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MGT 301 Class 4: Chapter 4 Job Analysis FEIHAN AHSAN BRAC University Sep 24th, 2013.

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Presentation on theme: "MGT 301 Class 4: Chapter 4 Job Analysis FEIHAN AHSAN BRAC University Sep 24th, 2013."— Presentation transcript:

1 MGT 301 Class 4: Chapter 4 Job Analysis FEIHAN AHSAN BRAC University Sep 24th, 2013

2 © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.4–2 3 rd Method of Collecting Job Analysis Information: Observation  Information source –Observing and noting the physical activities of employees as they do their jobs.  Advantages –Provides first-hand information –No distortion of information  Disadvantages –Time consuming –Acting (Hawthorne Effect) –Difficulty in capturing entire job cycle –Of little use if job involves a high level of mental activity

3 Observation (Contd.) Observation is useful because:- Since you see the worker yourself, there is no confusion about the job. No effect such as bias or exaggeration. Everything that the worker does can be seen If job consists of mainly physical activities, then observation is suitable (Ex- assembly-line worker or construction worker) However:- Observation is not suitable if the work consists of a lot of mental activity (ex- Interior Designer or Lawyer) If activity is infrequent, but very very important, then observation will not give a proper idea about the job (Ex- Emergency Heart Doctor) Acting- if employees are aware they are being watched, they will act and try to look good, so accurate picture of the job will not be obtained. Therefore, a combination of observation and interviews are usually used

4 © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 4 th Method of Collecting Job Analysis Information: Participant Diary/Logbooks  Information source –Workers who keep a chronological diary/ logbook of what they do and the time spent in each activity.  Advantages –Produces a very detailed picture of the job –Employee participation  Disadvantages –Time consuming, because have to capture work cycle –Depends upon employees to accurately recall their activities (Good memory needed)

5 Quantitative Job Analysis Techniques  The position analysis questionnaire (PAQ) –A very structured questionnaire that assigns numerical scores to five key job skills: Decision-making, skilled activity, physical activity, machine handling, and information-processing  The Department of Labor (DOL) procedure –A standardized method by which different jobs can be quantitatively rated, classified, and compared with respect to proficiency in 3 areas: Data, people and things  Functional job analysis –Similar to the DOL procedure but adds more factors such as: Mathematical ability, verbal and language ability, reasoning and judgment, specific instruction following etc.

6 Multiple Data Sources are always better… It is always wise to use a number of job analysis methods in combination Because, each method has shortcomings that distort the data Using a lot of methods cancels out the variations and the true picture of the job is obtained For example, in a group interview an employee might be reluctant to say everything about the job or feel shy in front of others. In this case, a personal interview with that employee is needed in addition to the group interview to give an accurate picture about the job.

7 4–7 Writing Job Descriptions  A job description –A written statement of the duties and responsibilities of a job, i.e. what the worker actually does, how he or she does it, and what the job’s working conditions are.  Sections of a Job Description –Job identification –Job summary –Responsibilities and duties –Authority of incumbent –Standards of performance –Working conditions –Job specifications

8 © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.4–8 Sample Job Description, Pearson Education Figure 4–7a Source: Courtesy of HR Department, Pearson Education.

9 4–9 Sample Job Description, Pearson Education Figure 4–7b Source: Courtesy of HR Department, Pearson Education.

10 © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.4–10 “Marketing Manager” Job Description from Standard Occupational Classification (SOC) Figure 4–8 20. 11-2021 Marketing Managers Abstract: 11-2021 Marketing Managers. Determine the demand for products and services offered by a firm and Its competitors and identify potential customers. Develop pricing strategies with the goal of maximizing the firm’s profits or share of the market while ensuring the firm’s customers are satisfied. Source:, accessed November 13, 2003.

11 Different Sections of a Job Description Job Identification The Job identification is the section at the top. It contains the job title (Such as Marketing Manager), information regarding pay grade, department, line authority (i.e. reports to whom), and job level (such as Level 32 or Level 33, used by BAT Bangladesh) Refer to the Job Description Example- Fig 1. Section at Top.

12 Different Sections of a Job Description Job Summary The job summary is a brief description of the major duties and responsibilities of a job. It does not include all the activities that the worker does, or is supposed to do. It’s purpose is to capture the essence of the job. Ex- for a materials manager, the job summary might be “purchases economically, controls deliveries, and stores and distributes all material necessary on the production line”

13 Different Sections of a Job Description Job Summary Be careful about general statements like “performs other duties as required”, because they are open-ended and create confusion Two problems with general statements in the job summary:- 1. For the Employee- if the job summary says “performs other duties as required”, then the boss can give him “anything” to do 2. For the Company- If the job summary says “performs other duties as required”, then we don’t know what the total responsibilities of the job are, and therefore, cannot build the job specification (no idea what kind of person would be able to do the job). Therefore, we cannot hire and select prospective candidates (no criteria for selecting)

14 Different Sections of a Job Description Scope and Impact of the Job This is the overall impact the job will have on the organization, such as meeting the operating budget for the year, earning the expected no. of clients by the end of the year, or achieving the target market share for the firm. It is an overarching, broad view of the job related to the budget and organizational targets Example:- Refer back to the Job Description example

15 Different Sections of a Job Description Responsibilities and Duties Here, the tasks that the worker has to do is listed in order of importance (Descending importance list) and usually, the frequency and time required for each task (% ranking) is mentioned as well. This is the most important section of the job description, as it lists exactly what the worker is required to do. This information is found out from the job analysis techniques (interviews, questionnaires etc.) Example:- In the example, driving sales consists of 60% of the job (time spent), Publishing consists of 25%, and Territory Management takes up 15% of the total job time

16 Different Sections of a Job Description Relationships to Maintain Sometimes there is a relationship section that shows all the possible relationships that the jobholder needs to maintain in the company. Example:- For a HR manager, the relationship section might look like: Reports to: Head of HR Supervises: HR officer, Labour Relations Consultant, and one Secretary Works with: All departmental managers and sometimes, top level management External Relations: Job Agencies, Recruiting Firms, Union Leaders etc. Even though this section is about relationships, it’s not information about the person. It is information about the job, i.e. what relationships the job requires. Hence, it is part of a job description, not a job specification.

17 Different Sections of a Job Description Standards of Performance Some job descriptions include a “standards of performance” section that outlines the specific performance level required from the job. External Job postings usually don’t have this, they are more common in job descriptions used for internal purposes. Example:- For a factory worker, no less than 30 units produced per day Working Conditions Some job descriptions will include a description of the working conditions, especially if the work is dangerous, or requires one to be careful. Example:- Hot Machine handling, noisy environment etc. Also, social conditions ( if you are posted outside the city, you will have to be comfortable working alone)

18 Making Job Specifications Job Specification A list of the human (not work) requirements required for a position Objective is to identify the type person who will be a good fit for the job. However, a senior and junior position will have different job specifications because: ??

19 Job Specification Contents Required KSA’s KSA’s refer to Knowledge, Skills and Attitudes. They are the competencies required to do the job successfully and include formal education, years of experience, or other technical skills (such as knowledge of special software) that are required to carry out the job. Example:- A position for a HR officer might require a major in HR, or a Postgraduate in HRM (PGDHRM). In addition, it might also ask for good negotiation skills or people skills.

20 Senior vs Junior Job Specifications When hiring for senior positions, the focus is more on their previous training, performance or record. Ex- A Manager going to another company as a manager will only be tested for his performance, such as sales achieved previously, no. of products launched into the market, or market share gained for the firm. (tangible, hard skills, easier to identify) However, when selecting someone for a new manager position (entry-level manager), there is no past performance record, and we can only rely on his or her potential, such as good decision making skills, time management, or people skills. (intangible, soft skills, harder to identify) It is easy to see that these 2 nd type of skills are harder to assess/quantify/judge

21 © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.4–21 Making Job Specifications (Contd.)  Specifications Based on Judgment –Educated guesses (by looking at the job description) –By looking at standard job specifications of similar jobs on the Internet (O*Net, SOC etc.)  Specifications Based on Statistical Analysis –Statistically finding out if the behaviour in question has any effect on actual job performance (for example, by correlation analysis)

22 Job Analysis is Changing  Previously, Jobs referred to a “a set of closely related activities carried out for pay”  Writers of the past used to emphasize the advantage of being highly specialized, (i.e. not doing a lot of things, but doing one thing very very well)  This resulted in fixed, boring and repetitive jobs  But nowadays, the focus has shifted to creating more interesting jobs which are not that fixed or monotonous  This is what we call Dejobbing © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.4–22

23 Job Analysis is Changing  Dejobbing is broadening the duties and responsibilities of a job, and encouraging employees not to limit themselves to the job description  In other words, it is expanding the job  Why is this happening?  For a lot of reasons. Rapid product and technological change (i.e. shorter product life-cycles), increased global competition, deregulation (privatization), demographic changes, and a shift to a service economy  All this has increased the need for firms to be more responsive, flexible and competitive in order to survive in the business environment  Thus, narrowly defined jobs are a weakness in this environment, and firms need employees who can “do anything” 4–23

24 Job Analysis is Changing  Therefore, firms have to use some specific techniques to survive in this environment –1. Use of a Flatter Organization Structure A flat organization is one which has less management layers. The advantage of a flat organization is that it can respond more quickly to changes in the environment, as opposed to a tall organization which has many layers and takes a long while for information to pass through. Another advantage is that top management is more in touch with customers, because the no. of layers is less. So, they can better react to customer needs and wants. Lastly, there is less bureaucracy and red tape, so decision-making is faster. Therefore, to make a flat organization, we have to reduce the no. of layers (or positions). As a result, each employee has more duty and responsibility. Therefore, we have…….Dejobbing! 4–24

25 Job Analysis is Changing 2. More Self-managed Work Teams Nowadays, a lot of companies organize work around self- managed work teams, rather than individual work. For example, there are teams which manage the factory work, marketing, or cost control by themselves (with little supervision). Working in teams encourages productivity, and improves morale, as employees can jointly solve a problem or situation (two heads are better than one) Therefore, to work in such a team, one needs to be flexible and multi-talented.. As a result, an employee needs to be able to do much more than his personal job description says… we have Dejobbing! 4–25

26 © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.4–26 Why Managers Are Dejobbing Their Companies  Dejobbing –Broadening the responsibilities of the company’s jobs –Encouraging employee initiative. (to do more)  Internal factors leading to dejobbing –Flatter organizations –Work teams  External factors leading to dejobbing. –Rapid product and technological change –Global competition –Deregulation –Political instability –Demographic changes –Rise of a service economy.

27 Job Analysis is Changing Reengineering is the use of self-managed work teams to increase performance in areas such as cost, quality, service and speed. Since businesses are reengineering their processes nowadays, naturally dejobbing is taking place. Some key terms of Dejobbing:- 1. Job Enlargement 2. Job Rotation 3. Job Enrichment 4–27

28 Dejobbing Terms and Concepts 1.Job Enlargement Job enlargement means giving workers more work of the same type, thus increasing the no. of activities they perform. Ex- A carpenter who makes chairs, will now also make tables. So, job enlargement involves horizontal expansion of the job, not vertical 4–28

29 Dejobbing Terms and Concepts 2. Job Enrichment Job enrichment means giving workers freedom to do their jobs so that they experience a feeling of accomplishment, growth and recognition. Ex- The carpenter who makes tables, will now also be allowed to put the finishing, such as paint, polish etc. As a result, he can see what his final product looks like, and therefore it will give him some satisfaction (sense of ownership) So, Job enrichment involves vertical expansion of the job, i.e. new activities to do. (as well as making the job more fun, engaging, and interesting to do). 4–29

30 Dejobbing Terms and Concepts 3. Job Rotation Job Rotation involves moving workers from one job to another (ex- from department to department) to broaden his experience, scope and ability. It also improves teamworking skills as the person has to work with different colleagues in each dept. Job rotation can identify a person’s strengths, as well as his weaknesses, as he is moving across a lot of departments. It is usually used to prepare a person for a leadership role in the company (in the future) Ex- The MTO (Management Trainee Officer) program. Here, the employee works in different departments, gathers experience, and is finally put in a strategic role in the organization

31 © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.4–31 Competency-Based Job Analysis  Competencies –Required KSA’s (Knowledge, Skills, Attitudes) to do a job properly –Also, different generalized behaviours required to do the job  Competency-based job analysis –Describes a job in terms of the competencies, or skills required to do that job (not the specific duties and responsibilities required to do the job)

32 © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.4–32 The Skills Matrix for a Job at BP Figure 4–12 Note: The light blue boxes indicate the minimum level of skill required for the job.

33 © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.4–33 Why Use Competency Analysis?  General Skills are more flexible –Fixed duties and responsibilities of an employee don’t encourage learning or moving across departments  Maintain a strategic focus –General competencies are more easily matched with the firm’s long term strategic plans.  Measuring performance –Measurable skills, knowledge, and competencies are the heart of any company’s performance management process.

34 © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.4–34 Performance Management  Performance management –Managing all elements of the organizational process that affect how well employees perform.  Types of competencies –General competencies reading, writing, and mathematical reasoning. –Leadership competencies leadership, strategic thinking, and teaching others. –Technical competencies specific technical competencies required for specific types of jobs and/or occupations.

35 © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.4–35 Background Data for Examples Figure 4–10 Example of Job Title: Customer Service Clerk Example of Job Summary: Answers inquiries and gives directions to customers, authorizes cashing of customers’ checks, records and returns lost charge cards, sorts and reviews new credit applications, works at customer service desk in department store. Example of One Job Duty: Authorizes cashing of checks: authorizes cashing of personal or payroll checks (up to a specified amount) by customers desiring to make payment by check. Requests identification—such as driver’s license—from customers and examines check to verify date, amount, signature, and endorsement. Initials check and sends customer to cashier.

36 © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.4–36 Job Analysis in a “Jobless” World  Job –Generally defined as “a set of closely related activities carried out for pay.”

37 © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.4–37 From Specialized to Enlarged Jobs  Job enlargement –Assigning workers additional same level activities, thus increasing the number of activities they perform.  Job enrichment –Redesigning jobs in a way that increases the opportunities for the worker to experience feelings of responsibility, achievement, growth, and recognition.

38 © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.4–38 From Specialized to Enlarged Jobs (cont’d)  Job rotation –Moving a trainee from department to department to broaden his or her experience and identify strong and weak points to prepare the person for an enhanced role with the company –Systematically moving workers from one job to another to enhance work team performance.

39 © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.4–39

40 © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.4–40

41 © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.4–41

42 © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.4–42 HR Scorecard for Hotel Paris International Corporation* Figure 4–11 Note: *(An abbreviated example showing selected HR practices and outcomes aimed at implementing the competitive strategy,“ To use superior guest services to differentiate the Hotel Paris properties and thus increase the length of stays and the return rate of guests and thus boost revenues and profitability”)

43 © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.4–43 Key Terms job analysis job description job specifications organization chart process chart diary/log position analysis questionnaire (PAQ) U.S. Department of Labor (DOL) job analysis procedure functional job analysis Standard Occupational Classification (SOC) job enlargement job rotation job enrichment dejobbing boundaryless organization reengineering competencies competency-based job analysis performance management

44 Thank You!

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