2 Protein Basics Made of C,H,O, N CHONPS Monomers = amino acids - 20 different types of amino acids used to make proteinsThe bonds between amino acids are called peptide bonds so…Proteins are polymers thatare also calledPolypeptides.
3 Meet the monomer –Amino acid 3 main parts- Amino group NH2- Carboxyl group COOH- R group (side chain)each of the 20 typesof amino acids havea unique R group
5 Proteins form from chains of amino acids Proteins vary in length – can be 1,000s of amino acids longProtein
6 Proteins ShapeA protein’s shape is determined by the order that amino acids are joined inThe shape of a protein determines its functionHemoglobin antibody enzymes polymerase
7 Protein Structure – Primary Structure Primary structure is the order of the amino acids that make up a protein.- the interactions of the R groups on each amino acidcause the molecule to bend and fold – different arrangements create different shapes- as a result- the order ofamino acids determinesthe shape of the protein- shape determines function- changing a single amino acid can change a protein’sshape.
9 Chemical reactions of life Processes of lifebuilding moleculessynthesisbreaking down moleculesdigestion++
10 Nothing works without enzymes! How important are enzymes?all chemical reactions in living organisms require enzymes to workbuilding moleculessynthesis enzymesbreaking down moleculesdigestive enzymesenzymes speed up reactions“catalysts”enzyme+enzymeWe can’t live without enzymes!+
11 Enzymes A protein catalyst Enzymes are important proteins found in living things. An enzyme is a protein that changes the rate of a chemical reaction.They speed up metabolic reactions.
13 Enzymes are proteinsEach enzyme is the specific helper to a specific reactioneach enzyme needs to be the right shape for the jobenzymes are named for the reaction they helpsucrase breaks down sucroseproteases breakdown proteinslipases breakdown lipidsDNA polymerase builds DNAOh, I get it!They end in -ase
14 Enzymes aren’t used up Enzymes are not changed by the reaction used only temporarilyre-used again for the same reaction with other moleculesvery little enzyme needed to help in many reactionssubstrateproductactive siteenzyme
15 It’s shape that matters! Lock & Key modelshape of protein allows enzyme & substrate to fitspecific enzyme for each specific reaction
17 Enzyme vocabulary Enzyme Substrate Products Active site helper protein moleculeSubstratemolecule that enzymes work onProductswhat the enzyme helps produce from the reactionActive sitepart of enzyme that substrate molecule fits into
18 What affects enzyme action Correct protein structurecorrect order of amino acidswhy? enzyme has to be right shapeTemperaturepH (acids & bases)
19 Order of amino acids Wrong order = wrong shape = can’t do its job! DNA folded proteinchain of amino acidsDNAright shape!folded proteinchain of amino acidsDNAwrong shape!
20 Temperature Effect on rates of enzyme activity Optimum temperature greatest number of collisions between enzyme & substratehuman enzymes35°- 40°C (body temp = 37°C)Raise temperature (boiling)denature protein = unfold = lose shapeLower temperature T°molecules move slowerfewer collisions between enzyme & substrate
21 Temperature 37° human enzymes reaction rate temperature What’s happening here?!37°reaction ratetemperature
22 pH Effect on rates of enzyme activity changes in pH changes protein shape~ Denaturesmost human enzymes = pH 6-8depends on where in bodypepsin (stomach) = pH 3trypsin (small intestines) = pH 8
24 Two examples of Enzyme Inhibitors a. Competitive inhibitors: are chemicals that resemble an enzyme’s normal substrate and compete with it for the active site.EnzymeSubstrateCompetitive inhibitor
25 Inhibitors b. Noncompetitive inhibitors: Inhibitors that do not enter the active site, but bind to another part of the enzyme causing the enzyme to change its shape, which in turn alters the active site.EnzymeNoncompetitiveInhibitorSubstrateactive sitealtered