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MAMMAL NOTES.

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Presentation on theme: "MAMMAL NOTES."— Presentation transcript:

1 MAMMAL NOTES

2 There are 4600 species of mammals known and 300 of these are considered endangered, mainly due to habitat destruction. General characteristics: 1. Mammals are endothermic ( mostly homeothermic) 2. Have hair or fur, if the coat of hair is thick, it is called pelage and species with sparse hair usually have very thick skin or a layer of blubber to insulate against temperature extremes.

3 3. Nourish their young with milk secreted by the female’s nipples. 4
3. Nourish their young with milk secreted by the female’s nipples. 4. All mammals are dioecious with internal fertilization. All mammals are heterogametic which means that the sex of the offspring is determined by the male. Most mammalian embryos are are nourished by a placenta. 5. All mammals breathe with lungs. 6. Have a four-chambered heart and a closed circulatory system.

4 7. Most are terrestrial but a few are marine and one Order has developed true flight.
8. Mammals have the most advanced nervous system of any group. All mammals have a lower jaw formed of a mandible called the dentary which articulates with the upper jaw called the squamate and an upper palate which allows young to breathe while nursing. 10. All mammals have excellent hearing and external ears called pinnae.

5 Living Representative Mammals
There are 21 orders of Mammals classified into two subclasses 1. Subclass Prototheria (egg-laying mammals) ex. Duck-billed Platypus, echidna ( one order) 2. Subclass Theria-( Placental mammals) a. infraclass Metatheria-marsupials (one order) ex. Kangaroo b. infraclass Eutheria- true placental mammals ( 19 orders)

6 MAJOR ADAPTATIONS OF MAMMALS
Internal temperature regulation is the most important adaptation in mammals! A. Most mammals are both endothermic and homeothermic. B. Internal body heat results from camel is example of non homeothermic animal cellular metabolism. 1. a typical resting mammal has a metabolic rate 10 X higher than a reptile 2. Mammals eat more calories and process them more efficiently than reptiles in order to maintain a higher body heat. 3. the smaller the mammal, the greater its body size to surface ratio and the more it must eat to maintain life ex. A 3 g. mouse eats 5X more than a 10Kg. Dog and 30X more than a 50,000 Kg. elephant. *per gram of body weight

7 MAJOR ADAPTATIONS OF MAMMALS con’t
II. Sources of heating the body of a mammal A. Shivering B. brown fat C. changing the pelage with the seasons D. Arrector pilli muscles to erect hairs and trap warm air. E. Insulating blubber accounts for 45% of body weight of seals and whales III. Sources of cooling the body in mammals. A. Panting B. sweating C. remaining inactive during the hottest part of the day D. spreading out and exposing skin where hair is IV. Additional forms of temperature adaptation A. hibernation- winter dormancy B. aestivation-summer dormancy sparse

8 MAJOR ADAPTATIONS OF MAMMALS con’t
V. Mammalian integument ( outer covering of skin) 1. hair is formed of fine scales of the protein keratin. a. Various types of mammalian hairs include: soft undercoats, guard hairs, bristles and quills. Hair of sheep and humans grow continuously, also the manes and tails of horses, most other mammal hair growth is determinate. b. Molts are periodic sheds of hair in most mammals. Fox and seals shed once a year in summer, most mammals shed twice a year, in spring and fall. Some mammals change color with the seasons, the white winter coat of Artic mammals is called leukenism. c. Whiskers or Vibrissae are sensory hairs, they provide a tactile extra sense.

9 MAJOR ADAPTATIONS OF MAMMALS con’t
V. Mammalian integument 2. glands- sweat, scent, sebaceous, mammary a. Eccrine sweat glands secrete a watery fluid that draws heat away from the body surface…found in hairless regions of the body b. Apocrine sweat glands are larger and open into a hair follicle. They are unrelated to heat and tied to reproductive cycles. In humans, they develop during puberty and are restricted to armpits, ear canals, and pubic areas. c. Scent glands used to communicate with members of same species for breeding, territory marking, and defense d. Sebaceous glands which serve as a dressing to keep skin moist, fur glossy or waterproof. e. Mammary glands occur on all female mammals. Some mammals develop only during nursing, humans develop at puberty with additional fat deposits.

10 Types of glands Sweat glands Mammary glands
Scent glands- marking territory! Sebaceous glands

11 MAJOR ADAPTATIONS OF MAMMALS con’t
V.Mammalian integument 3. Horns and antlers a. true horns-found in ruminants (sheep and cattle family) 1. hollow sheaths of keratin over bone 2. they embrace a core of bone arising from the skull 3. they are not normally shed and are not usually branched. 4. are found on both sexes within a species but are usually longer in males

12 TRUE HORNS

13 3. Horns and antlers continued
b. Antlers-found in the deer family 1. composed of solid bone when mature 2. grow under a covering of vascular skin called velvet. 3. when growth is complete, the blood vessels constrict and the stag removes the velvey by rubbing it against trees. 4. antlers are shed after breeding season 5. each year the antlers are bigger than the year before 6. only Caribou females have antlers 7. in Moose and Elk, males must acquire over 50 lbs. of calcium each year to grow their antlers

14 Types of Antlers

15 Rhino horn C. Rhinocerous Horn
1. hairlike keratinized filaments are cemented together 2. Are not attached to the skull

16 VI. FOOD AND FEEDING Teeth-structure of teeth reveal the lifestyle of an animal 1. Incisors have sharp edges for biting 2. Canines are specialized for piercing 3. PreMolars have compressed crowns for shearing 4. Molars have larger, flatter tops for Grinding 5. Generally, mammals have one deciduous set and one Permanent set.

17 Feeding Specializations
1. Insectivores include shrews, moles, and most bats 2. Herbivores include 3 sub-groups a. Gnawers include rodents, rabbits b. Browers and grazers include horses, deer, cattle, sheep-all hooved animals are called Ungulates, one sub group of ungulates are called ruminants which have a huge 3-4 chambered stomach. The chambers of the stomach are called the rumen, the reticulum, the omasum, and the abomasum 3. Omnivores include raccoons, bears, pigs, rats and most primates 4. Carnivores include members of the dog, cat, and seal family.

18 Teeth types Carnivore teeth Omnivore teeth Insectivore teeth
Herbivore teeth Omnivore teeth

19 VII. Special Senses in mammals
Many mammals have large moveable pinnae (ear flaps) to aid in capturing sound and locating the source. B. Senses of smell, sight, and hearing are more or less intense in each species. C. Echolocation is the ability to use sound waves to locate and identify objects. Two orders, Cetacea and Chiroptera have this ability, but it is used in very different environments.

20 Reproduction in Mammals
Monotremes are egg-layers and there is a cloaca for fertilization in the female and the male’s testes are housed inside the abdominal cavity B. Marsupials have a primitive placenta that doesn’t allow for many nutrients to pass from mother to offspring, so the embryo is expelled and crawls to the marsupium which is a pouch with a teat inside that the young animal attaches and completes development.B

21 C. Marsupial males have testes housed outside the abdominal cavity in a sac-like extension called the scrotum. Most placental males also have a scrotum, except for the aquatic mammals and elephants. D. Placental mammals carry their Young in the uterus for the entire fetal period and The fetus is fed and cared for by the placenta.

22 E. Mammary glands are made up of clusters of milk-secreting glands
E. Mammary glands are made up of clusters of milk-secreting glands. Milk is made up of the sugar lactose. Various proteins, fats, salts, vitamins and antibodies from the mother’s immune system. Immediately after birth, there is a special milk produced called Colostrum which is made up of large amounts of white cells and antibodies to protect the infant from infection until its own immune system develops.

23 Reproduction Timing A. Estrus is the condition of a female mammal being receptive to the male during certain intervals in an ovarian hormonal cycle. Polyestrus mammals mate and rear young several times a year ex. Mice and Rats Monoestrus mammals mate only once a year (or longer) sometimes called seasonal breeders ex. Buffalo and Deer Gestation periods- Cats-56 days mice-16 days guinea pigs-77 days Dogs-63 days bats-154 days humans-280 days Elephant-670 days

24 ORDERS OF CLASS MAMMALIA
Subclass Prototheria Monotremata-egg laying mammals with a cloaca Duck-billed platypus Lack teeth, but have a beak like a bird Female platypuses lack nipples but secrete milk onto their fur. Stream dwellers who live on invertebrates Spiny anteaters (echidna) Eat ants and termites and earthworms Female lays one egg at a time which she carries in a pouch Infant anteaters live in the pouch for two months sucking milk from two skin projections (primitive nipples)

25 Monotremata Spiny anteater or Echidna Duck-billed platypus

26 Infraclass Metatheria-one order Marsupialia
II. Subclass Theria-two subgroups called Metatheria and Eutheria Infraclass Metatheria-one order Marsupialia 1. identified by the presence of a marsupium which acts as a brood pouch for the developing embryo after it has left the womb. 2. only one marsupial species in North America, the opposum species of Marsupials, found mainly in Australia, and Central and So. America 4. Australia has been marsupial heaven because of its remote locale a. the dominate herbivore is the Kangaroo b. the dominate carnivores were the Tasmanian Wolf and the Tasmanian Tiger and the Tasmanian Devil c. other Distinctive Australian marsupials include the Wombat, Bandicoot, Koala, and Wallaby

27 Marsupiala

28 B. Infraclass Eutheria True placental mammals made up of 18 orders
Order Insectivora a. small, terrestrial or semi-aquatic mammals with long tapered snouts, tiny eyes and short fur. b. most are carnivorous, feeding on insects and earthworms. c. some have poisonous saliva EX. Hedgehogs, shrews, moles

29 Order Insectivora shrews voles hedgehogs tenrecs

30 2. Order Chiroptera About 1000 species of bats (second largest order) a. most new-world bats are insectivores and most old-world bats are fruit and flower eaters. b. there are also bird, fish, frog and bat eating bats. Three species of new-world bats are blood-drinkers c. Bats are the only mammals to have evolved true flight. The fore-limbs are modified with the 2nd to 5th digit elongated to support thin membraneous wings, thumb usually free. d. Bats are mainly nocturnal in order to avoid direct competiton with birds for food. e. Bats that are carnivorous have developed Echolocation to locate prey.

31 Order Chiroptera BATS “HAND WING”

32 Order Primates 175 species (including humans)
Found in Africa, S.E. Asia, and South America Most species are aboreal or tree-dwellers Examples include: Lemurs, Baboons, Apes, Monkeys, and Chimps & Humans All have forward facing eyes and opposable thumbs Family Hominidae includes four genera: Gorilla, Pan (chimps), Pongo (orangutan) and Homo (humans)

33 Order Primates “FIRST”

34 Order Carnivora About 240 species A. terrestrial carnivores include the dog, cat, weasel, hyenas, racoon, bear, badger, coyotes B. aquatic carnivores include seals, otters, walrus C. not all carnivores are truly carnivores, bears and racoons are omnivores and the Panda eats only bamboo. D. Most other carnivores have a well developed sense of smell, and have limbs adapted for running down prey.

35 Order Carnivora Bear family Weasel family Dog family Musk family
Marine family Cat family

36 Order Perrisodactyla Order Artiodactyla
Odd-toed animals (ex. Horses, rhinos, and tapirs) And Order Artiodactyla Even-toed animals (ex. Swine, camel, deer, giraffes, cattle, sheep, and hippos) Collectively called the Ungulates All are hooved herbivores Have limbs adapted for running in order to escape predators. One sub group of Ungulates are called ruminants, these animals hae a modified digestive system to aid in digesting Cellulose. ( This group includes cattle, sheep, and antelope) “ Eyes on the side, likes to hide Eyes in the front, likes to hunt!”

37 Order Perrisodactyla “odd-toed” hoofed mammals

38 Order Artiodactyla “Even-toed” hooved mammals

39 Order Sirena ( ex. Manatees, dugongs) Order hyracoidea ( ex. Hyraxes)
7. Order Proboscidea (ex. Elephants) Order Sirena ( ex. Manatees, dugongs) Order hyracoidea ( ex. Hyraxes) These three orders are referred to as the Subungulates Because they have a caecum and some have vestigial hooves All are herbivores Thought to have come from a common ancestor in Africa.

40 Order Proboscidea Indian elephant African elephant

41 Order Sirena “Sea Nymph”

42 Order Hyracoidea “Shrew”
Hyraxes-closest living relative to the elephant

43 (ex. Anteaters, sloths, armadillos)
7. Order Xenartha (ex. Anteaters, sloths, armadillos) Only found in the new world tropics Have extra cervical joint and lack canine teeth and incisors Anteaters lack all teeth but have a long, sticky tongue that they capture ants with Sloths are herbivores that sleep a lot and spend their life hanging upside down. Their body temperature is very low. Armadillos are omnivores and have distinctive bony plates covering their bodies.

44 Order Xenartha “Intrusive joint”

45 (Whales, dolphins and porpoises)
8. Order Cetacea (Whales, dolphins and porpoises) Highly intelligent Form social groups All excellent swimmers Tail fins undulate up and down rather than side to side as fish do Nostrils are located on top of the head and is called a “blow hole” This order is divided into two suborders, the Mysticeti which filter feed on small invertebrates and the Odontoceti which use Echolocation to locate prey in the ocean

46 Order Cetacea

47 (Ex. Beavers, rats and mice, squirrels)
9. Order Rodentia (Ex. Beavers, rats and mice, squirrels) Largest order with 1760 species Have one pair of elongated incisors that grow throughout life Most rodents are herbivores but some, such as rats are omnivores Have the highest rate of reproduction and many are considered pests bottom of the food chain!

48 Order Rodentia “To gnaw” Largest order!!

49 10. Order Lagomorpha (ex. Rabbits, hares and pikas)
Also have continuosly growing incisors but also have a second pair of incisors in the upper jaw. Are similar morphologically but different physiologically Hares have well-developed young, that find their own homes in the grass and the mother visits them to nurse several times a day. Usually have three to four offspring ex. Jackrabbits, snowshoe hares Rabbits have hairless and blind young in a burrow and have 6-9 offspring at a time. ex. Cottontails-easter bunnies

50 Order Lagomorpha “Hare form”

51 Order Scandentia TREE SHREWS “climbing”

52 Order Dermoptera Flying lemurs “Skin wing”

53 Order Macroscelida Elephant shrews

54 Order Pholidota pangolins “Horny scale”

55 Order Tubulidentata “Earth pig” Aardvark


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