Nationalism Sense of pride in and devotion to one’s country. Areas of Nationalism: Southern Africa Kenya North Africa Ghana
Why Nationalism? Boundaries established by Europeans Rival groups placed into the same boundaries. –African groups realized to get rid of European rule they would have to work together.
Pan-Africanism “Africa for Africans” Unify all of Africa
Leopold Sedar Senghor Senegalese poet Leader of the: –Negritude Movement Asked Africans to value their heritage and support Pan Africanism. Senghor – Greatest leader of Pan Africanism
Africa 1950 Free States –Liberia –Egypt –South Africa –Ethiopia
World War II Weakened Imperial Powers France Britain Beginning of the Cold War
New Nations of Africa 1950-1975 Areas: –Ghana –North Africa –Kenya –Southern Africa
Ghana Kwame Nkrumah Organized boycotts against British rule. –Boycott – a refusal to buy certain goods or services. 1957 – Ghana is the first African State to win independence.
North Africa Libya; Tunisia; Morocco –Gain independence through peaceful means. 1962 – 8 Year War –Algeria fights against France for its independence.
Kenya Jomo Kenyatta –Demanded political and economic reforms from the British –White settlers in Kenya wanted to protect their own rights and retain the ‘status quo.’ –Mau Mau – Armed Resistance Led by Kenyatta, Mau Mau targeted white settlers
Kenya Independence 1964 British withdraw –Jomo Kenyatta Becomes first President of Kenya
Southern Africa Portugal refused to give up: Mozambique Angola Nationalists used guerilla warfare. Guerilla Warfare – small bands of fighters stage hit- and-run attacks against a larger power.
Colonial Legacy - Little preparation for independence - Disrupted local leaders and local economies - Few experienced leaders - Borders with warring ethnic groups. + Provided framework and infrastructure for countries. (Bridges, railroads, etc.)
Review 1.Use “boycott” in a sentence. What other leader have we studied might have used this tactic? 2.Describe three effects of colonial rule on Africa, which do you believe had the greatest impact (either positive or negative)? 3. Pan-Africanism should be a familiar concept.What was Pan-Africanism and when else have we encountered a similar concept?
Steps Toward Development What political challenges do African nations face? How have African nations tried to solve their economic problems? How has the population explosion strained Africa’s resources?
Steps Toward Development Secede Refugee One Party Rule Military Rule Democratization Socialism Mixed Economy Multinational Corporations
Congo Civil War –1960 Independence from Belgium
Zaire Mobutu Sese Seko –Former province of Congo [Katanga] –Copper rich –Secession – to break away
Zaire = Democratic Republic of the Congo Laurent Kabila 1997 –Overthrows Seko and establishes the Democratic Republic of the Congo
Civil War Ethiopia Somalia Amongst ethnic groups –Creates: –Instability –Famine –Refugees Refugee -a person who flees to a foreign country or power to escape danger or persecution
One Party Rule Many parties created divisions One party rule: –Where there is only one political party. –Reflected traditional values. Voters may choose: –Different candidates but they are of the same party
Military Rule Military takes control of government. Why supported? Test of government is not to instill democracy, but to develop the economy and create stability (security)
Democratization A move toward a multi-party system. 1980’s trend Ex. –Benin: A general who had ruled for 19 years loses an election to a civilian candidate.
Economic Systems Socialism –Government owns and operates major businesses and controls most parts of the economy. Mixed Economies –a mixture of private and government ownership of major industries/businesses.
Multinational Corporations Huge enterprises (businesses) with branches in many countries. –Invest in: Mining Argiculture BENEFITS: Make profits from exporting goods made in Africa. Create jobs for Africans. Weaken Africa’s dependence on imported goods.
Agricultural Production Problem: –Unpredictable rainfall (to rain, or not to rain?) Most companies make “cash crops” (to export for money) These crops do not meet the basic needs of Africans. Independent African Farmers –Do not make a lot of money because many governments of Africa keep (control) the food prices low.
Economic Dependence Many African nations must import: –Cars –Western Goods –Televisions –Oil –Many imports; less exports. What does this mean?
Population Explosion African traditions encourage large families ½ the people of Africa are under 15 Challenges: –Resources –Schools –Housing –Food –Conditions of cities.
Review What political challenges do African nations face? How have African nations tried to solve their economic problems? How has the population explosion strained Africa’s resources?
Define: Secede Refugee One Party Rule Military Rule Democratization Socialism Mixed Economy Multinational Corporations