Presentation on theme: "By: Lisa Pennington. Larger vocabularies = more capable readers Capable readers read more often so they acquire the skills to determine the meanings."— Presentation transcript:
Larger vocabularies = more capable readers Capable readers read more often so they acquire the skills to determine the meanings of unfamiliar words. Capable readers encounter more challenging text with more sophisticated vocabulary. Vocabulary instruction plays an important part in a balanced literacy classroom.
Immerse students in words through listening, talking, reading, and writing. Teach specific words through active involvement and multiple encounters with words. Teach word-learning strategies. Develop students’ word consciousness (their awareness and interest in words.)
Choose key words from books students are reading and highlight them on word walls. Have students participate in word-study activities such as word maps, word sorts, and word posters. Teach mini-lessons about the meanings of individual words, and word-learning strategies. Scaffold students as they develop word knowledge by learning multiple meanings, how root words and affixes affect meaning, synonyms, antonyms, and figurative meanings. Use interactive read-alouds and focus on high-frequency words. Provide ample opportunity for independent reading- at least 20-30 minutes in grades 1-3 and 30-60 minutes in grades 4-8.
CLUEDESCRIPTION DefinitionReaders use the definition in the sentence to understand the unknown word. Example-IllustrationReaders use an example or illustration to understand the unknown word. ContrastReaders understand the unknown word because it’s compare or contrasted to another word in the sentence. LogicReaders think about the rest of the sentence to understand the unknown word. Root words and affixesReaders use their knowledge of root words and affixes to figure out the unknown word. GrammarReaders use the word’s function in the sentence or its part of speech to figure out the unknown word.
TIER 1: basic words TIER 2: academic words TIER 3: specialized words
Often need more explicit instruction on words. Need to become familiar with not only the meaning of a word, but also the underlying concept and words that describe the word. Tier 1 Words: easier for English learners to learn. Tier 2 Words: it’s necessary to build background knowledge and preteach. Explicit instruction and a variety of word-study techniques are beneficial. Tier 3 Words: it is not very important to teach these technical words as they are specialized and not useful in everyday conversation.
Struggling students need to know more words. Struggling students don’t read as much, and as a result, are limited in their exposure to vocabulary. Some strategies to use with struggling readers : a) Nurture students’ awareness of words using word walls, independent reading, and interactive read-alouds. b) Explicitly teach the meanings of 8-10 words each week by introducing key words before reading and providing worthwhile practice activities afterward. c) Develop students’ ability to figure out the meanings of unfamiliar words.
Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-4 (PPVT-4) -Individually administered to screen vocabulary knowledge. Can be used with K-8 students, but it’s most commonly used with K-2 students. It measures receptive vocabulary. The teacher says a word, asks the students to look at 4 pictures and identify the one that best illustrates the meaning of the word. Expressive Vocabulary Test-2 (EVT-2) -Individually administered test used to screen K-8 students’ knowledge of words. It measures expressive vocabulary. The teacher points to a picture and asks the student to say a word that labels the picture or to provide a synonym for the word that is illustrated in the picture. Informal Reading Inventories (IRIs) Sometimes used with students in grades 2-8. One or two comprehension questions as each grade level focus on the meaning of words selected from a passage the students have read. Its usefulness is limited because so few deal with vocabulary and because students who read below grade level aren’t tested on age-appropriate words.
Beers, K. (2003). When kids can’t read, what teachers can do. Portsmouth, N.H.: Heinemen. Tompkins, G. E. (2010). Literacy for the 21st century: A balanced approach. Boston: Pearson Education, Inc.