Observation (Contd.) Observation is useful because:- Since you see the worker yourself, there is no confusion about the job. No effect such as bias or exaggeration. Everything that the worker does can be seen If job consists of mainly physical activities, then observation is suitable (Ex- assembly-line worker or construction worker) However:- Observation is not suitable if the work consists of a lot of mental activity (ex- Interior Designer or Lawyer) If activity is infrequent, but very very important, then observation will not give a proper idea about the job (Ex- Emergency Heart Doctor) Acting- if employees are aware they are being watched, they will act and try to look good, so accurate picture of the job will not be obtained. Therefore, a combination of observation and interviews are usually used
Quantitative Job Analysis Techniques The position analysis questionnaire (PAQ) –A very structured questionnaire that assigns numerical scores to five key job skills: Decision-making, skilled activity, physical activity, machine handling, and information-processing The Department of Labor (DOL) procedure –A standardized method by which different jobs can be quantitatively rated, classified, and compared with respect to proficiency in 3 areas: Data, people and things Functional job analysis –Similar to the DOL procedure but adds more factors such as: Mathematical ability, verbal and language ability, reasoning and judgment, specific instruction following etc.
Multiple Data Sources are always better… It is always wise to use a number of job analysis methods in combination Because, each method has shortcomings that distort the data Using a lot of methods cancels out the variations and the true picture of the job is obtained For example, in a group interview an employee might be reluctant to say everything about the job or feel shy in front of others. In this case, a personal interview with that employee is needed in addition to the group interview to give an accurate picture about the job.
4–7 Writing Job Descriptions A job description –A written statement of the duties and responsibilities of a job, i.e. what the worker actually does, how he or she does it, and what the job’s working conditions are. Sections of a Job Description –Job identification –Job summary –Responsibilities and duties –Authority of incumbent –Standards of performance –Working conditions –Job specifications
Different Sections of a Job Description Job Identification The Job identification is the section at the top. It contains the job title (Such as Marketing Manager), information regarding pay grade, department, line authority (i.e. reports to whom), and job level (such as Level 32 or Level 33, used by BAT Bangladesh) Refer to the Job Description Example- Fig 1. Section at Top.
Different Sections of a Job Description Job Summary The job summary is a brief description of the major duties and responsibilities of a job. It does not include all the activities that the worker does, or is supposed to do. It’s purpose is to capture the essence of the job. Ex- for a materials manager, the job summary might be “purchases economically, controls deliveries, and stores and distributes all material necessary on the production line”
Different Sections of a Job Description Job Summary Be careful about general statements like “performs other duties as required”, because they are open-ended and create confusion Two problems with general statements in the job summary:- 1. For the Employee- if the job summary says “performs other duties as required”, then the boss can give him “anything” to do 2. For the Company- If the job summary says “performs other duties as required”, then we don’t know what the total responsibilities of the job are, and therefore, cannot build the job specification (no idea what kind of person would be able to do the job). Therefore, we cannot hire and select prospective candidates (no criteria for selecting)
Different Sections of a Job Description Scope and Impact of the Job This is the overall impact the job will have on the organization, such as meeting the operating budget for the year, earning the expected no. of clients by the end of the year, or achieving the target market share for the firm. It is an overarching, broad view of the job related to the budget and organizational targets Example:- Refer back to the Job Description example
Different Sections of a Job Description Responsibilities and Duties Here, the tasks that the worker has to do is listed in order of importance (Descending importance list) and usually, the frequency and time required for each task (% ranking) is mentioned as well. This is the most important section of the job description, as it lists exactly what the worker is required to do. This information is found out from the job analysis techniques (interviews, questionnaires etc.) Example:- In the example, driving sales consists of 60% of the job (time spent), Publishing consists of 25%, and Territory Management takes up 15% of the total job time
Different Sections of a Job Description Relationships to Maintain Sometimes there is a relationship section that shows all the possible relationships that the jobholder needs to maintain in the company. Example:- For a HR manager, the relationship section might look like: Reports to: Head of HR Supervises: HR officer, Labour Relations Consultant, and one Secretary Works with: All departmental managers and sometimes, top level management External Relations: Job Agencies, Recruiting Firms, Union Leaders etc. Even though this section is about relationships, it’s not information about the person. It is information about the job, i.e. what relationships the job requires. Hence, it is part of a job description, not a job specification.
Different Sections of a Job Description Standards of Performance Some job descriptions include a “standards of performance” section that outlines the specific performance level required from the job. External Job postings usually don’t have this, they are more common in job descriptions used for internal purposes. Example:- For a factory worker, no less than 30 units produced per day Working Conditions Some job descriptions will include a description of the working conditions, especially if the work is dangerous, or requires one to be careful. Example:- Hot Machine handling, noisy environment etc. Also, social conditions ( if you are posted outside the city, you will have to be comfortable working alone)
Making Job Specifications Job Specification A list of the human (not work) requirements required for a position Objective is to identify the type person who will be a good fit for the job. However, a senior and junior position will have different job specifications because: ??
Job Specification Contents Required KSA’s KSA’s refer to Knowledge, Skills and Attitudes. They are the competencies required to do the job successfully and include formal education, years of experience, or other technical skills (such as knowledge of special software) that are required to carry out the job. Example:- A position for a HR officer might require a major in HR, or a Postgraduate in HRM (PGDHRM). In addition, it might also ask for good negotiation skills or people skills.
Senior vs Junior Job Specifications When hiring for senior positions, the focus is more on their previous training, performance or record. Ex- A Manager going to another company as a manager will only be tested for his performance, such as sales achieved previously, no. of products launched into the market, or market share gained for the firm. (tangible, hard skills, easier to identify) However, when selecting someone for a new manager position (entry-level manager), there is no past performance record, and we can only rely on his or her potential, such as good decision making skills, time management, or people skills. (intangible, soft skills, harder to identify) It is easy to see that these 2 nd type of skills are harder to assess/quantify/judge
Job Analysis is Changing Dejobbing is broadening the duties and responsibilities of a job, and encouraging employees not to limit themselves to the job description In other words, it is expanding the job Why is this happening? For a lot of reasons. Rapid product and technological change (i.e. shorter product life-cycles), increased global competition, deregulation (privatization), demographic changes, and a shift to a service economy All this has increased the need for firms to be more responsive, flexible and competitive in order to survive in the business environment Thus, narrowly defined jobs are a weakness in this environment, and firms need employees who can “do anything” 4–23
Job Analysis is Changing Therefore, firms have to use some specific techniques to survive in this environment –1. Use of a Flatter Organization Structure A flat organization is one which has less management layers. The advantage of a flat organization is that it can respond more quickly to changes in the environment, as opposed to a tall organization which has many layers and takes a long while for information to pass through. Another advantage is that top management is more in touch with customers, because the no. of layers is less. So, they can better react to customer needs and wants. Lastly, there is less bureaucracy and red tape, so decision-making is faster. Therefore, to make a flat organization, we have to reduce the no. of layers (or positions). As a result, each employee has more duty and responsibility. Therefore, we have…….Dejobbing! 4–24
Job Analysis is Changing 2. More Self-managed Work Teams Nowadays, a lot of companies organize work around self- managed work teams, rather than individual work. For example, there are teams which manage the factory work, marketing, or cost control by themselves (with little supervision). Working in teams encourages productivity, and improves morale, as employees can jointly solve a problem or situation (two heads are better than one) Therefore, to work in such a team, one needs to be flexible and multi-talented.. As a result, an employee needs to be able to do much more than his personal job description says…..so we have Dejobbing! 4–25
Job Analysis is Changing Reengineering is the use of self-managed work teams to increase performance in areas such as cost, quality, service and speed. Since businesses are reengineering their processes nowadays, naturally dejobbing is taking place. Some key terms of Dejobbing:- 1. Job Enlargement 2. Job Rotation 3. Job Enrichment 4–27
Dejobbing Terms and Concepts 1.Job Enlargement Job enlargement means giving workers more work of the same type, thus increasing the no. of activities they perform. Ex- A carpenter who makes chairs, will now also make tables. So, job enlargement involves horizontal expansion of the job, not vertical 4–28
Dejobbing Terms and Concepts 2. Job Enrichment Job enrichment means giving workers freedom to do their jobs so that they experience a feeling of accomplishment, growth and recognition. Ex- The carpenter who makes tables, will now also be allowed to put the finishing, such as paint, polish etc. As a result, he can see what his final product looks like, and therefore it will give him some satisfaction (sense of ownership) So, Job enrichment involves vertical expansion of the job, i.e. new activities to do. (as well as making the job more fun, engaging, and interesting to do). 4–29
Dejobbing Terms and Concepts 3. Job Rotation Job Rotation involves moving workers from one job to another (ex- from department to department) to broaden his experience, scope and ability. It also improves teamworking skills as the person has to work with different colleagues in each dept. Job rotation can identify a person’s strengths, as well as his weaknesses, as he is moving across a lot of departments. It is usually used to prepare a person for a leadership role in the company (in the future) Ex- The MTO (Management Trainee Officer) program. Here, the employee works in different departments, gathers experience, and is finally put in a strategic role in the organization