Presentation on theme: "CST10.3 : Industrial Revolution Students analyze the effects of the Industrial Revolution in England, France, Germany, Japan, and the United States. By:"— Presentation transcript:
CST10.3 : Industrial Revolution Students analyze the effects of the Industrial Revolution in England, France, Germany, Japan, and the United States. By: Andreya Ventura, Shadi Khoury, Alexis Rodriguez, Nick Saralou, Sahira Alvarado GHCHS WH10 - Period 2 -
10.3.1 Analyze why England was the first country to industrialize. Agricultural Revolution 1. Wealthy landowners began buying the land that was left by the village farmers. 2. New and improved farming methods such as enclosures, larger fields used for crop experimentation, boosted crop yields 3. Crop rotation was one of the most developed technique used for farming because farmers were allowed to grown different types of crops at a faster rate. 4. With a plentiful supply of food farmers began to move to the cities, this became known as urbanization The population in England also increased due to the efficient supply of food and the decrease of diseases and starvation. Living conditions improved More people began to take jobs in the city so England’s economy grew England’s Natural Resource 1. Water power and coal was used to fuel the new machines. 2. Iron ore was used to construct machines, tools, and buildings 3. Rivers were used for inland transportation. 4. Harbors allow merchant ships to set sail. 5. England’s expanding economy was a great advantage. They were able to invest in new inventions. People became encouraged to invest in innovative operations. Increase in overseas trade.
10.3.1 Analyze why England was the first country to industrialize (Continued) 6. Overall Britain had all the factors of production, mainly known as the resources needed to produce goods, and this was the key needed to start the Industrial Revolution. Revolution in Technology 1. The textile industry was the main source for England’s vast wealth. The textile industry was a resource needed all around the world. With the invention of spinners and weavers, profits boosted. Increase in overseas trade. 2. Entrepreneurs made a big impact during the Industrial Revolution. James Watt’s improvement of the steam engine encouraged him to build more efficient engines. Robert Fulton renovated water transportation by building steamboats which made it easier for goods to move through the waterways. John Adam, the Scottish engineer, made transportation on land easier by paving roads allowing wagons to get to their destination without problem. 3. Railroads also revolutionized British life.
10.3.1 Analyze why England was the first country to industrialize A cartoon image of the first railway system with a train traveling on it across Manchester, England This is a photo token in the early 19 th century of one of the 1 st Steam Engine’s built by James Watt A painting of the steam boat built by Robert Fulton sailing across the North Atlantic off the coast of England
10.3.2 Examine how scientific and technological advantages changes and new forms of energy brought about massive social, economic, and cultural change. Enclosures- Land owners experimented with more productive seeding and harvesting methods to boost crop yields. This made land owners try new agricultural methods, and large landowners forced small famers to become tenant farmers or to give up farming and move to the cities. Seed Drill- another farming break through that fixed the problems of seeds failing to take root. This device allowed farmers to sow seeds in well spaced rows. Crop rotation- best development of scientific farmers. Live stock breeders improved their methods too by increasing the weight of their animals from selective breading. “British Miracle” the result of Britain’s profitable new methods of manufacturing goods. European countries watched the gap widen between themselves and Britain. Industrialization widened the wealth gap between industrialized and non industrialized countries.
Invention / Purpose John KayShuttle- boat shaped piece that sped back and forth on wheels James HargreavesSpinning wheel (jenny)- allowed 1 spinner to work to work 8 threads at a time Richard ArkwrightWater frame- used water power to spin wheels and functions things Samuel CromptonSpinning mule- this made thread that was stronger Edmund Cartwright Power loom- sped up weaving and was run by water power James WattSteam engine- worked faster and was run by water Robert FultonSteam boat- created from the steam engine crated by Watt Richard TrevithickSteam driven locomotive George Stephenson Railroad line and rocket- it hauled a 13 ton load at unheard of speeds Alexander Graham Bell Telephone Guglielmo Marconi First radio- sent messages using Morse Code through air, without using wires Henry FordAssembly line- a line of workers who each put a single piece on unfinished cars as they passed on a moving belt 10.3.2 Examine how scientific and technological advantages changes and new forms of energy brought about massive social, economic, and cultural change.
Invention / purpose Wilber and Orville Wright First airplane- started the aircraft industry Thomas EdisonSome inventions: electric light bulb, phonograph, and motion pictures Louis PasteurGerm theory of disease- pasteurization to kill germs in liquids, then realized bacteria causes disease Joseph ListerInsisted that wounds be washed in antiseptics, or germ killing liquids Charles DarwinTheory of Evolution- idea of change through natural selection John DaltonTheorized that all matter is made of tiny particles called atoms Dmitri Mendeleev Periodic Table- organized chart on which all the known elements were arranged in order of weight Marie CurieDiscovered radioactivity 10.3.2 Examine how scientific and technological advantages changes and new forms of energy brought about massive social, economic, and cultural change.
Wright Brother’s fly 1 st airplane lasting only 59 seconds in the mid- 1800s Assembly Line built by Ford used to build the 1 st automobile in less than 2 hrs Spinning Machine, invented by Samuel Crompton, which was designed to make thread stronger
10.3.3 Describe the growth of population, rural to urban migration, and growth of cities associated with the Industrial Revolution. Rural to urban migration- enclosures caused landowners to force small farmers to become tenant farmers, or give up farming and move to the cities Urbanization- city building and movement of people to cities For centuries, most Europeans lived in rural areas but after 1800 balance shifted towards cities Most urban areas doubled in population; some even quadrupled The growth of the factory system increased population: England’s cities grew rapidly England had no development plan They lacked adequate housing, education, and police protection
10.3.3 Describe the growth of population, rural to urban migration, and growth of cities associated with the Industrial Revolution. Germany built railroads linked it’s growing manufacturing cities The building of railroads led to new job opportunities Belgium started new industrial enterprises with the help of William Cockerill Because Cockerill had British advances people from Europe came in to work with Cockerill Japan financed textile mills, coal mines, shipyards, and cement and other factories Japan asked private companies to invest in industry
10.3.4 Trace evolution of work and labor, including the demise of the slave trade and the effects of immigration, mining and manufacturing, division of labor, and the union movement. In 1700, the wealthy bought land from small farmers to improved farming methods- Agricultural Revolution The great resources in England caused business people to begin investing in manufactures In 1705, miners were able to use steam engines to remove the water from mines Because of the steam engines, engineers began to improve transportation As factories began to increase the demand for production did as well The owners wanted more profit therefore workers had to work longer and harder hours Child labor began to increase as well The factories and mines became more dangerous to work in for the adults and even more for the children
10.3.4 Trace evolution of work and labor, including the demise of the slave trade and the effects of immigration, mining and manufacturing, division of labor, and the union movement (Continued) The middle class was composed of skilled workers and owners The working class worked in the factories and did not prosper from the industrial revolution as fast as the middle class Industrialization in the United States In 1789 Samuel Slater, illegally brought plans to duplicate the spinning machine It was a success and new factories began to open In 1820, Lowell, Massachusetts, had boomed in manufacturing Mills opened and gave women in particular job opportunities As large businesses began to grow they needed money to support the business Entrepreneurs bought stocks to build corporations
10.3.4 Trace evolution of work and labor, including the demise of the slave trade and the effects of immigration, mining and manufacturing, division of labor, and the union movement (Continued) Other European countries wanted to industrialize like Britain In adopting the British methods for manufacturing it sparked troubles leading to the French Revolution Germany industrialized through the linking of manufacturing cities by railroads Japan industrialized by financing through textile mills, coal mines, etc. It’s expansion in the industry led to economic growth, strengthening of the military and Japan’s imperialism
10.3.4 Trace evolution of work and labor, including the demise of the slave trade and the effects of immigration, mining and manufacturing, division of labor, and the union movement A painting by Maxo Vanko displaying factories in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, 1935 USA A photograph of one of the first built by Samuel Slater in, 1789 A cartoon painting of the Agricultural Revolution starting in the 1700s in England, Europe
10.3.5 Understand the connections among natural resources, entrepreneurship, labor, and capital in an industrial economy. Natural Resources: Water power and coal to fuel machines Iron ore to construct machines, tools, and buildings Rivers for transportation Harbors- merchant ships set sail The natural resources attracted entrepreneurs to invest in machines working with these natural resources Factors of production- resources needed to produce goods and services (land, labor, and capital/wealth- revolution requirements) Factories- large buildings set up by merchants near rivers and streams; needed water power Entrepreneur- organizes, manages, and take risks
10.3.5 Understand the connections among natural resources, entrepreneurship, labor, and capital in an industrial economy (Continued ) Because of factories being built by entrepreneurs labor hours were increased on an average to 14 hours a day, 6 days a week To keep factories running and workers fed, industrialized countries required a steady supply of raw materials from less developed lands As a result to the increased working hours and new machines, workers were more prone to being hurt The new transportation system of railroads caused an increased need of coal As a result, the most dangerous working conditions were found in coal mines Revolutions in agriculture, production, transportation, and communication led to economic growth Despite the hardships of urban workers, population, health, and wealth increased dramatically
10.3.6 Analyze the emergence of capitalism as a dominant economic pattern and the responses to it, including Utopianism, Social Democracy, Socialism, and Communism. Laissez faire- “Let people do as they please.” Capitalism - It is an economic system based on private ownership and the investment of resources, such as money, for profit. Adam Smith – He supported the idea of capitalism through his book “The Wealth Of Nations.” He believed that having a free economy system would create economic progress. He supported his belief through the three natural laws of economics. 1. The law of self interest – People work for their own good. 2. The law of competition – Competition forces people to make a better product. 3. The law of supply and demand – Enough goods would be produced at the lowest possible price to meet demand in a market economy. Because of that, the government should not interfere. Thomas Malthus and David Ricardo were also supporters of capitalism.
10.3.6. Analyze the emergence of capitalism as a dominant economic pattern and the responses to it, including Utopianism, Social Democracy, Socialism, and Communism. Continued.. Thomas Malthus – He wrote “An Essay on the Principle of Population” arguing that population would tend to increase more rapidly that the food supply and most people would end up poor and miserable. David Ricardo – He wrote “Principles of Political Economy and Taxation” stating his belief that a permanent underclass will always exist in a society and they will always be poor. From the ideas of capitalism, other forms of economies such as socialism, communism, utopianism, and social democracy arose. In contrast to capitalism, Jeremy Bentham introduced the philosophy of utilitarianism stating that the government should try to promote the greatest amount of good for the greatest number of people. Utopianism - Robert Owen intended to make a community to be a utopia, a perfect living place.
10.3.6 Analyze the emergence of capitalism as a dominant economic pattern and the responses to it, including Utopianism, Social Democracy, Socialism, and Communism. Continued.. Socialism – Charles Fourier, Saint-Simon, and others supported socialism. Socialism is where the factors of production are owned by the public and operate for the welfare of all. Communism – Karl Marx introduced an extreme form of socialism called Marxism. He wrote “The Communist Manifesto” stating his ideas on Marxism. The final phase of Marxism was pure communism. He described communism as a form of complete socialism in which all means of production would be owned by the people. Private property ownership did not exist in communism. A Painting of Karl Marx, the man who wrote the communist Manifesto Charles Fourier A painting of the man who followed socialism
CapitalismSocialism Individuals and businesses own property and the means of production. The community or the state should own property and the means of production. Progress results when individuals follow their own self-interest. Progress results when a community of producers cooperate for the good of all. Businesses follow their own self-interest by competing for the consumer’s money. Each business tries to produce goods or services that are better and less expensive than those of competitors. Socialists believe that capitalist employers take advantage of workers. The community or state must act to protect workers. Consumers compete to buy the best goods at the lowest prices. This competition shapes the market by affecting what businesses are able to sell. Capitalism creates unequal distribution of wealth and material goods. A better system is to distribute goods according to each person’s needs. Government should not interfere in the economy because competition creates efficiency in business. An unequal distribution of wealth and material goods is unfair. A better system is to distribute goods according to each person’s needs. Refer to this Table on pg. 303 in the Textbook. 10.3.6 Analyze the emergence of capitalism as a dominant economic pattern and the responses to it, including Utopianism, Social Democracy, Socialism, and Communism (Continued)
10.3. 7 Describe the emergence of Romanticism in art and literature, social criticism, and the move away from Classicism in Europe. Art Revolution: The End of The 18 th Century As the 18 th century came to an end the Enlightenment ideas of reason gave light to a new form of art and literature known as, romanticism Romanticism: A form of art that reflects deep interest in nature and in the thoughts and feelings of the individuals. Key-Element: Emotion Romanticism was not all about emotion but also expressed various of ideas and attitudes that shared common beliefs, such as: Focused on the mysterious, the supernatural, and the exotic, grotesque, or horrifying Idealized the past as a simpler and nobler time Valued the common people and the individual Promoted radical change and democracy and etc.
10.3. 7 Describe the emergence of Romanticism in art and literature, social criticism, and the move away from Classicism in Europe. Other forms of art at the time included impressionism, showing one's impression of a subject or a moment in time as they saw it, and realism, that tried to capture and show life as it really was. To the romantics, poetry was the best form of expression. Many of the poems romantics wrote celebrated rebellious heroes, passionate love, and the mystery and beauty of nature The Enlightenment cause Europe to move out of classicism and instead towards the new ideas of Romanticism, realism, and impressionism. A Paining by Eugene Delacroix names The Death of Sardanapal - 1827-28
10.3. 7 Describe the emergence of Romanticism in art and literature, social criticism, and the move away from Classicism in Europe. Romantics and Their Accomplishments: Novel Writers Johann Wolfgang von Goethe: The Sorrows of Young Werther (From Germany) About a young man who’s hopeless love for a “virtuous” married woman leads him to suicide. Victor Hugo: Les Miserable's & The Hunchback of Notre Dame Both showing the struggles of individuals against an unfriendly society. Mary Shelley: Frankenstein A very popular gothic novel about a monster created from body parts of dead human beings. Poets William Wordsworth and Samuel Taylor Coleridge- Lord Byron Percy Bysshe Shelley Wrote typical romanticism poems about love, John Keats nature, and rebellious heroes. An image painted by Octavio Paz on American vs Mexican realism 1914 – 1998
10.3. 7 Describe the emergence of Romanticism in art and literature, social criticism, and the move away from Classicism in Europe (Continued) Composers Ludwig van Beethoven: Ninth Symphony Felix Mendelssohn Frederic Chopin Giuseppe Verdi Richard Wagner This painting is called Le Moulin de la Galette painted by Pierre-Auguste Renoir, in 1876. In English, The Mill of the Galette.