Speech of Pope Urban II In 1095, Muslims closed Jerusalem to Jews and Christians. The Byzantine emperor wrote Pope Urban II asking for help re-open Jerusalem (Holy Land). Chance to win back land lost in Muslim expansion Chance for power after the Great Schism (1050) Pope Urban called for a crusade, or holy war, against the Islamic forces in Jerusalem. Three armies of knights and peasants traveled to the Holy Land.
1 st Crusades In 1099, crusading armies inspired by Pope Urban’s speech, invaded and took control of Jerusalem. Victorious, but unprepared They knew nothing about the geography, climate, or culture of the Holy Land. They had no strategy or adequate supply lines. Four feudal Crusader states were formed in Jerusalem and surrounding areas, each ruled by a European noble. These Crusader states were vulnerable to Muslim counterattack and would fall.
2 nd Crusade The Second Crusade was organized to recapture Jerusalem In 1187, Europeans learned that Jerusalem had fallen to the Muslim leader Saladin. The Europeans suffered a dramatic loss and the survivors straggled back home.
Saladin vs. Richard the Lionhearted (Third (1189-1192) Crusades) Richard the Lionhearted (King of England) led armies from Western Europe against Saladin’s Muslim armies. After many battles, the two agreed to a truce. Muslims kept control of Jerusalem. Saladin promised that unarmed Christians could freely visit the city’s holy places.
Fourth and Final Crusade The Fourth Crusade Ended as European knights got entangled in Italian and Byzantine disputes Ended up looting the city of Constantinople.
Unifying Spain through Crusades Muslims (Moors) controlled Spain until the 1100s. The Reconquista, led by King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella, was a long effort to drive the Muslims out of Spain by the Spanish Catholics. Ferdinand and Isabella ruled different parts of Spain Unified under one central government Combined militaries and expelled Muslims from Spain Foundations for forming a nation state Inquisition- Trials held by the Church to catch heritics (those with views different from the Church) Effort to further unify under Christianity Questioned and tortured Expelled Jews and Muslims by 1492
More Crusades Produce Little Multiple Crusades continued through the 1200s although each was not successful. Eventually, the spirit that fueled the first Crusade had died down (over a century of fighting) and the Crusades ended.
Effects of the Crusades 1) Monarchies were strengthened, while the Pope and European nobles suffered. Nobles fought in the Crusades, but also provided soldiers and paid their expenses. Many nobles died and many more became poor. The pope and the Catholic Church lost power and influence. The lack of victories to regain Jerusalem caused people to lose confidence. Europeans realized that the Church wanted Crusades for worldly, not holy, reasons..
2) Stimulated trade throughout the Mediterranean area and the Middle East. Christians traveling to fight in the Holy Land learned about goods and remained in Muslim territories to become merchants. 3) Increasing bitterness between Christians and Muslims 4) Fall of Byzantium Looting left city vulnerable to Ottomans
MONDAY – T MINUS 4 DAYS Agenda Other Crusades and Motivations PPT RC 2 Two Sides to a Story Binder Pages 7) Lesson 2b Notes 8) RC 2 What’s Next Wednesday- Black Death Friday- Test
Motivations The Crusades occurred for many different reasons and motivations Religious- for Christianity or Islam (ie for God) Power- to increase the power and influence of religion or people Unity- to bring people together for a cause Provide safety and protection Depending on your side of the story, your motivations differ
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