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© 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning Chapter 21 Reproductive System
© 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning Objectives Compare somatic cell division (mitosis) with germ cell division (meiosis) Explain the process of fertilization Identify the organs of the female reproductive system and explain their functions Explain menopause and the changes that occur during this time Describe the stages and changes that occur during the menstrual cycle Identify the organs of the male reproductive system and explain their functions List some common disorders of the reproductive system Define the key words that relate to this chapter
© 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning Functions of the Reproductive System Accomplish reproduction –Creation of new life Manufacture hormones –Females – estrogen and progesterone –Males – testosterone Meiosis –Type of nuclear division in which the number of chromosomes is reduced to one half the number found in a body cell; results in the formation of an egg or sperm Somatic (body) cells, in humans, contain 46 chromosomes in the nucleus
© 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning Fertilization Occurs when the sperm nucleus combines with the egg nucleus to form a fertilized egg cell, or Zygote Fertilization restores the full complement of 46 chromosomes possessed by every human cell, each parent contributing one chromosome to each of the 23 pairs DNA All of the inherited traits possessed by the offspring are established at the time of fertilization The sex chromosomes of the male parent determine the sex of the child but other characteristics are a combination of both parents
© 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning Female Reproductive System Ovaries Fallopian tubes Uterus Vagina External female genitalia Breasts
© 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning Menstrual Cycle Follicle stage Ovulation stage Corpus luteum stage or luteal phase Menstruation stage
© 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning Menopause When monthly menstrual cycle comes to an end Commonly occurs between 45 and 55 years of age End of childbearing Anatomical changes
© 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning Male Reproductive System Testes and epididymis Ductus deferens, seminal vesicles, and ejaculatory ducts Penis Prostate gland Bulbourethral glands Semen Erection and ejaculation Impotence/erectile dysfunction
© 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning Contraception Abstinence Reasons for avoiding pregnancy Methods of contraception
© 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning Infertility When conception does not occur after trying for one year Fertility drugs Infertility treatments –In vitro fertilization (IVF) –Gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT) –Zygote intrafallopian transfer –Donor eggs and embryos
© 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning Effects of Aging – Female Menopause Declined estrogen and progesterone production Narrowing of vaginal opening, loss of tissue elasticity, and a decrease in vaginal secretions Atrophic changes
© 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning Effects of Aging – Male Sexual response is slower Obtaining and maintaining an erection becomes more difficult Prostate gland size increases, testes decrease in size and sperm level decreases Testosterone level decreases Viscosity of seminal fluid diminishes
© 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning Disorders – Female Reproductive System Amenorrhea Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) Dysmenorrhea Menorrhagia Endometriosis Fibroid tumors Breast tumors Endometrial cancers Ovarian cancer Cervical cancer
© 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning Infections – Female Reproductive System Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) Salpingitis Toxic shock syndrome Vaginal yeast infections
© 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning Disorders – Male Reproductive System Epididymitis Orchitis Prostatitis Benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH) Prostate cancer
© 2009 Delmar, Cengage Learning Sexually Transmitted Disease (STDs) Also known as venereal disease –Chlamydia –Genital warts or human papillomavirus (HPV) –Gonorrhea –Genital herpes –Syphilis –Trichomoniasis vaginalis
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