2 The Crusades – a series of military campaigns to establish Christian control over the Holy Lands The term Crusades comes from the Latin word for cross (crux). Those who went on one of the Crusades often wore crosses on their tunics.
3 Heresy – a belief rejected by traditional church teaching Heresy – a belief rejected by traditional church teaching. For example, some historians believe that Jesus was married to Mary Magdalene. Even today this is considered heresy by the RCC.
4 Persecution – a campaign to drive away or eliminate a specific group of people. For example, the Holocaust was persecution against the Jews.Christian crusaders persecuting European Jews are portrayed in this primary source.
5 Muslim Expansion As you recall from our study on Islam, Muslims had taken control of much of the area around the Mediterranean Sea
6 Deus Lo Volt – God Wills It! Pope Urban II answers the call from Byzantine Emperor, Alexius I, to help dealing with Muslims control of the Holy Lands.Urban II calls for the First Crusade in 1095 asking for Europeans to go and free the Holy Land.
7 Why Would Europeans travel thousands of miles to fight in the Crusades? Religious Obligation – They felt they were called by God.Forgiveness of Sin - They were told that all their sins would be forgiven and they would spend eternity in heaven.Wealth / Land – They wanted to gain land and/or wealth in the Holy LandsFeudal Obligation – They were told by their lord to fight.Escape – they wanted to escape trouble or fulfill a sense of adventure
8 The First Crusade – A Success The First Crusade was fought by armies made up of knights and peasants from France and the Holy Roman Empire.They travelled towards Jerusalem capturing it in 1099ce.After taking control of the city the Christians slaughtered every Muslim and Jew living in the city… man , woman and child.
9 The Crusader States After the capture of Jerusalem, the Christians set up four Crusader States 1. The County of Edessa 2. The County of Tripoli 3. The Principality of Antioch 4. The Kingdom of Jerusalem
10 The Second Crusade – A Failure Second Crusade, from 1147 to 1149, was called by Pope Eugene III after the Crusader state of Edessa was recaptured by Muslims.The crusade was led by the king and queen of France, Louis VII and Eleanor of Aquitaine, and King Conrad III of Germany.
11 The Crusaders States Fall to Saladin After the 2nd Crusade the Muslim Sultan, Salah al-Din (Saladin), led forces to retake the Crusaders States eventually capturing Jerusalem. He is honored in Muslim culture for this.
12 The Third Crusade – A failure Pope Gregory VIII called for another crusade, this time led by Philip II of France, Richard I of England and Frederick I, the Holy Roman Emperor.Frederick drowned on the way in 1190 and most of the Holy Roman army returned home.The crusaders defeated the Arabs, but did not retake Jerusalem.Richard made a truce with Saladin to allow Christian pilgrims to enter Jerusalem.