Presentation on theme: "F UNCTIONS OF M ANAGEMENT & O RGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURES Alpha college of Engineering & Technology Group no: 7 NAMEENROLLMENT NO. SUNIT SHAH130510116049."— Presentation transcript:
F UNCTIONS OF M ANAGEMENT & O RGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURES Alpha college of Engineering & Technology Group no: 7 NAMEENROLLMENT NO. SUNIT SHAH SHEWARAMANI MANISH HIREN SOLANKI JAYKISHAN SOLANKI HINAL SONI BHARGAV THAKER URVISHA PATEL BY,
F UNCTIONS OF MANAGEMENT 1.Planning 2.Organizing 3.Staffing 4.Directing 5.controlling
PLANNING Planning is the process of mapping out what has to be done to achieve a particular goal. Planning is a set of exact steps to be taken to accomplish organization’s goal.
N ATURE OF PLANNING 1. Planning is goal oriented 2. Planning is primary function 3. Planning is pervasive 4. Planning is intellectual or rational process 5. Planning is a continuous process 6. Planning is always looking forward 7. Planning involves choice 8. Planning is an integrated process 9. Planning is directed towards efficiency
I MPORTANCE OF PLANNING 1. Plan gives a sense of direction to an organization 2. Plan focuses on objectives or goals 3. It establishes basis for teamwork 4. It helps in anticipating problems and copes up with change 5. Plan provides guideline for decision making 6. Serves as a prerequisite to employing all other management function
O RGANIZING According to Henri fayol “To organize a business means to provide it with everything useful to its functioning-raw materials, tools, capital and personnel”
N ATURE OF ORGANIZING 1. Review plans and objectives. 2. Determine the work activities necessary to accomplish objectives. 3. Classify and group the necessary work activities into manageable units. 4. Assign activities and delegate authority. 5. Design a hierarchy of relationships.
S TAFFING Harold koontz has defined the managerial function of staffing as filling, and keeping filled position in the organization structure. The managerial function of staffing is now termed as human resource management.
N ATURE OF STAFFING 1. Staffing is an important managerial function. 2. Staffing is a pervasive activity. 3. Staffing is a continuous activity. 4. The basis of staffing function is efficient management of personnel. 5. Staffing helps in placing right men at the right job. 6. Staffing is performed by all managers.
I MPORTANCE OF STAFFING 1. Key to other managerial function. 2. Building healthy human relationship. 3. Human resources development. 4. Long term effect. 5. Potential contribution.
DIRECTING Directing consists of the process and techniques utilized in issuing instructions and making certain that operations are carried on as originally planned. Directing is the guidance, the inspiration, the leadership of those men and women that constitute the real core of the responsibilities of management.
N ATURE OF DIRECTING 1. Pervasive. 2. Continuous activity. 3. Human factor. 4. Creative activity. 5. Executive function. 6. Delegate function.
I MPORTANCE OF DIRECTING 1. It initiates actions. 2. It integrates efforts. 3. Means of motivation. 4. Stability. 5. Coping with the change. 6. Efficient utilization of resources.
CONTROLLING Controlling is the measurement and correction of performance in order to make sure that enterprise objectives and the plans devised to attain them are accomplished. Control of an undertaking consist of seeing the everything is being carried out in accordance with the plan which has been adopted, the orders which have been given, and principles which have been laid down.
N ATURE OF CONTROLLING controls make organizations effective. organizations need control in place if they want to achieve and accomplish their objectives. Controls make organization efficient. efficiency probably depends more on controls than many other management function. Controls aid in decision making. The ultimate purpose of controls is to help managers make better decisions. Controls make managers aware of problems and give them information that is necessary for decision making.
I MPORTANCE OF CONTROLLING A control function helps business management in various ways. It guides the management in achieving pre-determined goals. The control process also ensure the efficiency of various functions. The continuous flow of information about project keeps the long range of planning on the right back. It helps in taking corrective action in future if the performance is not up to the mark. It also enables management to avoid repetition of past mistakes. Whenever there is deviation between standard and actual performance the control helps in deciding the future course of action
O RGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURES Organizing: the process by which managers establish working relationships among employees to achieve goals. Organizational Structure : formal system of task & reporting relationships showing how workers use resources. Organizational design : managers make specific choices resulting in a given organizational structure. Successful organizational design depends on the organization’s unique situation.
O RGANIZATION The process by which managers establish working relationships among employees to achieve goals. Organization is a system of co-operative activities of two or more persons. Organization is essentially a matter of relationship of man, job to job and department to department.
C LASSIFICATION OF O RGANIZATION 1. Formal organization 2. In-formal Organization
F ORMAL O RGANIZATION It is an organizational structure which clearly defines the duties, responsibilities, authority, and relationship as prescribed by the top management. It represents the classification of activities within the enterprise, indicate who reports to whom and explains the vertical flow of communications which connects the chief executive to the ordinary workers.
I NFORMAL ORGANIZATION It is an organizational structure which establish the relationship on the basis of the likes and dislikes of officers without considering the rules, regulations and procedures. The friendship,mutual understanding and confidence are some of the reasons for exiting informal organization.
T YPES OF ORGANIZATION Line Organization Staff Organization Line and Staff Organization
L INE O RGANIZATION This is the simplest and oldest form of organization, since it utilizes the superior- subordinate relationship generally prevalent in the defence system of a country. It is also known as ‘Military’ type of organization and ‘Departmental organization’. In this organization, business unit is organized not according to functions, but on the basis of responsibility and authority. Its peculiar feature is that authority passes from the top to the bottom uninterrupted.
L INE ORGANIZATION
S TAFF O RGANIZATION Under this form of organization, the whole job of management is divided according to the type of function involved. It is known as functional organization. Every person has to perform a special task under this organization. Therefore, it is also called specialized organization. The main feature of this organization is that, under it, each function is done by experts. The expert is not only an counsellor, but he is an administrator also.
S TAFF O RGANIZATION
L INE & S TAFF O RGANIZATION To preserve the precision and simplicity of line organization and at the same time to take advantages of the specialization under functional organization this type of organization is formed. The characteristic feature of line and staff organization that line official do managerial work as usual, but they are assisted by the experts. This group of expert is known as “employees”.
L INE AND STAFF ORGANIZATION
D EPARTMENTALISATION The first real task in designing an organization structure is to identify all the activities of the organization and group them properly. This process of grouping the activities is commonly known as Departmentalisation. Departmentalisation can be done through following structural alternatives. 1) Matrix structure 2) Hybrid structure
M ATRIX S TRUCTURE An organizational structure that simultaneously groups people and resources by function and product. Results in a complex network of superior- subordinate reporting relationships. The structure is very flexible and can respond rapidly to the need for change. Each employee has two bosses (functional manager and product manager) and possibly cannot satisfy both.
M ATRIX S TRUCTURE
Advantages: Clarity about career paths Economies of scale within function Specialization Coordination In-depth skill development Power and prestige Disadvantages: Boredom and monotony Poor decision making Sub-unit conflicts Managerial vacuum
H YBRID S TRUCTURES Hybrid Structure The structure of a large organization that has many divisions and simultaneously uses many different organizational structures. Many large organizations adopt this structure so as to incorporate the advantages of both functional and divisional structures.
H YBRID S TRUCTURE
Advantages: 1. Alignment of corporate and divisional goals. 2. Functional expertise and efficiency. 3. Adaptability and flexibility in divisions. Disadvantages: 1. Conflicts between corporate departments and units. 2. Excessive administration overhead. 3. Slow response to exceptional situations