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SOL Exam Questions on Oceanography & Fresh Water

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1 SOL Exam Questions on Oceanography & Fresh Water
Tangier Island in the Chesapeake Bay, Dagenhart, 2004. Thomas V. Dagenhart, M.S. v 4.2

2 As the water cycle progresses, what happens after evaporation to cause clouds to form?
river runoff precipitation ocean currents move away condensation 1998a

3 Which of these can cause the water table in an aquifer to rise?
existing wells being pumped few wells being drilled precipitation natural springs 1998b

4 Infiltration if Permeable
Porosity is the amount of pore space in soils. Permeability is the ability of water to pass through the soil. Why do some soils have high porosity but low permeability? Pores with air Some soils have large pores that do not lead anywhere but simply hold groundwater. Sandy soils dry out quickly, and the pore space fills with air which blocks the downward flow of water. Some soils have a large volume of pore space, but the individual pores are too small to allow water to pass through. Water with dissolved iron cannot pass through the magnetic field of soils that are rich in magnetite. Infiltration if Permeable Pores with water 2000

5 Which of the following can result when underground water is heated by hot igneous rock?
metamorphism geysers salt domes karst topography 2000

6 The surface of the sea is not level due to all of the following except -
currents tides salinity winds 2000

7 The accumulated salts in seawater make the seawater much more dense than fresh water. One of the characteristics of seawater is that it has - higher levels of dissolved oxygen than fresh water a lower freezing point than fresh water decreased buoyancy for swimmers ninety elements that are easily extracted from seawater Halite or Sodium Chloride 2000

8 Which of the following would have the greatest salinity?
Arctic Atlantic Mediterranean Pacific much river inflow little river inflow 2000

9 Many species of the order Cetacea (whales, dolphins, and porpoises) have become so scarce that they are now protected under international law. Which of the following probably did not contribute to the decline in these populations? whaling industry fishing nets ocean pollution greenhouse effect Humpback Whale Song 2000

10 London and Irkutsk are located at approxi-mately the same latitude
London and Irkutsk are located at approxi-mately the same latitude. What would help explain why London experiences a more moderate range of temperatures than does Irkutsk? 2000 A large lake keeps Irkutsk cool. Irkutsk has fewer trees than London has. High mountains near London block cold winds. Warm ocean currents influence London’s climate.

11 As landmasses drifted over the Earth from 180 million years ago to the present day, one significant change that occurred was the - increase in overall landmass size decrease in number of transverse faults increase in number of trenches decrease in number of mid-ocean ridges 2000

12 Oxygen must be dissolved in ocean water in order to sustain animal life. Using the above table as a guide, which human activity should be regulated because of the difficulty it causes for sea creatures to breathe? piping heated waste water into the ocean excessive motorboat traffic growing seaweed as a food source Scuba diving around coral reefs 2000

13 Tidal Power Plant, Bay of Fundy
All of the following are sources of energy derived from the ocean except Tidal Power Plant, Bay of Fundy A. coal B. thermal C. tides D. waves 2001

14 2001 Basalt Clay Limestone Sandstone
Scientists use drill core samples to study the underlying rock structure. These two core samples were obtained from the ocean floor from locations separated by 10 km. Which layer in core sample one does not have a matching layer in core sample two? Basalt Clay Limestone Sandstone 2001

15 The wireless operator aboard the Titanic signaled for help and gave the ship’s location as 41o45’N and 50o14’W. Which area shown on the map is most likely where the Titanic struck the iceberg? A B C D 2001

16 X 10% in Greenland 2001 High mountain peaks Permanent Arctic blizzards
Only 3% of the Earth’s water is fresh water. The world’s oceans contain the rest of the Earth’s water. Of that 3%, three-fourths is tied up in glaciers, ice caps, and snowfields. Antarctic glaciers contain nearly 85% of all the ice in the world, and floating sea ice in the Arctic contains 10% of the ice. Sea ice freezes from ocean water, but the salt is excluded in the freezing process, resulting in mostly freshwater ice. Where is the remaining 5% of the world’s permanent supply of ice and snow? X High mountain peaks Permanent Arctic blizzards Floating icebergs Drifting Antarctic snow 10% in Greenland 2001

17 Oil spills have a tremendous impact on the ocean environment, and the oil must be cleaned up after these spills. A new technique for cleaning oil from beaches is called bioremediation. This technique uses naturally occurring bacteria to break down the oil. How is this accomplished? The bacteria bind with the oil and bring it to land. The bacteria pull the oil down to the ocean floor. The bacteria chemically change the oil into less harmful substances. The bacteria die and absorb the oil. 2001

18 Sinkholes associated with natural processes are characteristic of what type of bedrock?
Limestone Granite Basalt Gneiss Sinkholes also form over dolostone, rock gypsum & rock salt. Sinkhole in Winter Park, FL 2001

19 This picture shows a simple well that was dug down to the groundwater
This picture shows a simple well that was dug down to the groundwater. What probably caused the lower level of groundwater, known as a “cone of depression,” in the vicinity of the well? The weight of the atmosphere presses down on the groundwater in the well. The ground below the well acts as a vacuum sucking out the water. Gravity pulls down the water beneath the well. As water is drawn from the well, it takes time for the groundwater to percolate through the soil and restore the level. 2001

20 Density Units: g/mL or g/cm3
A boat will float higher in the Atlantic Ocean than it will in the Potomac River because ocean water has - a lower freezing point more organisms in it more oxygen in it a greater density Density = Mass / Volume Density Units: g/mL or g/cm3 What makes seawater density go higher? Higher Salinity Lower Temperatures 2001

21 2003 4. The picture above shows a hydrometer in water. The same hydrometer was placed in the liquids below. Which liquid is denser than water? A B. C D.

22 9. The drawing above shows. the water table in the vicinity
9. The drawing above shows the water table in the vicinity of a newly drilled well. Which of the drawings below shows the appearance of the water table several months later when the well has been in regular use? 2003 This down warp in the water table is called a cone of depression.

23 15. The Marianas Trench in the Pacific Ocean is 36,160 feet below sea level. This deep oceanic trench is caused by - A. swift ocean currents eroding away the ocean floor B. the collapse of an empty magma chamber in a large volcano C. excessive boat traffic disrupting the normal sedimentation process D. two tectonic plates colliding and one plunging below the other 2003

24 Trenches of the World Ocean
Deepest parts of ocean, created by oceanic lithosphere subducting under less dense lithosphere. Mostly in Pacific Ocean around “Ring of Fire”. ? \ Garrison (2005)

25 Comparison of Mariana Trench to Mt. Everest
Hinge Steeper slope on slab not subducting, i.e. the volcano side. Garrison (2005) Bathymetric profile of trench without vertical exaggeration.

26 Angle of Trench Walls & Subduction Angle Depend on Crustal Age
Older crust is denser & subducts at a steeper angle. Top picture is similar to western Pacific trenches. Bottom picture is similar to subduction near WA & OR, i.e. Cascadia Subduction Zone. Tarbuck & Lutgens (2005)

27 26. If the polar ice caps were to melt, all of the following would occur except -
2003 A. increased coastal flooding B. increased sea level C. decreased ocean salinity D. decreased tidal action Atlantic Ocean eroding a rocky shoreline, Schoodic Peninsula, Acadia N.P., ME Dagenhart, 2003

28 29. Why does water move more slowly through clay than through humus?
A. Clay has greater permeability. B. Clay has very small pore spaces. C. Clay prevents capillary attraction of water. D. Clay reduces evaporation rates. 2003

29 32. The two most common ions found in ocean water are -
A. chloride & sodium B. potassium & calcium C. phosphate & nitrate D. magnesium & sodium 2003 Salt Crystal Being Dissolved by Water Molecules Garrison, 2005

30 19. When the sea floor spreads apart, volcanoes and ridges are formed because -
sediments are deposited where the floor spreads, building ridges as the plates pull apart, magma moves to the surface, building ridges ocean water pushes down on the surrounding sea floor, pushing up ridges underwater earthquakes lift the sea floor into long ridges 2004 Pillow lava along Mid-Atlantic Ridge, Alvin’s mechanical arm in foreground, pillow structure indicates lava extrusion underwater. Tarbuck & Lutgens (2005)

31 Mid-Ocean Ridge above Sea Level
Thingvellir Graben, Iceland; only place where the MOR is exposed above sea level due to hot spot at MOR. Note black basalt rock, absence of pillow lava, & small normal fault block. Garrison (2005) North American Plate Eurasian Plate

32 Mid-Ocean Ridge Profiles
Much vertical exaggeration. Note absence of rift valley & gentler slopes with rapid spreading. Tarbuck & Lutgens (2005)

33 Continental shelf Continental slope Abyssal plain Trench
42. At which ocean feature would the greatest amount of water pressure be exerted? Continental shelf Continental slope Abyssal plain Trench 2004

34 8. In the jar shown, a sample of soil was mixed with water and then allowed to settle for 24 hours. The jar serves as a model for what process? 2007 Evaporation of water from a muddy pond Formation of soil from parent material Deposition of sediment in a lake bed Erosion of rock particles by water clay Larger particles settle more quickly; smaller particles settle more slowly. Leads to: Sand & gravel near shore Clay in deep ocean.

35 9. Which recent geologic processes commonly occur in the Coastal Plain region of Virginia?
Crustal uplift and rock deformation Rifting and intrusion Erosion and deposition Subduction and metamorphism Virginia’s Coastal Plain is typical of trailing edges of continents, AKA passive continental margins. 2007

36 The Wilson Cycle Named after a Canadian, J.Tuzo Wilson.
Supercontinent rifts apart (along normal faults) to form new ocean. Sedimentation occurs along passive continental margin (and on platform?) as ocean widens. Ocean begins closing & continental margins become active (subduction starts): trenches, earthquakes, & volcanoes. Island arcs and sediments caught between colliding continents are deformed and obducted onto continents as continents collide & form a suture zone. After a period, the supercontinent starts to rift apart again & the cycle starts over. Rift may not be in old suture zone. CGU, 2005

37 Mountains develop with roots, that’s isostasy!
The Wilson Cycle Begins with breakup of supercontinent along rift valley (divergent boundary). A new ocean & passive continental margins form. Ocean widens & continental margins buried by sediment. Trenches form, oceanic crust is destroyed, & ocean closes (continental-oceanic convergent boundary). Ends with formation of new supercontinent (continental-continental convergent boundary). Heat + Pressure = Metamorphism Mountains develop with roots, that’s isostasy! Garrison, 2005

38 Sea Ice on the Arctic Ocean (pancake ice).
10. Dramatic variations in the polar ice caps most likely suggest changes in — the Moon’s orbit Earth’s climate ebb and flow of tides global water consumption 2007 Earth’s ice caps include glaciers resting on Antarctica & sea ice floating in the Arctic Ocean. Sea Ice on the Arctic Ocean (pancake ice). Gross & Gross, 1996

39 Loss of Arctic Sea Ice, Is the change really linear or speeding up? Defense records contain more data; we need ability to surface a nuclear sub near the N. Pole & fire Russia. The thickness is also dropping quickly even where the area is still covered! Tarbuck & Lutgens, 2008

40 Icebergs Forming from Outlet Glacier On West Coast of Greenland
U.S. Coast Guard, 2006

41 Castellated (Non-Tabular) Iceberg Off Newfoundland
May run aground near shore. U.S. Coast Guard, 2006

42 Castellated (Non-Tabular) Iceberg
Note mass hidden underwater, = ~90% of mass. U.S. Coast Guard, 2006

43 Tabular Iceberg Off Antarctica
May move North to 40o S in Atlantic and 50o S in Pacific. Increased production associated with loss of ice shelves due to global warming. U.S. Coast Guard, 2006

44 15. Which of these provides the best estimate of how long it took a thick layer of sedimentary rock to form? Using a microscope to closely examine the size of particles that make up the rock layer Making a model that creates a sedimentary rock layer at a constant rate Calculating the age of the top and bottom of the layer Measuring the rate at which similar layers of sediments collect 2007 Ash layers between silt & clay layers in the Painted Desert allow absolute-age dating of sediments in between. Dagenhart, 2003

45 23. Seawater is typically denser than freshwater due to seawater’s —
higher salinity lower freezing point smaller mass greater depth 2007 Atlantic Ocean water at the harbor entrance of Nassau, Bahamas. Note color variation. Dagenhart, 2004

46 27. Which of these describes the most common way that material is added to a continental shelf?
Evaporation from continental watersheds Deposition of continental sediments Eruption of continental volcanoes Subduction of continental plates 2007

47 Passive Continental Margins
Typical of East coast of U.S. Most of Atlantic Ocean margins are passive. Broad continental shelf & continental rise. No trenches, no volcanoes, few earthquakes. Note numerous normal fault blocks beneath sediment mantle, sites for oil exploration. Tarbuck & Lutgens (2005) Uppermost Mantle

48 Active Continental Margins
Typical of U.S. West Coast & Pacific “Ring of Fire”. Narrow continental shelf built from accretionary wedge. Shelf often uplifted by tectonic forces to reveal wave-cut platforms. Common Features: trenches, volcanoes, earthquakes, young mountains. Tarbuck & Lutgens (2005)

49 Triassic Paleozoic Precambrian Mesozoic
31. Rocks found on land are up to 3.8 billion years old, but those in the ocean are no more than 180 million years old. Using the information shown, during which era could parts of the ocean floor have formed? 4.0 Geologic Time Scale 2007 Triassic Paleozoic Precambrian Mesozoic

50 Sea Floor Age Thurman (2004) Pattern results from sea floor spreading along mid-ocean ridges & offsets along transform faults. No sea floor basalt older than 180 m.y.

51 Tides Seasons Prevailing winds Magnetic poles
32. Which of these are caused primarily by the gravitational force between Earth and the Moon? 2007 Tides Seasons Prevailing winds Magnetic poles Mussels, snails, & barnacles exposed during low tide at Acadia N.P., ME; Dagenhart, 2003

52 The Phases of the Moon Thurman, 2004 All phases seen during a day synodic month. Only during a full or new moon do the tidal bulges of the moon & sun work ~together.

53 Combined Effects of Moon & Sun
Moon & sun work together. Moon & sun work against each other. Thurman, 2004

54 surface runoff ground water transpiration precipitation
39. Most water leaves the ocean through evaporation and returns to the ocean through — surface runoff ground water transpiration precipitation 2007 ? Shenandoah River near Front Royal flooding after Hurricane Isabel, September, Dagenhart, 2003

55 The Water Cycle What energy source powers the water cycle?

56 40. Rivers, springs, and aquifers are all -
frozen in winter human-made structures located above ground sources of fresh water 2007 Spring emerging from Arizona cliff. Tarbuck & Lutgens, 2005

57 Pores filled with water
Tarbuck & Lutgens, 2005 Infiltration Groundwater Terms Pores filled with air Pores filled with water Infiltration replaces (recharges) groundwater.

58 48. The three wells shown provide water for a growing city
48. The three wells shown provide water for a growing city. What is the most likely effect on the system if six new wells are brought into production as the population increases? The limestone layer will collapse. The shale layer will shrink. The aquifer will increase in volume. The water table will drop. 2007

59 drawdown = vertical drop
Cone Of Depression Forms best around heavily pumped wells. Changes local hydraulic gradient. Lowers water table and makes some wells go dry. Tarbuck & Lutgens, 2005 drawdown = vertical drop

60 All SOL questions copyrighted by Virginia’s Dept. of Education.
References 1997 = Virginia’s 1997 Earth Science SOL Sample Questions. 1998 a&b = Virginia’s 1998 Earth Science SOL Sample Questions. 2000 = Virginia’s 2000 Earth Science SOL Test. 2001 = Virginia’s 2001 Earth Science SOL Test. 2002 = Virginia’s 2002 Earth Science SOL Test. 2003 = Virginia’s 2003 Earth Science SOL Test. 2004 = Virginia’s 2004 Earth Science SOL Test. 2005 = Virginia’s 2005 Earth Science SOL Test. 2007 = Virginia’s 2007 Earth Science SOL Test. Garrison, T. (2005) Oceanography: An Invitation to Marine Science, 5th ed. Brooks/Cole Thomson Learning, Stamford, CT, 522 p. Gross, M.G. and E. Gross (1996) Oceanography: A View of the Earth, 7th ed. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ, 472 p. Levin, H.L. (2003) The Earth Through Time, 7th ed. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 563+ p. Tarbuck, E.J. and F.K. Lutgens (2005) Earth: An Introduction to Physical Geology, 8th ed. Pearson-Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ, 711 p. All SOL questions copyrighted by Virginia’s Dept. of Education.

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