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and Comparative Literary Studies,

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1 and Comparative Literary Studies,
EN964  Translation Studies in Theory and Practice: Translation of Non-Standard Languages John T. Gilmore Department of English and Comparative Literary Studies, University of Warwick

2 What do we mean by “non-standard” languages?
Dialects? Which of the following would you consider to be dialects? Flemish Friesian Bavarian Schweizerdeutsch Venetian Cantonese Geordie British English American English Jamaican English

3 What criteria do we use to decide whether a form of speech is a language or a dialect?
Number of speakers? Cantonese, which is often referred to as a dialect, has perhaps twice as many speakers as there are speakers of Dutch.

4 What criteria do we use to decide whether a form of speech is a language or a dialect?
Official recognition? Cantonese is an official language in Hong Kong and Macau, but not in the Guangdong Province of the People’s Republic of China.

5 What criteria do we use to decide whether a form of speech is a language or a dialect?
Position as the language of a state? The French Republic recognises only one language – French. What happens when the state which is home to the language ceases to exist? – like, for example, when the Venetian Republic lost its independence. What about states which have more than one official language, or languages recognised as official in more than one state? What examples can we think of?

6 A language is a dialect with an army and a navy
Attributed to Max Weinreich ( )

7 In other words, the distinction between a language and a dialect can seem quite arbitrary, and may be the result of factors which have nothing to do with linguistics and more with other things, such as politics. For example, the emergence of the Bosnian language.

8 Other things which might be considered as non-standard languages
Slang Jargon Idiolects

9 Example I

10 Compa Nanzi i e popchi di breuw
 Shon Arey tabatin un hoffi masha bunita. Tur sorto di palu di fruta tabata crece aden. Palu di mango, di schubappel, di guyaba, di sorsaca, di mispel, enfin, bo no por corda un palu di fruta cu Shon Arey no tabatin den su hoffi. Tur día Nanzi tabata pasa waak e frutanan, cu tabata tent’e. Te un día e no por a wanta mas. El a decidí di bai horta fruta di Shon Arey. Ora Shi Maria i su yiunan tabata na sonjo, el a sali poshi-poeshi for di cas, cu dos sacu di pita. El a bula tranquera i el a yena tur dos, cu tur sorto di fruta. Cu e dos sacunan pisá el a gana cas mei-mei di anochi. Bon contento el a drumi te maínta. Ora e muchanan a weita hopi fruta asina, nan wowo a cuminza lombra i nan boca a bába. „Papa, ami quier un mango i ami un mispel. Ami quier cashu di Surnam, ami shimarucu”. Ta ora Nanzi a coge bolpees pa sutanan, nan a cera nan boca. Nanzi a parti e frutanan i tur a queda contento. Tur anochi Nanzi a sigui horta fruta di Shon Arey. Ma un día a yega, cu Shon Arey a mira, cu no ta e sol tabata goza di su frutanan. [...] [N. M. Geerdink-Jesurun Pinto, Cuentanan de Nanzi (Curaçao, 1952), p. 5.]

11 Compa Nanzi and the Tar-Baby.
Shon King had a very beautiful orchard. All kinds of fruit grew in it; mangoes, scaly apples, guavas, soursops, melons; you could not think of a single fruit-tree which Shon King did not have in his orchard. Every day, Nanzi used to walk past it, looking at the fruit, which tempted him greatly. Until one day he could not resist any longer. When Shi María and her children were asleep, stealthily he left the house with two woven bags. He jumped the fence and filled them both with all kinds of fruit. Weighed down by the two bags, he reached home in the middle of the night. Quite content, he slept till morning. When the children saw all this fruit, their eyes began to goggle and their mouths to water. “Papa, I want a mango and I want a medlar. I want a Surinam cashew and I want a cherry”. But when Nanzi picked up a bull’s pizzle to hit them with, they shut up. Nanzi divided the fruit between them and they were all happy. Each night, Nanzi went on stealing Shon King’s fruit. But the day came when Shon King saw that he was not the only one who was enjoying his fruit. [...]    Text from: N. M. Geerdink-Jesurun Pinto, Nanzi Stories: Curaçao Folklore, translated by Richard E. Wood (Curaçao: Stichting Wetenschappelijke Bibliotheek, 1972).

12 Brudda Nancy an’ de Tar Baby
Massa King did got a real pretty orchard. All kin’ o’ fruit tree did growin’ in dere. Mango tree, sugar-apple, guava, soursop, sapodilla – cuh-dear, yuh kyan remember one fruit tree dat Massa King di’n’ got in ’e orchard. Ebry day Nancy did go tek a look at dem fruit, which tempting ’e de whole time. Till one day he couldn’t tek it no longer. ’E mek up ’e mind to go long an’ steal Massa King fruit. When Sista Maria an’ dem chil’ren did be sleeping, ’e go long out de house softly softly, wid two crocus bag. ’E jump over de fence an ’e fill all two, wid all kin’ o’ fruit. Wid de two bags heavy, he get home de middle o’ de night. Happy fuh true, ’e did sleep till morning come. When dem youngsters see such a whole heap a fruit, dem eye start to shine an’ dem mout’ to water. “Daddy, me wan’ a mango an’ me wan’ a sapodilla. Me wan’ a Sur’nam cashew, an’ me wan’ a cherry.” When Nancy pick up a bullpistle to drive some licks in dem, dem a shut dem mout’. Nancy share out de fruit, an’ everybody done satisfy. Ebry night Nancy carry on stealing Massa King fruit. But one day a come, when Massa King a see, it di’n’ be he one alone dat be enjoying he fruit.  [Translated by John Gilmore, 2002]

13 Example II

14 The Entry into Jerusalem
1Καὶ ὅτε ἤγγισαν εἰς Ἱεροσόλυμα καὶ ἦλθον εἰς Βηθφαγὴ εἰς τὸ Ὄρος τῶν Ἐλαιῶν, τότε Ἰησοῦς ἀπέστειλεν δύο μαθητὰς 2λέγων αὐτοῖς, Πορεύεσθε εἰς τὴν κώμην τὴν κατέναντι ὑμῶν, καὶ εὐθέως εὑρήσετε ὄνον δεδεμένην καὶ πῶλον μετ' αὐτῆς: λύσαντες ἀγάγετέ μοι. 3καὶ ἐάν τις ὑμῖν εἴπῃ τι, ἐρεῖτε ὅτι Ὁ κύριος αὐτῶν χρείαν ἔχει: εὐθὺς δὲ ἀποστελεῖ αὐτούς. And when they drew nigh unto Jerusalem, and were come to Bethphage, unto the mount of Olives, then sent Jesus two disciples, Saying unto them, Go into the village over against you, and straightway you shall find an ass tied, and a colt with her: loose them, and bring them unto me. And if any man say ought unto you, ye shall say, The Lord hath need of them; and straightway he will send them. Gospel according to St. Matthew, xxi, 1-3; King James Version (1611).

15 Jesus Entry into Jerusalem
Entrada den Herusalem Ora nan a jega cerca Herusalem i a subi cero de Olijfi den direccion di Betfage, Hesus a manda dos discipel sali cu es encargo aki: Bai na es aldea ey enfrente di boso, i promé cos ku boso lo hanja ta un burico-muher mará cu su jiu cerca dje. Los nan i trece nan cerca Mi. I si cualkier hende haci boso un observacion, bias anto: Senjor tin mester di nan, ma lo debolbé nan pronto. Evangelio segun Mateo; Testament Nobo di Nos Senjor Hesu-Cristo (Willemstad, 1989).  Jesus Entry into Jerusalem When dey did come near Jerusalem, an’ did gone up de Hill o’ Olives, over by Bethphage, Jesus did send two disciple to go long wid dis order here: Go in dah village deh in front o’ wunnah, an’ de firs’ ting wunnah g’un find is a she-donkey tie up wid she young one nex’ to she. Loose dem an’ bring dem t’ muh. An’ if any person mek any remark to wunnah, den say: De Lord got a need fuh dem, but g’un sen’ dem back soon. (John Gilmore, 2005)

16 Suggestions for further reading
Juan Bosch, trs. John Gilmore, “Encarnación Mendoza’s Christmas Eve,” in Stewart Brown and John Wickham, edd., The Oxford Book of Caribbean Short Stories (OUP, 1999), pp Ian Craig, “Translation in the Shadow of the Giants: Anglophone Caribbean Vernacular in a Translated Literary Text,” The Translator, Vol. 12, No. 1 (2006), pp Olive Senior, Arrival of the Snake-Woman and Other Stories (Longman Caribbean, 1989). Olive Senior, trs. Wolfgang Binder, Das Erscheinen der Schlangenfrau : Kurzgeschichten aus Jamaika (Frankfurt am Main : dipa-Verl., 1996)

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