Presentation on theme: "Latin American Independence Movements 1791-1825. Causes Enlightenment Ideas American (inspiration) and French (fear) Revolutions Napoleon’s invasion of."— Presentation transcript:
Causes Enlightenment Ideas American (inspiration) and French (fear) Revolutions Napoleon’s invasion of Spain and Portugal Creole resentment of Peninsulares Creole fear of the masses (Haitian Revolution of Toussaint L’Ouverture)
Why the creoles? Wealth Power Education Military training
Mexican Independence Creole priest Miguel Hidalgo led Indian and mestizo revolt; failed and was executed. Revolution was later continued under conservative Creole Agustin Iturbide; who was declared Emperor of Mexico in 1821. In 1824 Mexico became a republic.
South American Independence Creole Simon Bolivar (the Liberator) won Venezuela, Colombia, and Ecuador forming Gran Columbia (which collapsed in 1830 after his death). Bolivar teamed up with Jose de San Martin and Bernardo O’Higgins (who won independence for Argentina and Chile respectively), to liberate Peru. Each independent country became republics.
Brazilian Independence Portuguese royal family and nobility fled Napoleon's forces and went to Brazil. King remained until 1820. Son Pedro declared independence for Brazil in 1822, and became a monarchy. The existing social order and slave trade continued.
Problems after Independence Identity crisis: American or European? Political fragmentation and regionalism developed. 18 new countries were formed. Wars disrupted the economy. Civil wars broke out.
Rise of the Caudillos The “man on horseback” saves the day. Popular military leaders who brought order and stability by seizing control of local areas and governments. Usually represented the interests of the Creoles. Denied basic rights to citizens; while posing as reformers.
Political Disagreements Centralists wanted centralized governments with broad powers. Federalists wanted regional governments to have more power. Liberals pushed for individual rights, greater social mobility, limits on the power of the Church; and also favored federalism Conservatives favored a centralized state, Church authority, and the old social order. Political instability and frequent “revolutions” were common.
Power Structure Remained Landowners Military Catholic Church
Dependency on World Markets Britain replaced Spain in a system of neocolonialism. Neocolonialism benefited landowners and cities but stunted industrial growth in Latin America. Economic boom from 1880 – 1920 brought foreign investors and further outside interference Reinforced the old order.
Liberal Return to Power 1875 - 1900 Change and Continuity Positivism as public policy: natural science to solve social and economic problems (rejects theology). Foreign investment was encouraged. Economic growth encouraged, but at the expense of peasants. Social change for the masses and women came slowly.
Women No political rights Lower class women had more personal and economic freedom. Public education reinforced domestic duties. Teaching open as only occupation.
Class Although caste was legally ended in most new countries, in reality nothing changed. Creoles still dominated land, politics, and the economy.
US Interference: “Yankee Imperialism Monroe Doctrine 1823 Mexican-American War 1846-1848 Spanish-American War 1898 Platt Amendment Panama Canal