Presentation on theme: "Christian Development The Western Catholic Church from the Middle Ages to the Schism(1054 C.E.)"— Presentation transcript:
Christian Development The Western Catholic Church from the Middle Ages to the Schism(1054 C.E.)
History In 313 C.E., Roman Emperor Constantine issued the Edict of Milan. This edict allowed Catholics to worship without interference, and stopped massive persecutions of early Catholics. Catholicism became the official religion of the Empire. The Roman Empire experienced great change: The Empire no longer seemed to be united and seemed to have 2 distinct sections; East and West. By 330 C.E., the capital had moved to Constantinople, in the Eastern section of the Empire. In the West, the empire declined and the economy failed, and Rome’s population decreased as a result of the invasion of a Germanic tribe called the Visigoths (410 C.E.)
History Islam developed, and the southern shore of the Mediterranean came under Islamic control. Without a clear political and economic centre, a period of poverty began. Catholicism became the common bond that unified Western Europe.
Western History-Rome The title of Pope continued to be given to the bishop of Rome – he was seen as the successor of St. Peter. The position of the Pope kept Western Catholicism stable. Study of Sacred Scripture helped to make Catholic teachings more clear and easily understood. Theology (particularly work of St. Augustine) helped Catholics use Church teaching as the basis for a way of life for all believers. Monasteries became central to maintaining Catholicism.
The Schism (Break) Because the Roman empire was divided (Eastern and Western), differences developed. In 1014 C.E. the Papacy in Rome declared that the filoque clause, must be included in the Form of the Nicene Creed… no other forms of it were acceptable. Eastern Catholics resisted being told what to do by a power hungry papacy based in Rome and resisted change just because they were told to. This historical separation came to a climax point in 1054 C.E. when the leaders of each Church excommunicated (expelled-kicked out) the other leaders.
Orthodox Christianity Eastern Orthodox Christianity developed its own structure of churches, liturgical traditions, and customs. The Eastern Orthodox Church has a leader called the Patriarch of Constantinople, which is similar to the pope. It has a number of self-governing churches, usually divided along cultural lines (Russian, Ukrainian, Romanian, Serbian, etc) The Eastern Orthodox Church has much smaller numbers today, owing to the fact that many of its followers converted to Islam after that religion’s rise and great success.
East and West Today In 1965, a largely symbolic healing of the East-West schism occurred. Patriarch Athenagoras and Pope Paul VI mutually lifted the ex-communications imposed more than 1000 years earlier. However, the two Churches remain separate institutions and kind of see themselves as sister and brother with a common parent-Jesus.