk about interpersonal conflict, create a conflict situation where employees experience a conflict & works on its resolution 34

35 Off – the – Job Training (conti…) b.Computer Modeling Programming a computer to imitate some of the realities of the job Widely used in training of pilots Allows learning to take place without risk & high costs c.Vestibule Training Employees learn their jobs on the equipments they will be using, but the training is conducted away from the actual work floor Employees get a full feel for doing tasks without 'real- world' pressures Expensive E.g.: In the 1980s, many large retail chains trained cashiers on their new computer cash registers 35

36 Concept: Developing Managers Management competencies need to be built up to keep up with changing times: globalisation, technology and workplace diversity. It means preparing managers for the future. Any attempt to improve current or future management performance by imparting knowledge, changing attitudes or increasing skills.-Dessler 36

37 Method of Management Development Management development is future oriented, development focuses more on the employee's personal growth (longer-term) Management Development Process consists of: – Assessing the company's strategic needs (e.g. to fill future executive openings, or to boost competitiveness) – Appraising managers' current performance & – Developing the managers & future managers Management Development should be planned (since it requires systematic diagnosis, development of a program & mobilization of resources) Management Development must have top-mgmt. commitment 37

38 Managerial Training & Development On-the-Job Training Off-the-Job Training Job Rotation Coaching/Understudy Approach Action Learning Job Rotation Coaching/Understudy Approach Action Learning Case Study Method Management Games Outside Seminars University-related Programs Role Playing Behavior Modeling Cooperative Universities (In-house Devt. Centre) Executive Coaches Case Study Method Management Games Outside Seminars University-related Programs Role Playing Behavior Modeling Cooperative Universities (In-house Devt. Centre) Executive Coaches 38

39 Managerial Training & Development On-the-Job Training 1.Job Rotation Involves moving a trainee from dept. to dept. to broaden his experience & identify strong & weak points Spending several months in each dept., fully involved in it's operations 2.Coaching/Under-study Approach Trainee works directly with a senior manager or with the person he is to replace The latter is responsible for the trainee's coaching The coach sets a good example of what a manager does Coach ans. ques. & explains why things are done the way they are E.g. Decision-making meeting 39

40 3.Action Learning Management trainees are allowed to work full-time analyzing & solving problems in other departments than their own The basics include: Carefully selected teams of 5-25 members Assigning the teams real world business problems that extend beyond their usual areas of expertise Structured learning through coaching & feedback The employer's senior managers usually choose the projects & decide whether to accept the team's recommendations Managerial Training & Development On-the-Job Training (conti…) 40

41 Managerial Training & Development Off-the-Job Training 1.Case-Study Method Mgr. is presented with a written description of an organizational problem to diagnose & solve 2.Management Games Teams of managers compete by making computerized decisions regarding realistic but simulated situations 5/6 persons in a group competes with each other Involvement of managers, development leadership skills, foster cooperation & teamwork E.g. Decision on 'how much to spend on advertisement', 'how much to produce', 'how many of which products to produce' 41

42 Managerial Training & Development Off-the-Job Training (conti…) 3.Outside Seminars Traditional classroom mgmt. development seminars & conferences 4.University Related Programs Executive education Uses cases & lectures 5.Role Playing Trainees act out parts in a realistic mgmt. situation Trainees assume the roles of specific persons in that situation Can trigger spirited discussions among the role player/trainees 42

43 Managerial Training & Development Off-the-Job Training (conti…) 6.Behavior Modeling Trainees are first shown good mgmt. techniques in a film, are asked to play roles in a simulated situation, & Are then given feedback & praise by their supervisor The basic procedure is as follows: i. Modeling (First trainees watch video examples that show models behaving effectively in a problem situation) ii. Role Playing (Trainees are given roles to play in a simulated situation) iii.Social Reinforcement (praise & constructive feedback in the role playing situation) iv.Transfer of Training (Trainees are encouraged to apply their new skills on the jobs) 43

44 Managerial Training & Development Off-the-Job Training (conti…) 7.Cooperate Universities (In-house Devt. Centre) Exposes prospective managers to realistic exercises to devt. improved mgmt. skills Collaborations with academic institutions E.g. GE, McDonalds, IBM 8. Executive Coaches An outside consultant who questions the executive's associates in order to identify the executives strengths & strengths & Then counsels the executive so he can capitalize on those strengths & overcome the weaknesses 44

45 Training for Special Purposes Literacy Training Techniques – Because functional illiteracy is a serious problem, many employers are testing job candidates' basic skills and setting up basic skills and literacy programs. Special Education programs are being set up by many employers to provide detailed information about AIDS, earthquake etc. Training for Global Business has become an essential organizational factor in a global marketplace to avoid lost business due to various cultural issues. Diversity Training aims to create better cross-cultural sensitivity by fostering more harmonious working relationships among a firm’s employees. Customer Service Training is increasing because more firms are finding it necessary to compete based on quality of service to increase their business. Teamwork Training – Employees must be trained to be good team members. 45

46 Mentoring Turning into a case of serial socialization and receiving great deal of attention. “Mentoring is a relationship between two people in which one of them offers advice & guidance to help the other develop in a particular area.”Tim Hindle The relationship between mentor and employee is a developmental one that serves career enhancing, psychological functions for the employee. 46

47 A process when workers who aspire to reach the top echelons of management acquire a role model or sponsor. It means gaining favour of a dominant in- group that sets standards and priorities. It includes vouching for the worker, answer for him in the highest circles, make introductions, and advise and guide the worker on how to move effectively through the system. 47

48 Purposes of Mentoring – To support the trainee schemes & the development of “high flier” or senior manager – To encourage the career development of minority groups – To nurture employees with skills short-supply 48

49 Empowerment Process of passing authority & responsibility to individuals at lower levels in the organizational hierarchy To be empowered, employees must have the knowledge & skills Today, many organizations are empowering indis. & teams to make decisions concerning their particular area of work Empowerment is a managerial approach in which employees are given substantial authority and say to make decisions on their own. – Robbins & Coulter 49

50 Process of Empowerment 1.Identify conditions of powerlessness – Arise due to poor communication, centralized resources, authority leadership etc. 2. Implement empowerment strategies and techniques – E.g. Use of participative mgmt., job enrichment, implementing merit-pay systems etc. 3. Remove conditions of powerlessness & provide self- efficacy information 4. Feeling of empowerment generated 5. Empowerment results in performance 50

51 Methods of Evaluating Training Programs 1.Test-retest Method Method of finding the changes in the participants during the pre & post training periods brought about by the training program Participants are once tested prior to the beginning of the training program about their expectations regarding the training program As soon as the training program is completed, they are again tested to know their final reactions regarding its success However, on the basis of differences in the test-retest scores, it is difficult to conclude that the training programs will bring about any change in the real situation 51

52 Methods of Evaluating Training Programs (conti…) 2. Pre-post Performance Method Participants are, first, rated before the training program After the program is completed they are again rated in the real performance Useful to examine the effect of training on changing participants' knowledge & skills & their attitudes in the real job situation 52

53 Methods of Evaluating Training Programs (conti…) 3. Experimental-control Group Method Primarily used to evaluate the differences in the knowledge, skill & intelligence of the control & experimental groups Control group: Having no clear instructions & guidelines to perform on the job Experimental group: There are clear instructions & guidelines at work Using this method, if the performance of the experimental group improved on the job, the training would be said to be successful But, if performance of control & experimental groups remain unchanged, training is said to be unsuccessful in improving the individual & organizational performance 53

54 Methods of Evaluating Training Programs (conti…) 4. Questionnaire / Structured Interview Administered to the immediate supervisors of the trainers Asked to rate the trainees on the job efficiency directly related to the training objectives 54

55 Methods of Evaluating Training Programs (conti…) 5. Longitudinal or Time Series Analysis Method A series of measures are taken before the program begins, continues during & after the program is completed Results obtained are plotted on a graph to determine whether changes have occurred & remains as a result of the training effort or not 55

56 Methods of Evaluating Training Programs (conti…) 6. Trainee Surveys A questionnaire is sent to the trainee after the completion of the program to get their reflections about the training program’s usefulness However, not much reliable 56

57 57 Process of Evaluating Training Program Setting Training Objectives (Standards) Developing Evaluation Criteria Pre-testing Trainees' Existing Skills Monitoring Training Sessions Evaluating Training Feedback for Future Programs

58 Process of Evaluating Training Program 1.Setting Training Objectives Objectives are the expectations of the training Should be clear & measurable Should be discussed with employees, supervisors & trainers 2.Developing Evaluation Criteria Pre-determined criteria Assesses the effectiveness of a training program Effectiveness of a training program evaluated indicates: participants' reaction, changes in participants' knowledge/skills, attitudes, changes in job performance & organizational performance The criteria that can be used are: reaction, learning, behavior & results 3. Pre-test Trainees Once criteria are selected for evaluation pre-test will be arranged This will be conducted prior to the training program to find out the level of knowledge, abilities & skills of the participants The information collected from this test is v. useful to identify transfer of knowledge & skills after the training 58

59 4.Monitoring Training Sessions Objective is to increase the effectiveness/outcome of the training & reduce weaknesses of the program Helps to know & control training objectives, schedules, inputs & delivery 5.Evaluating Training Similar to "measuring actual performance" A questionnaire/interview is used amongst the trainees after the completion of training program for feedback 6.Feedback for future program Utilizes the information obtained from the above 5 stages for the following purposed, – Determining strengths & weaknesses of training program – Determining overall costs, benefits, success of the program – Providing feedback to the concerned authorities 59

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