Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Zarbulas Sundials Roger Bailey & Alain Ferreira NASS 2005 Chicago.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Zarbulas Sundials Roger Bailey & Alain Ferreira NASS 2005 Chicago."— Presentation transcript:

1 Zarbulas Sundials Roger Bailey & Alain Ferreira NASS 2005 Chicago

2 Sundials in France Distribution by Département Hautes-Alpes 772 Highest sundial density in the world! Ref:

3 Why Hautes-Alpes? Alpine folk art traditions Insolation: 330 days of sunshine Isolation from politics and progress –Travel over the passes not down the valleys –Transhumance- summer alps, winter Piedmont Independent Republics –Five Escartons de Briançonnais –from 1343 until 1713 and 1789 Itinerants: shepherds and tradesmen

4 ZARBULA ZONE Austria Bavaria France Italy Alpine Sundials Engadine Tyrol

5 Sundials of Giovanni Francesco ZARBULA

6 Who was Giovanni Francesco Zarbula? We only know his name and his works Itinerant Italian painter Piedmont to Hautes Alpes Only tools, materials and techniques that could be carried by a donkey Speciality: bold flamboyant vertical declining sundials Distinctive folk art style Accurate gnomonic method Long lasting fresco paintings

7 Zarbulas Style Baroque Italian Folk Art Equinoctial Line Birds and Flowers Frame, curtains, tassels Sun and crescent moon Symbols: Masonic and Religious Mottos: Latin, French, Italian, Provencal Signed: GFZ or ZGF Dated: 1830 – 1876 Maljasset, Ubaye, 1860

8 ZARBULA ZONE

9 95 Zarbula sundials 26 ORIGINALS 11 WITH ZARBULAs DRAWINGS 36 RESTORED 23 PHOTOS FROM ORIGINALS 33LOST 5 PHOTOS OR DRAWINGS OF THOSE LOST 5DUBIOUS 8DUPLICATES OR COMPLEMENTARY

10 Italy, Piedmont Zone Val Chisone 20 sundials VALLOIRE 2 ZONE BRIANCON 29 VALLOUISE 4 VALLEE DE LA CLAREE 4 NORTH ZARBULA ZONE Latitude 45º

11 ZARBULA s Method Discovered by Paul Gagnaire, From the Valloire sundial, at Les Verneys en Savoie. Ref : Cadrans solaires en Savoie, 1999 by P.Gagnaire. Page : A Valloire, Solved mystery. LEquere et LOiseau ou LArt et La Maniere de ZARBULA by P.Gagnaire Cadran Info SaF

12 ZARBULA s Method Les Verneys en Savoie. Drawing by P.Gagnaire

13 Equatorial 6 oclock Equatorial Circle Zarbulas Construction Lines Noon Horizontal

14

15 Zarbulas Method : The Sun Rules! Zarbula did not need to know the latitude or wall declination to define the dial. The shadow determined the sub-style line Zarbula used no calculations or tables. Simple geometry determined the hour lines. Zarbula worked at the latitude of 45° None of the sundials are oriented North. The wall is vertical and declining from south. Zarbula already knew the sundials size and location on the wall.

16 Principle 1: Horizontal Equivalence Any Vertical Declining sundial has a equivalent horizontal sundial at in the southern hemisphere at a different latitude Determine the sub-style distance and sub-style height for the polar axis Lay out the hourlines for the horizontal equivalent

17 XII He draws the vertical noon line XII and marks the centre C C He drives in a horizontal style at C perpendicular to the wall Zarbulas Method

18 XII C Zarbula draws point by point a hyperbolic declination line, representing of the path of the tip of the shadow. Principle 2: Indian or Hindu Circle for Sub-style

19 P 1 P 2 Zarbula draws the sub- style, the axis of symmetry of the dial S XII C Zarbulas Method

20 XII Center of sundial C NOON LINE XII S SUB-STYLE Zarbulas Method

21 C S M 45° M The perpendicular gnomon gives the shadow path to set the sub-style line. For the actual dial, polar style is from the intersection of the noon meridian and the same sub- style line. Zarbulas Method

22 Principle 3: Rotation of the Meridian Plane Meridian plane shows the Latitude, Co-Latitude, Polar style and Equatorial true size Rotation of the Meridian plane about the Meridian axis to the Sub-style, perpendicular to the wall, shows the Substyle Height Rotation defines the Equatorial Horizon plane C Noon Lat Co-Lat Polar Style Equatorial

23 M C Noon to equinox 45° Define the Equatorial Horizon by rotating the meridian plane and the latitude angle around the vertical Meridian axis Zarbulas Method

24 S He draws a horizontal line M C 45° Horizon Zarbulas Method

25 S He draws an equatorial line perpendicular to the sub-style line M C Horizon 45° Equatorial Zarbulas Method

26 S He draws the 6 oclock (18h) line to the equatorial horizon M C Horizon 18h Equatorial Zarbulas Method

27 S If its morning declining, he draws the 6 am line M C Horizon Equatorial 6h Zarbulas Method

28 S M C Horizontal line 48° 18h Equatorial Generalised method for different latitudes Example Chicago = 42° 42° Zarbulas Method

29 S Zarbula draws the center W of an auxiliary equatorial M C Horizon Equatorial O 18h 12h W ? ? ? Zarbulas Method

30 Vertical méridional sundial Villevieille church, Queyras Principle 4: Always 90º between noon and 6 oclock

31 S Starting from auxiliary equatorial centre W, he draws the 15° angles to the equatorial line M C Horizontal line Equatorial 18h 12h W R Sub-Style Height is RW, radius of the auxiliary equatorial circle Zarbulas Method

32 S The intersections are numbered in sequence from noon to 18 o clock M C Horizon line Equatorial 18h 12h W 11h 14h 16h 15h 13h 10h 19h 17h 9h Zarbulas Method

33 S The only thing left is to draw the hours lines from C point... M C Horizon line Equatorial 18h 11h 14h 16h 15h 13h 10h 19h 17h 9h Zarbulas Method

34 S M C Horizontal Line Equatorial 18h 11h 14h 16h 15h 13h 10h 19h 17h 9h Installation of the Polar Style (Gnomon) above the Sub-Style Line Sub-Style Height is the Radius of the auxillary equatorial circle Zarbulas Method

35 Principles of Zarbulas Method Horizontal Equivalence of Vertical Decliner Indian (Hindu) Circle for sub-style line Meridian plane contains Latitude true size Rotate Meridian plane to establish Horizon plane Equatorial line and 6 oclock line 90º between Noon and 6 oclock Equatorial Tangent line for hour lines and Sub-style Height The geometry is correct; the method is accurate, within some limitations

36 Test of Zarbulas Method 1. Sub-style line Latitude: 48.6º N Declination: 58º E Shadow Path for 14 June

37 Test of Zarbulas Method 2. Equatorial Tangent Line DeltaCAD design drawing using Zarbulas Method gives identical results to trig calculations

38 Zarbulas Tools Sticks and String Sticks –ruler, straight edge –set square 45º & 90º –compass, dividers –gnomon String –plumb bob –chalk line –compass

39 Zarbulas Painting Fresco technique on parged masonry walls Mineral oxide pigments on fresh lime mortar No organic materials Weather and sun resistant Quick bold strokes

40 Ochre de Provence Pigments : Ochre (iron oxides) for yellow orange &, red. black soot, zinc oxide white, cobalt blue, copper greens Sienne earths.

41 ZONE ZARBULA South LES TANCS 1 LES ORRES 1 UBAYE 2 QUEYRAS 38 sundials

42 Château Queyras

43 QUEYRAS EYGLIERS 2 CERVIERES 3 CHÂTEAU QUEYRAS 12 ABRIES 4 MOLINES 2 SAINT VERAN 7 AIGUILLES 1 ARVIEUX 7 LES ESCOYERES

44 First Known Zarbula Dial Queyras, Arvieux, le Coin

45

46 1832 QUEYRAS Arvieux, Les Escoyères

47 VI HORIZON EQUATORIAL

48 1839 Cervières, Customs Office Original Restored by Evelyne and Norbert Peyrot 2000

49

50 18?? QUEYRAS Château Villevieille Clot du Riou

51 Zarbulas Miracle Year Twelve Zarbula dials dated 1840 Eight Queyras (6-St. Veran, 2-Chateau) Two Vallouise, Two Briançonnais (Clarée, Salle les Alpes) 1830 to 1839 only six Zarbula dials Apprenticeship done, artistic style set Breakthrough commission? Vallouise, Bardonnèche

52 Vallouise 1840 Zarbulas breakthrough commission Home of Françoise Ponce,Viscountess de Bardonnèche Zarbulas techniques and style established Restored in 1991 by Pique & Bachet of Atelier Tournesol, Grenoble

53 St Véran at 2040 m The Highest village in Europe 31 Sundials, 7 by Zarbula

54 1840 Saint Véran Haut Forannes

55

56 1840 Saint Véran Mathieu Romain farm

57

58 1840 Saint Véran Le Raux

59 1840: Saint Véran Forannes

60

61 Pierre Belle 1840: Saint Véran

62 1858 St Véran Pierre Belle Restored in 1995 by Rémi Potey Gite Gabelous

63 Queyras, Arvieux Les Escoyères,

64 1857 Original Les Escoyères chapel dial

65 Restored by Rémi Potey Suzon Con With Susan

66 1861 Eygliers, Le Cros Guillestre Complementary corner dial lost Rose Marble

67 Briançon Hautes Alpes The highest city in Europe Crossroads for Alpine pass Vauban fortress near Italian border 1719 dial on Collégiale Notre-Dame

68 1876: Briançon Place dArmes Most Zarbula sundials are in the surrounding alpine villages 1876: Briançon, Place dArmes Zarbula?

69 1842: Briancon, Puy St Pierre, Le Pinet Restored by E & N Peyrot

70 1843: Clarée, Val des Prés

71 1869 : Vallouise Le Villard St Sébastien 1869 : Vallouise Le Villard St Sébastien

72 1869 : Vallouise, Le Villard, St Sébastien

73 Zarbula dials and paintings restored in 1997 by Atelier Tournesol, Pique & Bachet

74 1869: Le Villard Vallouise PM dial is almost south facing Dont rely on the first as all depends on the last 6 oclock line is off the dial

75 Morning dial is close to east facing. Zarbulas normal method does not work

76 Black Madonna I am black, but comely, O ye daughters of Jerusalem Song of Solomon, 1:5 Zarbulas Painting of the

77 ZONE ZARBULA EAST Italy, Piedmont Val Chisone USSEAUX 1 PRAGELATO 5 TRAVERSES 2 SESTRIERE 6

78 Turin Olympics 2006 Val Chisone

79 1870 : Sestriere, Champlas du Col, via Nationale

80 Close the shutter...

81 I am black, but comely, O ye daughters of Jerusalem

82 1872 Sestriere Borgata,

83 1872 : Sestriere, Borgata,

84 1872 Sestriere, Borgata 14 via Colle de Sestriere 1872 : Zarbula Original Sestriere, Borgata Restoration?

85 1872 Sestriere, Borgata 12A via Colle de Sestriere 1872 Sestriere, Borgata 12A

86 Sundial Entropy Lost Zarbulas Paints wash away Grime obscures Parging spalls Gnomons bend and break Walls crack and fall Renovation and development destroy Fires, floods, avalanches

87 1853 : Saint Martin de Queyrières, Prelles

88 This sundial disappeared in 2003 TIME IS RUNNING OUT JUST LIKE WATER.

89 Aiguilles Buildings destroyed

90 In Château Queyras : flood level in 1957

91 In Abries, Zarbulas sundial destroyed in 1944 bombardment

92 Restorations: Club du Vieux Manoir Patrimony: history, cultural, architecture 13 sundials restored in Brianconnais : St Martin de Queyrières Church

93 Restorations: Solaria s.n.c Lucio Maria Morro & Fabio Garnero FOSSANO (Cuneo) It Sundial creation & restoration Many Italian dials Zarbula Restoration Sestriere, Champlas du Col

94 1843 Château Queyras Villevieille Fresco painter Creative artist Many modern dials Hautes Alpes, Haute Provence, Buëch Restorations: –St Véran –Château Queyras Restorations: Rémi Potey

95 Jean-François Gavoty Creative artist, painter, cadranier Professor fine arts –Ecole des Beaux Arts, Strasburg, Grenoble, Lyon Haute Provence, Ubaye –Maljasset –Serenne 1860 Serrenes, Ubaye, Alpes de Haute Provence

96 Restorations Atelier Tournesol Pique & Bachet Inventories, protection Grenoble, Savoie, Hautes Alpes Vallouise: –Bardoneche –Le Villard, St Sebastien

97 Evelyne & Norbert Peyrot 1847 : SAINT-CHAFFREY, Villard-Late, Restoration of sundials and fresco paintings in Briançonnais, Val de Clarée, Val des Prés

98 18?? : Savoie, Valloire, Les Verneys

99 1998 : Renovated by Peyrot THE END Alain Ferreira & Roger Bailey 2005 : Destroyed -Valloire Town Hall

100 Acknowledgements & References Alain Ferreira: co-author ideas, slides, pictures, files Internet: Google, SML A. Gunella: L Orologio Francese e il detto DI ZARBULA per trovare la declinazione del muro A. Bouchard: Zarbula Dossier, Le Gnomoniste, mars 2005 P. Gagnaire: L Equerre et le Oiseau P.Putelat & G. Ducrot: Cadrans Solaires Traditionnels en Queyras – Briançonnais Cadrans Solaires Français Catalogués; SAF CCS Emmanuel Defever *** Sommelier


Download ppt "Zarbulas Sundials Roger Bailey & Alain Ferreira NASS 2005 Chicago."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google