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Human Body Systems.

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Presentation on theme: "Human Body Systems."— Presentation transcript:

1 Human Body Systems

2 Can you identify & label the 3 levels of organization shown here?
Well, at least your body is! Can you identify & label the 3 levels of organization shown here?

3 Levels of Organization The Human Body has several “layers” of organization beginning with the simplest and becoming more complex. Answers to previous slide: cell, tissue, organ (small intestine)

4 Here They Are: Your Body Systems

5 And Your Body Systems

6 Brainpop - Skeletal System
Skeletal System - the framework of the body that supports the body, protects internal organs, and anchors all the body’s movement Brainpop - Skeletal System 6

7 Functions of the Skeletal System
Provides shape and form Supports, protects, and allows bodily movement

8 The Skeleton Is Divided Into Two Parts
1. axial skeleton -central part of the skeleton, which includes the cranium, the spinal column, and the ribs BACKBONE RIBS STERNUM SKULL

9 Axial Skeleton

10 The Second Part of the Skeleton
2. appendicular skeleton -the bones of the skeleton that function to allow movement, such as arm and leg bones SHOULDERS LOWER BODY UPPER BODY PELVIC AREA

11 Appendicular Skeleton

12 Skeletal System Information
Appendicular System 126 bones Axial System 80 bones Total Bones = 206

13 Types of Bone Tissue spongy bone tissue – strong, lightweight tissue found inside the bone -makes up most of the short, flat, irregular bones, and ends of long bones

14 Types of Bone Tissue compact bone tissue -tough, hard outer layer of bone -part of the body called the skeleton

15 3 Types Of Joints joints – place at which two parts of the skeletal meet immovable joints - lock bones together like puzzle pieces (skulls bones) slightly movable joints- are able to flex slightly (ribs are connected to sternum) freely movable joints - allow body to bend and to move Brainpop - Joints 15

16 Types Of Freely Moveable Joints
Hinge- arm moves up and down Pivot – neck moves from side to side Ball & Socket – rotating arm in a circle Gliding- all joints glide 16

17 Interesting Facts The longest bone in your body is the bone above your knee, the thighbone Your funny bone isn’t a bone at all When you were born, you had more than 300 bones. By the time you stop growing, you’ll have 206 At the end of adolescence your bones stop growing Your bones are living. They grow as you get older

18 Conditions of the Skeletal System
Osteoporosis Bones become fragile and more likely to break Osteoarthritis Joint disorder where the cartilage is wearing away

19 Muscular System muscular system – muscles of the body that, together with the skeletal system, function to produce movement

20 The muscular system is made up of…
muscles and tendons

21 How many muscles do you have?
You have about 650 muscles in your body Your muscles make up half of your body weight

22 Functions of the Muscular System
Holds bones together so that movement can occur Helps maintain stable body temperature (homeostasis) Helps maintain posture

23 3 Types of Muscles Smooth Muscles – muscle that performs involuntary movement and is found inside certain organs, such as the stomach involuntary – movement without conscious control Cardiac Muscle – involuntary muscle that makes up the heart Skeletal Muscles - muscle that perform voluntary movement and are attached to the skeleton voluntary – movement at will 23

24 Why do I need tendons? Try This...
-tendons attach muscles to bone and help the body move feel your tendon right above your heel in the back of your leg *this is the thickest tendon in your body Try This...

25 Ways to keep my muscles strong…
Eat foods from the meat group every day (they are high in protein which helps to build strong muscles) Exercise every day

26 Your Digestive System Brainpop - Digestive System

27 Your digestive system is like a complicated chemical processing plant, and performs many functions

28 Two Types of Digestion: mechanical and chemical
Mechanical digestion: breaking, crushing, mashing Chemical digestion: Saliva, Gastric acids

29 What major tasks does the digestive system help accomplish?

30 Your Digestive System…
-breaks down food into molecules the body can absorb -passes food molecules into the blood to be carried throughout the body -works to eliminate solid wastes from the body.

31 The Parts of Your Digestive System
How well do you know them?

32 Parts of Your Digestive System
                                          Brainpop - Appendix

33

34 The Digestive Journey Digestion begins in your mouth with action of your teeth and tongue and your salivary glands. Food then moves through the esophagus and into your stomach after you swallow.

35 The food moves into the stomach.
Your Stomach The food moves into the stomach. The stomach gradually releases materials into the upper small intestine, where digestion is completed. Your stomach also has a thick coating of mucus to protect it form the acids and to keep it from digesting itself!

36 Your stomach really does look like a muscular bag!

37 Your Small & Large Intestines
When food is thoroughly digested it passes through an opening into the small intestines. In the small intestines all the nutrients are absorbed leaving undigestible wastes. The indigestible wastes pass into the large intestines, where water is removed. Then the wastes are stored in the rectum until they are released by the anus.

38 Your Respiratory System

39 The Functions of the Respiratory System
-moves oxygen from the outside environment into the body -removes carbon dioxide and water from the body

40 Respiratory System Brainpop - Respiratory System

41 Respiratory Disease: Pneumonia
Pneumonia is an inflammation or infection of the lungs most commonly caused by a bacteria or virus. Pneumonia can also be caused by inhaling vomit or other foreign substances. Web Sources and Resources lungs.html

42 Respiratory Disease: Lung Cancer
The cancerous lung (right) shows how much damage smoking can do over time to your respiratory system.

43 X-Rays can help detect cancer, and surgery and radiation are some treatments for the disease.
Web Sources and Resources lesson11.htm

44 Excretory/Urinary System
-collects wastes produced by cells and removes these wastes from your body -removal process is known as excretion -kidneys are the major organs of the excretory system -kidneys filter your blood and remove urea (excess water, and some other waste materials from the blood) -filtering process produces a watery fluid called urine Yucky: Pee

45 Excretory/Urinary System
Brainpop - Urinary System

46 Excretory/Urinary System
excretory system is a system that connects to the digestive system the main organs of the excretory system are the bladder, kidneys, ureters, urethra, and nephrons

47 Kidney Stones Kidney stones are created when certain substances in urine -- including calcium and uric acid -- crystallize and the crystals clump together. Usually, they form in the center of the kidney, where urine collects before flowing into the ureter, the tube that leads to the bladder. Small stones are able to pass out of the body in the urine and often go completely unnoticed. But larger stones irritate and stretch the ureter as they move toward the bladder, causing excruciating pain and blocking the flow of urine. Rarely, a stone can be as large as a golf ball, in which case it remains lodged in the kidney, creating a more serious condition

48 Cardiovascular/Circulatory System
Brainpop - Circulatory System

49 The circulatory system is responsible for transporting blood (which carries oxygen and food for the cells) throughout the body Web Sources and Resources Usborne Human Body: Quicklinks

50 Parts of the Cardiovascular/Circulatory System
Heart Blood Blood Vessels arteries – carry oxygenated blood from the lungs to the rest of the body veins – carry deoxygenated blood back to the lungs capillaries

51 Blood -Blood is the fluid of life, transporting oxygen from the lungs to body tissue and carbon dioxide from body tissue to the lungs -Red blood cells and white blood cells are responsible for nourishing, cleansing, and protecting the body -Approximately 55 percent of blood is plasma, a straw-colored clear liquid -The liquid plasma carries the solid cells and the platelets which help blood clot -Without blood platelets, you would bleed to death Brainpop - Blood

52 Pathway of Blood

53 Your Heart is a Very Muscular Organ!
Heart Dissections Human heart Beef heart Beef heart undissected Your Heart is a Very Muscular Organ! Brainpop - Heart

54 Artificial Hearts The action of the artificial heart is entirely similar to the action of the natural heart. There is, however, one huge difference: the natural heart is living muscle, while the artificial heart is plastic, aluminum, and Dacron polyester. As a result, the artificial heart needs some external source of "life." An external power system energizes and regulates the pump through a system of compressed air hoses that enter the heart through the chest. Since the system is cumbersome and open to infection, the use of an artificial heart is meant to be temporary.

55 Integumentary System (It’s Your Skin!)

56 Integumentary System -covers the body and prevents the loss of water -protects the body from injury and infection -helps regulate body temperature, eliminate wastes, gathers information about the environment

57 Integumentary System -1st line of defense against infection -organs/structures of the integumentary system include the skin, sweat glands, hair, and nails

58 Your Immune System

59 Your Immune System -fights foreign invaders or infection in the body
-special cells react to each kind of pathogen with a defense targeted specifically at that pathogen -major organs/structures of the immune system include the white blood cells, mucus, and cilia Brainpop: Immune System

60 Nervous System

61 Nervous System -receives information about what is happening both inside and outside your body -directs the way in which your body responds to information -helps maintain homeostasis

62 Nervous System -major organs/
structures of the nervous system include the brain, spinal cord, and nerves Brainpop: Nervous System

63 The Stroop Effect- Your Brain Can Get Confused!
TRY IT!- The famous "Stroop Effect" is named after J. Ridley Stroop who discovered this strange phenomenon in the 1930s. Here is your job: name the colors of the following words. Do NOT read the words...rather, say the color of the words. For example, for the word BLUE, you should say "RED". Say the colors as fast as you can. It is not as easy as you might think!

64 Alzheimer’s Disease Alzheimer's disease attacks the brain; it is not a normal part of aging. People with AD have a gradual memory loss and difficulties with language and emotions. The progressive loss of intellectual abilities is termed dementia. As the disease advances, the person may need help in all aspects of life: bathing, eating, and using the restroom. Because of this round-the-clock care, families and friends of people with AD are greatly affected. The disease is irreversible and there is currently no cure.

65 Reproductive System FEMALE MALE Brainpop - Reproductive System

66 Functions of the Female Reproductive System
-produce eggs -nourish and shelter fertilized egg (developing baby) until birth

67 Female Reproductive System

68 Organs/Structures of the Female Reproductive System
-fallopian tubes -vagina -ovary -uterus

69 Function of the Male Reproductive System
-produce and deliver sperm

70 Male Reproductive System

71 Organs/Structures of the Male Reproductive System
-epididymis -testis -scrotum -penis -urethra -vas deferens

72 Takes place when sperm & egg merge
Fertilization Takes place when sperm & egg merge

73 Human Development -fertilized egg (zygote) is about the size of a period in your textbook -zygote develops into an embryo, and then into a developing fetus, which results in....

74 You! fetus.jpg


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