2 ObjectivesDifferentiate the five major types of microorganisms based on common characteristics such as size, structure, mode of reproduction, and method of obtaining nutrients.DrillUsing the following pictures, what do you think are the following microorganisms?
3 The rod-shaped bacterium Haemophilus influenzae, one of the bacterial causes of pneumonia
4 Pilobolus, a mold, which is a type of fungus, with its sporangia oriented toward the light. When released, the sporangia will stick to grasses and be eaten by grazing animals
8 Bacteria (singular: Bacterium) Simple, single-celled (unicellular) organismsGenetic material is not enclosed in a nuclear membrane – prokaryotic
9 Bacteria (singular: Bacterium) Appear in one of several shapesBacillus – rodlikeCoccus – spherical or ovoidSpiral – corkscrew or curvedCan be star-shaped or squaredIndividual bacteria may form pairs, chains, clusters, or other groupings
10 Bacteria (singular: Bacterium) Enclosed in cell walls that are largely composed of a substance made up of sugars and amino acids called peptidoglycan
11 Bacteria (singular: Bacterium) Reproduces asexually by dividing into two equal daughter cells in a process called binary fission
12 Bacteria (singular: Bacterium) For nutritionMost use organic chemicals, which can be derived from either dead or living organismsSome manufacture their own food by photosynthesisSome can derive nutrients from inorganic substances
13 Bacteria (singular: Bacterium) Many can “swim” by using moving appendages called flagella
14 Let’s Review Are bacteria unicellular or multicellular? Are bacteria prokaryotic or eukaryotic?Name the three major basic shapes of bacteria.What is the cell wall composed of in most bacteria?
15 Let’s Review (cont.)What is the name of the process by which bacteria divide?What structure allows bacteria to move?Name two ways bacteria can get food.
16 Fungi (singular: fungus) Eukaryotes – organisms whose cells have a nucleus containing DNA and surrounded by a nuclear membrane
17 Fungi (singular: fungus) May be unicellular or multicellularLarge multicellular fungi, such as mushrooms, may look like plants, but cannot carry out photosynthesis and have cell walls composed of a substance called chitinUnicellular form are yeasts, which are oval microorganisms larger than bacteria
18 Fungi (singular: fungus) Most typical fungi are moldsForm visible masses called mycelia, which are composed of long filaments called hyphae that branch and intertwineCottony growths sometimes found on bread and fruit are mold mycelia
19 Fungi (singular: fungus) Can reproduce sexually or asexuallyObtain nutrients by absorbing solutions or organic material from their environment (soil, seawater, water, or animal/plant host)
20 Let’s Review Name three types of fungi. Are fungi prokaryotic or eukaryotic?Are all fungi unicellular or multicellular?Do fungi reproduce sexually or asexually?How do fungi obtain nutrients?
21 Protozoa (singular: protozoan) Unicellular and eukaryoticMove byPseudopods (false feet) – extensions of their cytoplasmFlagella – long tailCilia – numerous short hair-like appendagesVariety of shapes
22 Protozoa (singular: protozoan) Live either as free entities or as parasites (organisms that derive nutrients from living hosts)Absorb or ingest organic compounds from their environmentNo cell wallReproduce sexually or asexually
23 Let’s Review Are protozoa unicellular or multicellular? Are protozoa prokaryotic or eukaryotic?Do protozoa have cell walls?Do protozoa reproduce sexually or asexually?How do protozoa obtain nourishment?
24 Algae (singular: alga) Photosynthetic eukaryotes with a variety of shapes and both sexual and asexual formsCan be unicellular or multicellularCell walls composed of cellulose
25 Algae (singular: alga) Abundant in fresh and salt water, in soil, and in association with plantsNeed light and air for food production and growth, but do not generally require organic compounds from the environmentProduce oxygen and carbohydrates, which are used by other organismsPlay an important role in the balance of nature
26 Let’s Review Are algae unicellular or multicellular? Are algae prokaryotic or eukaryotic?Do algae reproduce sexually or asexually?By what process do algae obtain nutrients?What do algae produce that can be used by other organisms?
27 Viruses So small, they can only be seen with an electron microscope Acellular (not cellular)
28 VirusesStructurally simple – a virus particle that contains a core is made up ofOne type of nucleic acid, either DNA or RNAA protein coatA lipid membrane called an envelopeReproduce only by using the cellular machinery of other organismsAll are parasites of other forms of life
29 Let’s Review Are viruses unicellular or multicellular? What are the three parts of a virus?How do viruses obtain nutrients?Can viruses reproduce by themselves?