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Zarbula’s Sundials Roger Bailey & Alain Ferreira NASS 2005 Chicago.

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Presentation on theme: "Zarbula’s Sundials Roger Bailey & Alain Ferreira NASS 2005 Chicago."— Presentation transcript:

1 Zarbula’s Sundials Roger Bailey & Alain Ferreira NASS 2005 Chicago

2 Sundials in France Hautes-Alpes 772
Distribution by Département Hautes-Alpes 772 Highest sundial density in the world! Ref:

3 Why Hautes-Alpes? Alpine folk art traditions
Insolation: 330 days of sunshine Isolation from politics and progress Travel over the passes not down the valleys Transhumance- summer alps, winter Piedmont Independent Republics Five “Escartons de Briançonnais” from 1343 until 1713 and 1789 Itinerants: shepherds and tradesmen

4 Alpine Sundials Bavaria Austria Tyrol France Italy Engadine ZARBULA
ZONE Italy

5 Sundials of Giovanni Francesco ZARBULA

6 Who was Giovanni Francesco Zarbula?
We only know his name and his works Itinerant Italian painter Piedmont to Hautes Alpes Only tools, materials and techniques that could be carried by a donkey Speciality: bold flamboyant vertical declining sundials Distinctive folk art style Accurate gnomonic method Long lasting fresco paintings

7 Zarbula’s Style Baroque Italian Folk Art
Equinoctial Line Birds and Flowers Frame, curtains, tassels Sun and crescent moon Symbols: Masonic and Religious Mottos: Latin, French, Italian, Provencal Signed: GFZ or ZGF Dated: 1830 – 1876 Maljasset, Ubaye, 1860


9 95 Zarbula sundials 26 ORIGINALS 11 WITH ZARBULA’s DRAWINGS

10 NORTH ZARBULA ZONE Latitude 45º 2 VALLOIRE Italy, Piedmont
Zone Val Chisone 20 sundials VALLEE DE LA CLAREE 4 ZONE BRIANCON 29 Latitude 45º VALLOUISE 4

11 ZARBULA’ s Method Discovered by Paul Gagnaire,
From the Valloire sundial, at Les Verneys en Savoie. Ref : Cadrans solaires en Savoie, 1999 by P.Gagnaire. Page : A Valloire, Solved mystery. L’Equere et L’Oiseau ou L’Art et La Maniere de ZARBULA by P.Gagnaire. 2000 Cadran Info SaF

12 ZARBULA’ s Method Les Verneys en Savoie. Drawing by P.Gagnaire

13 Zarbula’s Construction Lines
6 o’clock Horizontal Equatorial Noon Equatorial Circle


15 Zarbula’s Method: The Sun Rules!
Zarbula did not need to know the latitude or wall declination to define the dial. The shadow determined the sub-style line Zarbula used no calculations or tables. Simple geometry determined the hour lines. Zarbula worked at the latitude of 45° None of the sundials are oriented North. The wall is vertical and declining from south. Zarbula already knew the sundial’s size and location on the wall.

16 Principle 1: Horizontal Equivalence
Any Vertical Declining sundial has a equivalent horizontal sundial at in the southern hemisphere at a different latitude Determine the sub-style distance and sub-style height for the polar axis Lay out the hourlines for the horizontal equivalent

17 He draws the vertical noon line XII and marks the centre C
He drives in a horizontal style at C perpendicular to the wall XII Zarbula’s Method

18 Principle 2: Indian or Hindu Circle for Sub-style
XII C Zarbula draws point by point a hyperbolic declination line, representing of the path of the tip of the shadow.

19 Zarbula draws the sub-style, the axis of symmetry of the dial
Zarbula’s Method C S P 2 P 1 XII

20 Zarbula’s Method Center of sundial C S SUB-STYLE NOON LINE XII XII

21 S M 45° Zarbula’s Method 45° M ’ The perpendicular gnomon gives the shadow path to set the sub-style line. For the actual dial, polar style is from the intersection of the noon meridian and the same sub-style line. C

22 Principle 3: Rotation of the Meridian Plane
Meridian plane shows the Latitude , Co-Latitude, Polar style and Equatorial true size Rotation of the Meridian plane about the Meridian axis to the Sub-style, perpendicular to the wall, shows the Substyle Height Rotation defines the Equatorial Horizon plane Polar Style Co-Lat Lat Equatorial Noon

23 M C Zarbula’s Method Noon to equinox 45° 45° Define the Equatorial Horizon by rotating the meridian plane and the latitude angle around the vertical Meridian axis

24 Zarbula’s Method C 45° He draws a horizontal line Horizon 45° 45° M S

25 Zarbula’s Method C Horizon
45° Equatorial Horizon 45° He draws an equatorial line perpendicular to the sub-style line M S

26 Zarbula’s Method He draws the 6 o’clock (18h) line to the equatorial horizon C Horizon 18h Equatorial M S

27 Zarbula’s Method C If it’s morning declining, he draws the 6 am line
Equatorial 6h Horizon M

28 Zarbula’s Method Example Chicago = 42°
Generalised method for different latitudes Zarbula’s Method C 48° 18h Example Chicago = 42° Equatorial 42° Horizontal line M S

29 ? ? ? Zarbula’s Method C Horizon Equatorial
W ? O ? Equatorial Zarbula draws the center W of an auxiliary equatorial M S

30 Vertical méridional sundial Villevieille church, Queyras
Principle 4: Always 90º between noon and 6 o’clock Vertical méridional sundial Villevieille church, Queyras

31 Zarbula’s Method C Horizontal line
Starting from auxiliary equatorial centre W, he draws the 15° angles to the equatorial line R 12h Sub-Style Height is RW, radius of the auxiliary equatorial circle Equatorial M W S

32 Zarbula’s Method C The intersections are numbered in sequence from noon to 18 o clock 11h 14h 16h 15h 13h 10h 19h 17h 9h Horizon line 18h 12h Equatorial M W S

33 Zarbula’s Method The only thing left is to draw the hours lines from C point... C Horizon line 19h 18h 17h 16h 15h 14h 13h 11h 10h M Equatorial S 9h

34 Zarbula’s Method Installation of the Polar Style (Gnomon) above the Sub-Style Line C Horizontal Line 19h 18h 17h 16h 15h 14h 13h Sub-Style Height is the Radius of the auxillary equatorial circle 11h 10h M Equatorial S 9h

35 Principles of Zarbula’s Method
Horizontal Equivalence of Vertical Decliner Indian (Hindu) Circle for sub-style line Meridian plane contains Latitude true size Rotate Meridian plane to establish Horizon plane Equatorial line and 6 o’clock line 90º between Noon and 6 o’clock Equatorial Tangent line for hour lines and Sub-style Height The geometry is correct; the method is accurate, within some limitations

36 Test of Zarbula’s Method
1. Sub-style line Latitude: 48.6º N Declination: 58º E Shadow Path for 14 June

37 Test of Zarbula’s Method
2. Equatorial Tangent Line DeltaCAD design drawing using Zarbula’s Method gives identical results to trig calculations

38 Zarbula’s Tools Sticks and String
ruler, straight edge set square 45º & 90º compass, dividers gnomon String plumb bob chalk line compass

39 Zarbula’s Painting Fresco technique on parged masonry walls
Mineral oxide pigments on fresh lime mortar No organic materials Weather and sun resistant Quick bold strokes

40 Pigments : Ochre de Provence
Ochre (iron oxides) for yellow orange &, red. black soot, zinc oxide white, cobalt blue, copper greens Sienne earths.


42 Château Queyras


44 First Known Zarbula Dial
Queyras, Arvieux, le Coin


46 1832 QUEYRAS Arvieux, Les Escoyères


48 Original Restored by Evelyne and Norbert Peyrot 2000 1839 Cervières, Customs Office


50 18?? QUEYRAS Château Villevieille Clot du Riou

51 1840 - Zarbula’s Miracle Year
Twelve Zarbula dials dated 1840 Eight Queyras (6-St. Veran, 2-Chateau) Two Vallouise, Two Briançonnais (Clarée, Salle les Alpes) 1830 to 1839 only six Zarbula dials Apprenticeship done, artistic style set Breakthrough commission? Vallouise, Bardonnèche

52 Vallouise 1840 Zarbula’s breakthrough commission
Home of Françoise Ponce,Viscountess de Bardonnèche Zarbula’s techniques and style established Restored in 1991 by Pique & Bachet of Atelier Tournesol, Grenoble

53 St Véran at 2040 m The Highest village in Europe
31 Sundials, 7 by Zarbula

54 1840 Saint Véran Haut Forannes


56 1840 Saint Véran Mathieu Romain farm


58 1840 Saint Véran Le Raux

59 1840: Saint Véran Forannes


61 1840: Saint Véran Pierre Belle

62 1858 St Véran Pierre Belle Gite Gabelous
Restored in 1995 by Rémi Potey

63 Queyras, Arvieux Les Escoyères,

64 Les Escoyères chapel dial
1857 Original Les Escoyères chapel dial

65 Suzon Con With Susan Restored by Rémi Potey

66 1861 Eygliers, Le Cros Guillestre
Rose Marble Complementary corner dial lost

67 Briançon Hautes Alpes The highest city in Europe
Crossroads for Alpine pass Vauban fortress near Italian border 1719 dial on Collégiale Notre-Dame

68 Most Zarbula sundials are in the surrounding alpine villages
1876: Briançon Place d’Armes Most Zarbula sundials are in the surrounding alpine villages 1876: Briançon, Place d’Armes Zarbula?

69 Restored by E & N Peyrot 1842: Briancon, Puy St Pierre, Le Pinet

70 1843: Clarée, Val des Prés

71 1869 : Vallouise Le Villard St Sébastien 1869 : Vallouise Le Villard St Sébastien

72 1869 : Vallouise, Le Villard, St Sébastien

73 Zarbula dials and paintings restored in 1997
by Atelier Tournesol, Pique & Bachet

74 PM dial is almost south facing
1869: Le Villard Vallouise PM dial is almost south facing 6 o’clock line is off the dial “Don’t rely on the first as all depends on the last”

75 Morning dial is close to east facing.
Zarbula’s normal method does not work

76 Black Madonna Zarbula’s Painting of the “I am black,
but comely, O ye daughters of Jerusalem” Song of Solomon, 1:5

77 ZONE ZARBULA EAST Italy, Piedmont Val Chisone USSEAUX 1 PRAGELATO 5
TRAVERSES 2 Italy, Piedmont Val Chisone SESTRIERE 6

78 Turin Olympics 2006 Val Chisone

79 1870 : Sestriere, Champlas du Col, via Nationale

80 Close the shutter...

81 “I am black, but comely, O ye daughters of Jerusalem”

82 1872 Sestriere Borgata,

83 1872 : Sestriere, Borgata,

84 14 via Colle de Sestriere Restoration? Sestriere, Borgata
1872 : Zarbula Original Sestriere, Borgata 1872 Sestriere, Borgata 14 via Colle de Sestriere

85 1872 Sestriere, Borgata 12A via Colle de Sestriere 1872 Sestriere, Borgata 12A

86 Sundial Entropy Lost Zarbula’s
Paints wash away Grime obscures Parging spalls Gnomons bend and break Walls crack and fall Renovation and development destroy Fires, floods, avalanches

87 1853 : Saint Martin de Queyrières, Prelles

88 This sundial disappeared in 2003

89 Aiguilles 1889 102 Buildings destroyed

90 In Château Queyras : flood level in 1957

91 In Abries, Zarbula’s sundial destroyed in 1944 bombardment

92 Restorations: Club du Vieux Manoir
Patrimony: history, cultural, architecture 13 sundials restored in Brianconnais 1870: St Martin de Queyrières Church

93 Restorations: Solaria s.n.c
Lucio Maria Morro & Fabio Garnero FOSSANO (Cuneo) It Sundial creation & restoration Many Italian dials Zarbula Restoration 1872 Sestriere, Champlas du Col

94 Restorations: Rémi Potey Fresco painter Creative artist
Many modern dials Hautes Alpes, Haute Provence, Buëch Restorations: St Véran Château Queyras Château Queyras Villevieille

95 Jean-François Gavoty Creative artist, painter, cadranier
Professor fine arts Ecole des Beaux Arts, Strasburg, Grenoble, Lyon Haute Provence, Ubaye Maljasset Serenne 1860 Serrenes, Ubaye, Alpes de Haute Provence

96 Restorations Atelier Tournesol
Pique & Bachet Inventories, protection Grenoble, Savoie, Hautes Alpes Vallouise: Bardoneche Le Villard, St Sebastien

97 Evelyne & Norbert Peyrot
Restoration of sundials and fresco paintings in Briançonnais, Val de Clarée, Val des Prés 1847 : SAINT-CHAFFREY, Villard-Late,

98 18?? : Savoie, Valloire, Les Verneys

99 THE END 1998 : Renovated by Peyrot
2005 : Destroyed -Valloire Town Hall Alain Ferreira & Roger Bailey

100 Acknowledgements & References
Alain Ferreira: co-author ideas, slides, pictures, files Internet: Google, SML A. Gunella: L’ Orologio Francese e il detto DI ZARBULA per trovare la declinazione del muro A. Bouchard: Zarbula Dossier, Le Gnomoniste, mars 2005 P. Gagnaire: L’ Equerre et le Oiseau P.Putelat & G. Ducrot: Cadrans Solaires Traditionnels en Queyras – Briançonnais Cadrans Solaires Français Catalogués; SAF CCS Emmanuel Defever *** Sommelier

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