Presentation on theme: "Chapter 14 Forging The National Economy 1790-1860 1790-1860."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 14 Forging The National Economy 1790-1860 1790-1860
“The progress of invention is really a threat [to monarchy]. Whenever I see a railroad, I look for a republic.” Ralph Waldo Emerson, 1866 Monarchies wouldn’t want to have a revolutionary invention around because it is change. Once people figure out they can do things for themselves, they’ll want to do more. Eventually, they’ll want to be involved in government…etc. Democracy allows progression, while monarchy hinders it.
The Westward Movement 1. West was considered the true American part of US- “Europe stretches to the Alleghenies; America lies beyond” 2. 1850 – ½ of America’s people were under 30 years old- young republic 3. By 1840 – the “demographic” center of America’s population had crossed the Alleghenies Mts., PA – western movement 4. Pioneer life wasn’t pretty – diseases, lack of food, poor shelter (3-sided lean-to), depression, loneliness, premature death 5. Loneliness drove some people insane – especially women 6. Men entertained themselves with– wrestling, biting noses, gouging eyes, etc to keep busy. 7. Ralph Waldo Emerson wrote “Self Reliance” Frontiersmen depended on themselves and their neighbors Then why were they fighting their neighbors?
Shaping The Western Landscape 1. Why did people move west? 1. They had exhausted the land by growing tobacco 2. they couldn’t plow sugar cane (it was too tall, so it burnt) 3. “Rendezvous” system 2. “Kentucky Bluegrass”=great for cows – originally from Europe 3. 1820s – fur trappers were all over Rocky Mountains – lived off of the “rendezvous” system – (in the summer traders came from St. Louis to the Rockies, camped/waited for trappers and Indians with pelts to swap for manufactured goods) “Ecological Imperialism” – exploiting the West- annihilated beavers, bison, and sea otters
Shaping The Western Landscape Cont. 1. Nature = beauty Contradictory when the fur traders are killing the animals. 2. America’s natural wonders created nationalism – inspired painters and writers 3. George Catlin – painter & student of Native American life – 1 st to advocate for preservation of nature as a national policy He proposed the national park system – began with Yellowstone National Park in 1872 He proposed the national park system – began with Yellowstone National Park in 1872
The March Of The Millions 1. By 1850 the population begun to double every 25 years 2. By 1860 33 states existed with 43 major cities- 31.4 mil people- #4 population in the world 3. NYC=“Metropolis” New Orleans= “Queen of the South” Chicago=“Lord of the Midwest”/ “Hog Butcher of the World” (meat packing) 4. Increase in urbanization/Overpopulation led to slums, lack of police, bad water, foul sewage, ravenous rats & garbage 1823 – Boston, MA had sewer system set up
The March Of The Millions Cont… 1. 1842- NYC piped in a water supply that decreased the number of mosquitoes 2. High birthrate increased population especially with incoming immigrants 3. Europe was “over loaded” with people – out of 60 million emigrants, 35 million went to US 4. Immigrants came because of a. The lack of room in Europe (pop had doubled) b. US – “land of freedom & opportunity”- 3 meals a day, jobs/$, lower taxes, economic freedom c. Political and religious freedom- escape oppressive government Faster travel- Transoceanic boats made trips in 10-20 days instead of 10 or 12 weeks- steerage (front cargo immig.) Faster travel- Transoceanic boats made trips in 10-20 days instead of 10 or 12 weeks- steerage (front cargo immig.)
The Emerald Isle Moves West 1. Mid 1840’s-Ireland’s potato crop attacked by rot – 2 million people died from starvation 2. Many moved to US in the “Black Forties” 3. Irish swarmed into larger seaport cities (Boston/NYC) b/c they were too poor to buy land, equipment, or livestock in west 4. Mostly Catholics – looks don on by “proper” protestants 5. The women were often called “Biddies/Bridgets” (kitchen maids) and men were called “Paddies” (built roads/canals)– Discriminated against by native workers- “No Irish Need Apply” a.k.a. NINA
The Emerald Isle Moves West Cont… 1. Irish resented blacks – once slaves were free, some Irish would lose their jobs 2. “Famine Irish” fended for themselves- Ancient Order of Hibernians- benevolent society, aiding downtrodden (in Ireland they fought rapacious landlords) 3. “Molly Maguire's”- Irish miner’s union in PA coal districts 1860’s-70’s 4. The Irish had low-skill occupations, improved amounts of poverty, education was cut short, dominated police (“Patty Wagons”) 5. Gained power in politics – Tammany Hall 2 million Irish arrived in US from 1830-60s Molly Maguires
The German Forty- Eighters 1. 1830-1860 – 1.5 million Germans came to US 2. Most were farmers of failing crops – just like the Irish 3. Some were liberal political refugees – wanted democracy 4. Carl Schurz- foe of slavery and public corruption- contributed to elevation of American political life 5. Quite “blessed” people – not extremely poor like the Irish 6. Possessed a modest amount of material goods, pushed to Mid-West and established model farms Many went to Wisconsin
The German Forty- Eighters Cont… 1. they made up a less potent political group b/c their strength was more widely scattered (forming influential body of voters) Germans stayed together and isolated- like Amish in PA 2. Contributions from the Germans: Conestoga wagon, Kentucky rifles & the Christmas tree 3. Supported public schools – kindergarten – art & music 4. Often referred to as “damned Dutchmen” or “48-ers” 4. Often referred to as “damned Dutchmen” or “48-ers” 5. Liked to preserve their culture Drank beer on Sundays Drank beer on Sundays
Flare-Ups of Anti-foreignism 1. Invasion of immigrants made “nativists” angry – feared immigrants b/c they could soon vote & maybe outbreed, etc. 2. Catholics started educational system of their own because they a Feared persecution of their religion in public schools system? 3. Catholicism – 5th most popular religion in 1840 – became the 1st by 1850 w/ 1.8 million 4. 1849 – “Natives” formed Order of the Star Spangled Banner a.k.a. “Know-Nothing Party” – rallied for political action 1834 – Catholic convent near Boston burned by mob
Flare-Ups of Anti- foreignism Cont… 1. 1844 – Philadelphia – 2 churches burned down & 13 dead- Why so much fighting over religion when the religions are so similar? 2. immigrants actually helped America’s economy By 1890- NYC had 2 times as many Irish than Dublin (the capital of Ireland)
Creeping Mechanization 1. 1750 – British perfected machines for textiles 1. 1750 – British perfected machines for textiles 2. Industrial Rev. started- changed agriculture, transportation, and communication 2. Industrial Rev. started- changed agriculture, transportation, and communication 3.British Parliament put an act into motion that banned the export of machines 3.British Parliament put an act into motion that banned the export of machines 4.Yankee manufacturers were out to make dishonest money- stamped product with fake English trademarks 4.Yankee manufacturers were out to make dishonest money- stamped product with fake English trademarks
Why I.R. Slow In America? 1. VA soil was cheap – people would rather be outside instead of smelly factories 2. Labor was scarce until the 1840s- immigrants late to arrive in big numbers 3. Raw materials/Natural resources undiscovered- (one day US will be #1 coal producer) 4. Consumers were also scarce- low demand British Competition- had monopoly of secret textile machinery -->But good old Sam Slater memorized it! British Competition- had monopoly of secret textile machinery -->But good old Sam Slater memorized it!
Why IR Occur? Geography- natural harbors, rivers = transportation and power Natural resources- coal, iron, wood Population - skilled and unskilled workers Food Supply Technological inventions Entrepreneurs Demand Military Political stability
Whitney Ends The Fiber Famine 1. Sam Slater – “Father of Factory System” in US – memorized plans for the machinery 2. 1791 – Slater with Moses Brown made the 1st efficient American machine for spinning cotton 3. Hand picking 1lb of cotton from 3lb seed = a day’s work for one slave - expensive 4. Eli Whitney – born in MA – 1793-made machine called cotton gin – made the job 50x more efficient 5. Demand for cotton revived – it was easier to process now, therefore production increased and more laborers were needed North & South prospered
Whitney Ends The Fiber Famine Cont… 1. Cotton Kingdom in the South expanded to the west when more cotton fields were cleared in Alabama & Mississippi 2. North manufactured the cotton – factories flourished in New England & moved to NY, NJ & PA 3. Slavery was still a major issue in the country- south’s cotton capitol relied on slaves 4. NE = industrial center b/c its stony soil made manufacturing a more attractive option and New England’s dense population provided labor and markets 5. Shipping brought in capital- snug seaports- easy import/export Rapid rivers such as the Merrimack River in MA provided power for machines
Marvels In Manufacturing 1. Factories spread slowly until 1807 due to War of 1812 and the embargo 2. End of war with the Peace of Gent 1815- Congress relief w/ Tariff of 1816 3. War of 1812 made US an industrial power 4. “Buy American” – home spun clothing 5. Firearms produced along with textiles 1798 - Whitney formulated a machine to make interchangeable parts for rifles, which poses the question: Did Whitney help to cause the Civil War? – 1st the cotton gin (need for more slaves), then the guns? I think so. 1798 - Whitney formulated a machine to make interchangeable parts for rifles, which poses the question: Did Whitney help to cause the Civil War? – 1st the cotton gin (need for more slaves), then the guns? I think so.
Marvels In Manufacturing 1. Eli Whitney gave slavery a new lease on life and made C.W. inevitable and caused factories to flourish in the North 2. Elias Howe – made the sewing machine which was perfected by Isaac Singer in 1846- the device increased northern industry 3. 1800: 306 patents – 1860: 28,000 patents – Abe Lincoln had a patent for a buoy 4. Limited liability aided consent of capital by permitting industrial investors to risk no more than stock- Boston Associates 5. MA- birth of big business (textiles, RR, insurance, banking) 6. “free incorporation”- the law was passed in NY 1848 and it allowed people to create a corporation w/o application charters Sam Morse invented the telegraph –1st line = 40 miles from D.C. to Baltimore Sam Morse invented the telegraph –1st line = 40 miles from D.C. to Baltimore
Workers & “Wage Slaves” 1. Workers worked long hours, for low wages, in unsanitary conditions, while eating little 2. labor unions banned- only 24 strikes occurred 3. 1820 – 50% of workers were under 10 years old – Slater’s 1st mill first employed 7 boys & 2 girls 4. 1830s – Workers were mostly adults 5. Unions formed in the 1830’s when workers were hit by depression and wide-spread unemployment 6. 1840 – Van Buren established the 10-hour day for federal employees in public works 7. Workers had no rights- strikes took place in the 30s & 40s for higher wages- scabs took over the jobs of strikers 1842 – Commonwealth v. Hunt – said unions were okay if protests were kept peaceful
Women & The Economy 1. New England farm girls worked at mills in Lowell, MA – disciplined and docile 6-day week with 12/13 hours a day- opportunities were scarce in economy 2. opportunities for women: domestic servant, nursing, teaching 3. Catherine Beecher (sister to Harriet) urged women to teach 4. 1850 – 10% white women work for pay outside of the home 5. 20% of all women had been employed at some time before marriage 6. Love, not “arrangement” made marriage- women left jobs when married “cult of domesticity”- full-time house wife- commanded moral power Catherine Beecher
Women & The Economy Cont… 1. Families grew smaller b/c there was No need for children to work on the farm anymore? What about the mills? 2. Birth rate down due to contraceptives 3. “domestic feminism”- changed roles in house and society- women independence 4. More independent individuals rather than obedient followers Beginning of “Modern Families” where children are the center of the family Beginning of “Modern Families” where children are the center of the family
Western Farmers Reap A Revolution In The Fields 1. Ohio, Illinois, & Indiana – aka “America’s Breadbasket” – granary of the world 2. 1846- Corn Laws repealed- protective tariff on exports to G.B. 3. Corn could be made into anything, it was fed to hogs, used to make liquor 4. Cincinnati aka “Porkopolis” 5. 1837 - John Deere of Illinois made the 1st steel plow- sharp, effective, light, and pulled by horsed 6. 1830s – Cyrus McCormick made mechanical mower- reaper, which did the work of 5 men 7. Subsistence farming gave way to selling produce to markets- large scale speculation Cash crop agriculture came to dominate
Highways & Steamboats 1. 1790s – the Lancaster Turnpike in PA was completed by private company- people had to pay tolls to travel its 62 miles 2. Western road obstacles: state’s righters opposed federal aid and eastern states protested against the blending of populations 3. 1811 – the federal gov. constructed the Cumberland Road a.k.a. “National Road” 591 miles from MD to IL 4. 1852- aid from state and federal governments 5. 1807- Robert Fulton created his steamboat, the “Clermont” – dubbed “Fulton’s Folly”- it traveled 150miles in 32hrs 6. 2 way water arteries doubled the carrying capacity and boats were able to run at 10 mph 7. 1820 – 60 boats on Mississippi River and in 1860 there were 1,000 Steamboats opened up west & south
“Clinton’s Big Ditch” in New York 1. Erie Canal AKA “Governor’s Gutter” was built by Dewitt Clinton, NY’s governor – it linked the Great Lakes to Hudson River 2. 2. The project began in 1817 and the final canal was 362 miles long, from Buffalo to the Hudson River in NYC in 1825 2. The cost of shipping 1 ton of grain from Buffalo to NYC dropped from $100 to $5 and the travel time dropped to 6 days from 20 The building of the canal symbolized the “marriage of the waters” 3. Value of land along the route increased and new cites (Rochester & Syracuse) boomed w/ industry the cost of potatoes in NY decreased, NE farmers abandon rocky soil and become mill hands, or grow fruit/veggies, or shifted to dairy
The Iron Horse 1. Steamboat binds west and south 2. By 1840s – Buffalo had handled more western goods than New Orleans 3. 1836-1860 – Grain shipments through Buffalo increased sixty fold 4. NY became the sea-broad queen of the nation, poured its wealth, continental economy emerged 5. South grew cotton for factories in the North -West grew grain to feed the east– Northeast made textiles for West and South – Specialized economy 6. Homes became refuge from work Home = “ Sphere of Women ” – Cult of Domesticity – created moral guidelines – took care of the family & the home
Cables Clippers & Pony Riders 1. Cotton more than 50% of American exports 2. British laws in 1846 – Wheat gathered by McCormick’s reapers increased trade with GB 3. Import manufactured goods and export agricultural goods- export less than import 4. 1858 – Cyrus Field – “Greatest Wire-Puller in History” – wire from New Foundland to Ireland 5. 1866 – Permanent cable put in connecting North America with Europe 6. 1840s & 50s – Clipper ships became popular- golden age of American shipping Donald McKay invented clippers- long, narrow, towering mast- out run the steamer
Cables, Clippers, & Pony Riders Cont… Iron steamboats roomier & more reliable than clipper ships 1858 – Horse-drawn stage coaches popular 1860 – Pony Express carried mail 2,000 miles- 10 days 1861 – Morse code made it to California
The Market Revolution 1. Widened gap between rich & poor 2. Millionaires not rare anymore- Ex. John Jacob Astor – fur trader & real estate agent – left $30 million on deathbed in 1848 3. Rags-to-riches stories not that common 4. Unskilled workers- forgotten myths about “social mobility” 5. Most people were common laborers Like today – middle class working people. 6. America still remained “land of opportunity” – immigrants still coming in 7. Wages rose 1% from 1820 to 1860
Key Terms Samuel Slater Samuel Slater Cyrus McCormick Cyrus McCormick Eli Whitney Eli Whitney Robert Fulton Robert Fulton Industrial Revolution Industrial Revolution Limited Liability Limited Liability Cotton Gin Cotton Gin Boston Associates Boston Associates Clipper ships Clipper ships General Incorporation Law General Incorporation Law Pony Express Pony Express
Political Yellowstone National Park- 1872 (Catlin) Yellowstone National Park- 1872 (Catlin) Tammany Hall- Irish political machine Tammany Hall- Irish political machine Order of the Star-Spangled Banner Order of the Star-Spangled Banner Know Nothing Party Know Nothing Party War of 1812 War of 1812 National/Cumberland Road National/Cumberland Road Erie Canal- NY governor Erie Canal- NY governor 1840 – US demographic crosses the Alleghenies 1840 – US demographic crosses the Alleghenies “Ecological Imperialism” “Ecological Imperialism” Carl Schurz Carl Schurz
Social Westward movement Westward movement Self reliance Self reliance 4 th populous nation 4 th populous nation Urbanization Urbanization Boston 1823- sewage sys. Boston 1823- sewage sys. NY 1842- Water supply NY 1842- Water supply Immigrants Immigrants German Contributions German Contributions Nativists Nativists Roman Catholics- #5 Roman Catholics- #5 Cotton Gin= increase slavery Cotton Gin= increase slavery Cult of domesticity Cult of domesticity Domestic feminism Domestic feminism Catherine Beecher Catherine Beecher Samuel F.B. Morse Samuel F.B. Morse RR/ Erie Canal RR/ Erie Canal
Social Cont. Morse – Telegraph Morse – Telegraph Irish resent blacks Irish resent blacks Carl Schurz Carl Schurz Black 40’s- Irish Black 40’s- Irish NINA NINA Ancient Order of Hibernians Ancient Order of Hibernians Molly Maguires Molly Maguires Rich – poor gap Rich – poor gap Millionaires Millionaires Pony Express Pony Express
Economic Rendezvous System Rendezvous System Fur trade- decrease # of buffalo, beavers, ect. Fur trade- decrease # of buffalo, beavers, ect. Free incorporation Free incorporation NY=Metropolis NY=Metropolis NO=Queen of South NO=Queen of South Chicago=Hog Butcher Chicago=Hog Butcher Molly Maguires Molly Maguires Industrial Revolution Industrial Revolution British Monopoly British Monopoly Sam Slater- Factory Sys. Sam Slater- Factory Sys. Cotton Gin- 1793 Cotton Gin- 1793 Slavery/labor Slavery/labor Eli Whitney Eli Whitney NE = Industry NE = Industry South = Cotton Kingdom South = Cotton Kingdom Mid-West=Bread Basket Mid-West=Bread Basket War of 1812 War of 1812 Interchangeable parts- 1798 Interchangeable parts- 1798 Increase # of patents Increase # of patents John Deer- steel plow John Deer- steel plow C. McCormick- reaper C. McCormick- reaper Turnpikes (Lancaster) Turnpikes (Lancaster) Cumberland Road Cumberland Road Erie Canal\RR Erie Canal\RR Clipper ships Clipper ships Pony Express Pony Express Morse - Telegraph Morse - Telegraph
Samuel Slater “Father of the American Factory System” What: manufacturer, pioneer in the cotton textile industry What: manufacturer, pioneer in the cotton textile industry Where: Where: – Born: Belper, Derbyshire, England – Died: Webster, MA – Founded: Slatersville (RI) and other mills When: When: – Life: 1768-1835 – Came to America: 1789
Why Positive:Positive: – Introduced America to modern industry – Memorized the patent of the spinning machine – 1793-Built the first successful water powered textile mill in Pawtucket – 1796- established a Sunday-school for the improvement of his workers (which was the first in the United States) – 1798- formed Samuel Slater and Company – 1803- Founded Slatersville (with his bother John) – Rhode Island/ Lowell System (enlisted entire families, including women and children, to work in his mills) – industry boomed -(over eighty mills were established w/in 10 yrs) Negative:Negative: – Introduced child labor- (had a staff of 9 children, ages 7 to 12)
How Became involved in the textile industry at the age of 14 Became involved in the textile industry at the age of 14 Served an apprenticeship at cotton-spinning with Jedidiah Strutt, the partner of Richard Arkwright, for 8 years Served an apprenticeship at cotton-spinning with Jedidiah Strutt, the partner of Richard Arkwright, for 8 years Became superintendent of Strutt's mill Became superintendent of Strutt's mill gained a comprehensive understanding and practice of the new manufacture gained a comprehensive understanding and practice of the new manufacture He was determined to receive money offered for the foundation of the textile industry in America He was determined to receive money offered for the foundation of the textile industry in America He left England in disguise in 1789 He left England in disguise in 1789 Went to Pawtucket, Rhode Island, in January 1790, and met with William Almy and Smith/Moses Brown to construct and operate the new cotton-spinning machinery. Went to Pawtucket, Rhode Island, in January 1790, and met with William Almy and Smith/Moses Brown to construct and operate the new cotton-spinning machinery.
Interesting Facts The first yarn made on his machinery was equal to the best quality made in England. The first yarn made on his machinery was equal to the best quality made in England. 1800 the second cotton-mill went into operation in Rhode Island. 1800 the second cotton-mill went into operation in Rhode Island. Mr. Slater was early interested in the cause of education, and gave generously for the establishment of the Norwich free academy and other objects. Mr. Slater was early interested in the cause of education, and gave generously for the establishment of the Norwich free academy and other objects. In April 1882, he placed in the hands of trustees $1,000,000, the interest of which is to be used for the education of freedmen in the south. In April 1882, he placed in the hands of trustees $1,000,000, the interest of which is to be used for the education of freedmen in the south. Slater was the first who knew how to build as well as operate textile machines to come to America. Slater was the first who knew how to build as well as operate textile machines to come to America.
Interesting Facts Cont… By the time other firms entered the industry, Slater's organizational methods had become the model for his successors in the Blackstone River Valley. By the time other firms entered the industry, Slater's organizational methods had become the model for his successors in the Blackstone River Valley. By 1807, the village included the Slatersville Mill, the largest and most modern industrial building of its day, two tenement houses for workers, the owner's house and the company store. By 1807, the village included the Slatersville Mill, the largest and most modern industrial building of its day, two tenement houses for workers, the owner's house and the company store. He is known as the "Father of American Industry" and the "Founder of the American Industrial Revolution." He is known as the "Father of American Industry" and the "Founder of the American Industrial Revolution." Old Slater Mill
Ralph Waldo Emerson What: Preacher and Writer What: Preacher and Writer When: 1803-1882 When: 1803-1882 Why: Why: –Positives: In his career he wrote Nature as well as Self-Reliance, two works that are referred to and respected even in the twenty-first century. He was said to have incredible writing style which shaped the new American culture. He made tours abroad and was part of the Transcendentalist movement. How: He was well-educated, as a graduate of Harvard.