Presentation on theme: "American History Review Semester #1. Unit 12 Spain’s empire in North America 1500s, Spanish Conquistadors sought gold, fame, royal titles, new life, Indian."— Presentation transcript:
Unit 12 Spain’s empire in North America 1500s, Spanish Conquistadors sought gold, fame, royal titles, new life, Indian slaves, and new Christians. – Spanish found great amounts of gold in Mexico. – Created Missions in Southwest America. – Encomienda system enslaved Native Americans if they were forced to be Catholic. Wherever a country explored they took as colonies. 1.Juan Ponce de Leon, 1513 & 1521: explored Florida. 2.Francisco Coronado, 1540-1542: explored the southwest. 3.Hernando de Soto, 1539-1542: explored the southeast and Mississippi. Protestantism vs. Catholicism came to dominate European politics. – This rivalry extended into the colonies: exploration, trade, Indian missionary work, wars.
New Spain, New France, and New England Settlements
Unit 14 New France France explored Canada and middle America. French settlements were widely scattered compared to English. French had relatively good relations with Indians. – Traded furs, less competition.
Unit 15 Jamestown = Tobacco 1606, Virginia Company (a joint-stock company) received a charter from King James I. Jamestown (Virginia) was the first English settlement to prosper. At first, the Jamestown settlers wanted Gold. Disease, starvation, and Indians devastated early Jamestown. – “Starving Times” 1612, John Rolfe grew and sold tobacco to Europe. – Europe became addicted to it. – Jamestown developed the Plantation system. Most new settlers came as indentured servants. – Indentured servants: agreed to 5 – 7 years of servitude in exchange for transatlantic passage 1619, slaves were first brought to Jamestown. – Too costly at first.
Unit 16 English Settlement the South The South developed Plantation slavery. – Carolinas adopted the Barbados slave codes allowing slaves no rights. – Carolinas captured Natives to be sold as slaves. Rice was exported. – Grown by slaves. Georgia (1733): Created for debtors and a buffer against Spanish and Indian’s in Florida. Fort Frederica: (1742) the British Defeated the Spanish on St. Simons Island. – Savannah emerged into a diverse community.
Unit 17 Calvinism 1536: John Calvin founded Calvinism. – God was all powerful and all-good. – Humans, due to original sin, were weak and wicked. Predestination: – God was all-knowing and knew beforehand who was going to heaven or hell. The “Elect" were those chosen by God to have eternal salvation. "Good works" (such as following the Catholic Church) did not determine salvation. However, no one knew their status before God – A conversion experience was seen to be a sign that one had been chosen. “Visible saints" --After conversion, people expected to lead “righteous" lives.
Unit 18 Church of England and the Puritans King Henry VIII broke ties with Roman Catholic church. Puritans: Protestants seeking to reform the Anglican Church by removing its Catholic traditions.. – Separatists: extreme group of Puritans who wanted to fully break from the Anglican Church (Pilgrims) English King James I did not trust these Separatists and persecuted them and their families.
Unit 19 Mayflower Pilgrims: first wave of Separatists. – They believed they were the elect chosen by God to found a new Christian society separate from the English Church and the King’s persecution. Mayflower landed off New England coast with 102 persons. – Plymouth Bay chosen as settlement site. Mayflower Compact: document created to create a new government for their society. Despite terrible first winter where over ½ the people died, no one left the colony. Thanksgiving -- August, Pilgrims adopted Indians’ traditional custom of giving thanks at the time of harvest, believing their survival as God's will.
Unit 110 Massachusetts Massachusetts Bay Colony founded in 1629 by non-Separatist Puritans. John Winthrop - Governor of Massachusetts Bay Colony – "We shall build a city upon a hill“ Covenant Theology: Puritans had a covenant with God to create a new Christian community in the New World. God would protect them if they did God’s Will. Winthrop’’s strong leadership helped the colony to succeed. Colonial "Great Migration" (1630’s) – 1631, 2,000 colonists had arrived in Boston. – Turmoil in England resulted in 15,000 more immigrants coming to New England. Massachusetts became biggest and most influential of New England colonies. – Economy: fishing, shipbuilding, fur trade, lumbering; some dairy farming, and farming wheat & corn.
Unit 111 Religion and Politics in Massachusetts Massachusetts Bay Colony’s foundation was the Bible Townhall meetings emerged as a staple of democracy – Town governments allowed all male property holders to vote and publicly discuss issues. – Majority-rule show of hands. Purpose of Mass. government was to enforce God's laws (part of covenant theology) – Religious dissenters were punished. Puritan leader John Cotton devoted enforced religious rules and a civil government. Roger Williams founded Rhode Island as a refuge for dissenting Christians. Religious Liberty. – Anne Hutchinson banished to Rhode Island for heresy.
Unit 112 English settlement of the Mid-Atlantic region Middle Colonies = New York, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Delaware Characteristics of the Middle Colonies – "bread colonies“ New York flourished under English rule, profiting from trade with Iroquois, and attracting settlers who expanded the agricultural base.
3 Areas of English Colonies New England Mid-Atlantic Colonies Chesapeake and Southern Colonies
Unit 114 Roger Williams = Against Puritan Leaders 1630s: Roger Williams -- minister from Salem – Dissenter. – Extreme Separatist – Claimed colony took land from Indians without fair payment. "liberty of conscience“: 1.Stated government could only punish civil crimes while the church alone had responsibility for religious discipline. 2.Stated that no man should be forced to go to church. 3.Used "wall of separation" for church and state separation. Roger Williams purchased lands from Indians and founded the community of Providence (Rhode Island), accepting all settlers regardless of their beliefs.
Unit 115 Religious Beliefs against the Puritans Quakers, believed in an inner light and not in Puritan theology were persecuted. – Hated Slavery, pacifists (hated war), equality – Today: Society of Friends – Pennsylvania Anne Hutchinson, believed in Antinomianism: the "elect" didn’t need to obey God's or man's law because they were predestined for salvation. – She held prayer meetings at home. Clergy accused her of heresy and brought her to trial in 1638. – She claimed direct revelation from God -- even a higher heresy. Banished from colony (partly because of Covenant Theology) – Left for Rhode Island while pregnant. Rhode Island became the colony for dissenters.
Seventeenth- Century New England Settlements The Massachusetts Bay Colony was the hub of New England. All earlier colonies grew into it; all later colonies grew out of it. Copyright (c) Houghton Mifflin Company. All Rights Reserved.
Unit 117 Decline of Puritanism As time went on Puritans began losing their religious zeal. Conversions decreased. – Children of non-converted members could not be baptized. "Half-Way Covenant",1662: proposed that unconverted members could have their children baptized but could not receive communion. Eventually, Puritan churches baptized anyone. – The difference between the "elect" and other members of society subsided. – Strict religious purity was sacrificed. The number of Church members increased but their religious zeal for Jesus Christ and God decreased.
Unit 118 Salem Salem Witch Trials, 1692. – Colonists believed Satan worked through witches. – Poor young female accusers accused the more prosperous people. – After witch trials, 20 people were executed. Trial leader Samuel Sewall publicly apologized for his role in the trials. Cotton Mather supported the witch trials and this weakened the respect for the clergy and Puritans. Puritan Church lost fervent members, on fire for God.
Unit 219 The First Great Awakening: 1730s-1740s First Great Awakening: Changed the religious style: more emotional, personal faith, and church practices. 1 st Great Awakening: Emphasized a personal relationship with God along with an emotional, life changing conversion experience. – Against established, unemotional churches. Jonathan Edwards (1703-1758): Started the Great Awakening in 1734. – He believed that a person’s was dependent on God's grace. Everyone should be damned to Hell Sermon “Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God” George Whitefield (1714-1770) – Traveling preacher who preached extensively throughout the colonies. Most influential figure of Great Awakening.
Jonathan Edwards Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God The God that holds you over the pit of hell, much as one holds a spider, or some loathsome insect, over the fire, abhors you, and is dreadfully provoked; his wrath towards you burns like fire; he looks upon you as worthy of nothing else, but to be cast into the fire; he is of purer eyes than to bear to have you in his sight; you are ten thousand times so abominable in his eyes as the most hateful venomous serpent is in ours. You have offended him infinitely more than ever a stubborn rebel did his prince: and yet 'tis nothing but his hand that holds you from falling into the fire every moment; 'tis to be ascribed to nothing else, that you did not go to hell the last night; that you was suffered to awake again in this world, after you closed your eyes to sleep: and there is no other reason to be given why you have not dropped into hell since you arose in the morning, but that God's hand has held you up Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God.notebook
Unit 221 "Old Light" vs "New Light" Old Lights - orthodox (Puritan) clergymen deeply skeptical of emotional revivals. New Lights - supported the Awakening for revitalizing American religion. – New Lights used emotionalism to move followers. Congregationalists and Presbyterians split over the issue Baptists – New Lights - attracted believers in conversion who longed for emotion in religion. – Baptized when converted (saved), not as infants.
Unit 222 Results of the Great Awakening The 1 st Great Awakening split churches and increased competition between different denominations. – Energized churches – Brought religion to many who had lost touch with it – Undermined the older clergy – Encouraged missionary work among the Indians and slaves – “New Light" colleges: Dartmouth, Brown, Rutgers, & Princeton. Old Light: Harvard The Great Awakening had a strong democratic component – People increasingly had more choice over religion (a highly American trait) – Resistance to established authority. Nothing was more important to colonialists than their salvation. – If you could decided your own church and church leadership, you could also decide your own government.
Mercantilism Mercantilism: The power of a country was based on the amount of gold in the treasury. – Colonies were created to increase this gold. – Colonies (New England) provide raw materials for the mother country (England) and to buy their products. Britain passed Navigation Acts requiring their colonies to trade only with Britain. France was expanding in Canada, central North America, and the Mississippi. – They traded beaver fur (Pelts) and had friendly relations with the Indians. The border between the English frontier and French territory was not well defined.
France’s American Empire at Its Greatest Extent, 1700
Frontier Feuds A series of wars between England and France carried into their North American colonies. The colonies fell into Salutary Neglect. – Navigation Laws and taxes were not enforced by Britain. Lt. Colonel George Washington started French and Indian War. Colonies called it the French and Indian War but it was part of a global Seven Years War (world war).
Unit 226 Colonies united to fight the French and Indian War. Albany Congress (1754): British summon a congress of all the colonies. – Main purpose was to keep the Iroquois loyal. Albany Congress supported “Colonial home rule” but it failed. – Britain felt this gave the colonies too much independence. – Colonies felt this would give too little independence. Colonies Unite
Famous Cartoon by Benjamin Franklin Delaware and Georgia were omitted.
The French and Indian War At first Britain was losing the F&I War. – Indians went on the warpath. – The war was very costly for the British. Battle of Quebec (1759): French were defeated and the city surrendered. – France was forced to leave North America. – Canada is still a Colony of Britain. Britain emerged as the dominant power in North America. – Spain received Mississippi area – Spain gave Florida to Britain. British take Saint Augustine’s Castillo de San Marcos
Results of the F & I War 1.Colonists gained military experience. 2.Colonies felt more united after the F&I war. 3.Britain was broke. 4.Britain increase taxes to be paid back by the colonialists. 5.Proclamation Line of 1763: prevented American settlers from moving west into Indian territory. – Angered colonialists.
Age of Enlightenment Age of the Enlightenment -- (1720s to about 1790) Liberty -- Individual human rights. – Freedom of religion. – Freedom of speech & press. – Fair and equal treatment before the law Equality -- All citizens should have rights and civil liberties. – Rights not based on birth. – Equality of opportunity – Did not mean everyone should be economically equal. Human dignity and human happiness Science, progress, and rationality: would lead to better government and a better society for all.
The Growing Rift After the F & I War, the British Parliament wanted the American Colonies to pay for British troops and officials. – They had not done this before. What is this called? _____ ______ The Sugar Act (1765): increased taxes on West Indies foreign sugar making British sugar less expensive and this hurt smuggling. The Quartering Act (1765): Required the colonists to pay for the food and shelter of a British army in the colonies. Stamp Act (1765): required a tax (stamp) on most newspapers and documents. After colonial protest, the Stamp Act and Sugar Act was repealed. – Some violent protest (tar and feathers) – “No taxation, without Representation”
Townshend Acts (1767) Townshend Acts added a small tax on many items (including tea) – Used to pay for British officials in America. Seen as another attempt to reduce liberties. – Resulted in more smuggling (1768) Smuggling resulted in British landing soldiers in Boston. (1770) Scared British soldiers opened fired on an angry mob in the Boston Massacre. Paul Revere’s propaganda newspaper print persuaded some colonists that the mob was attacked without provocation. – Not true. Sons of Liberty members dressed as Indians and threw British tea into Boston harbor. Boston Tea Party. – The British close down the port until the people pay for the tea. – Boston Port Act
Unit 233 British Strengths and Weaknesses British Strengths Monetary wealth Greatest Navy in the world Much larger population Professional Army Money to buy German Hessian soldiers American Loyalists Many Indians sided with British against American settlers British Weaknesses Soldiers had to be stationed in Ireland France was looking for an opportunity to fight Britain. Inept British government Lack of will to fight colonists by British citizens Best generals and soldiers not sent to America British had to conquer the colonists. Poor communication between London and generals. America’s large area
Unit 234 American Strengths and Weaknesses American Strengths Great leaders – George Washington Possible foreign aid and diplomacy – Benjamin Franklin Excellent European Officers. Fighting defensively Guerilla Warfare Self-sustaining agriculturally Moral advantage – just cause American Weaknesses Badly organized and historically disunified colonies Economic difficulties. No metallic currency resulted in worthless paper Continentals and high inflation Few manufactured military supplies Poorly trained and Unreliable militia Many Loyalists and apathetic colonies, only a minority were selfless Patriots.
Second Continental Congress May 10, 1775 the 2 nd Continental Congress met with all 13 colonies represented. – Adopted measures to raise money – Created an army and navy – Selected George Washington as General of Boston Army No clear desire for independence
Common Sense 1776: Thomas Paine published Common Sense. Best seller: 120,000 copies Paine said it was common sense that the colonies should be independent. – Called for a new public society a Republic where power comes from the people
Changing American Ideology Ideology (Beliefs, goals, expectation, and worldview of a person) Before the French and Indian War, the ideology (beliefs) of colonialists were that they were English subjects living in America. – Like Children they were dependent on Britain. After the French and Indian War, felt we were Americans with British Rulers. – They believed they deserved more rights and freedoms. During the revolution the American ideology of the Patriots changed and the Patriots felt they were Americans with a British tyrant. – They could and should be independent.
Declaration of Independence Congress appointed a committee to prepare a statement of separation. – Thomas Jefferson would write it. July 2, 1776: the motion was adopted and America was declared free and independent. The Declaration of Independence was approved on July 4, 1776. – long list of misdeeds of King George III. – It declared that “all men are created equal”. The Patriots were now fighting for freedom and independence. The Declaration of Independence became the source for revolutions around the world.
Unit 239 Saratoga Summer and Fall 1776: Washington’s soldiers met disaster and retreat. December 26, 1776: Washington beat the Hessians (German mercenaries) at the Battle of Trenton. 1777: General Burgoyne was defeated and forced to surrender at the Battle of Saratoga. – This was the major turning point in the Revolution. Because of the Battle of Saratoga, diplomat Benjamin Franklin was able to persuade France to become allies with Patriots.
Unit 240 Yorktown British General Cornwallis camped at a swampy, disease ridden area of Virginia named Yorktown. General Washington’s Patriots and Rochambeau's French Army cornered the British by land. France’s fleet cornered them by water. Cornwallis was forced to surrender. Fighting continued between Loyalists and Patriots but the British were weary of war.
Unit 241 Treaty of Paris We WON Independence!! The Treaty of Paris was signed in 1783. 1.British recognized American Independence 2.Boundaries stretch west to the Mississippi, north to the Great Lakes, and South to Florida. 3.Spain took Florida from Britain 4.The British were to leave their posts south of the Great Lakes (Broken by Britain) 5.Loyalists were not to be persecuted. (Broken by America)
Unit 242 Unit 4: Creating a New Country The time period between the Am. Revolution and the Constitution is known as the Critical Period. – It was critical for all of Am. History in setting up the government. Patriots did not want a strong National (Central) government. – A strong government could turn into a tyranny. 1781, Articles of Confederation – Strong states, weak National Government Provisions of the Articles of Confederation: 1.13 states joined for common problems, such as foreign affairs. 2.Congress (Legislative Branch) was most important. 3.No Executive Branch: Americans feared strong leaders 4.No Judicial Branch: left to states 5.Each state had a single vote.
Unit 243 Weaknesses Articles of Confederation were weak. – Individual states had more power Limitations of the Articles: 1.States printed money and taxed goods from other states. 2.National government could not collect taxes. 3.No standing Army or Navy to stop future revolutions. –Even with Article’s weaknesses, it became a significant step toward the Constitution
Unit 244 Important Land Laws A few laws made under the Articles shaped our history. Land Ordinance of 1785 – Land would be sold to Pay national debt. – Region split into townships. – One section set aside for public schools. Northwest Ordinance of 1787 – Northwest would first begin as territories – Territories would become a state when it had 60,000 people. – Slavery was outlawed in the Northwest.
History seen through God’s Word Numbers 33 54 And you shall divide the land by lot as an inheritance among your families; to the larger you shall give a larger inheritance, and to the smaller you shall give a smaller inheritance; there everyone's inheritance shall be whatever falls to him by lot. You shall inherit according to the tribes of your fathers. According to the Bible, how was the new land divided between the people of Israel? How did America divide its new land? What will the result be if the wealthy can buy the better land in America? Why might God’s way have been better? Unit 145
Unit 246 Failure of the Articles of Confederation Problems under the Articles: 1.U.S. had difficulty raising money from states. 2.Public debt was piling up. 3.States were printing depreciated paper currency. 4.Some states were placing tariffs (taxes) on goods from other states. 5.Can’t stop rebellions. After the American Revolution, states were broke and the country fell into an economic depression. – States increased property taxes and if a farmer could not pay their farms were foreclosed (taken) and sold. 1786-1787, Shay’s Rebellion: Group of poor farmers that wanted a new Revolution to end the taxes and stop foreclosures. – The wealthy had to pay for their own militia to stop them.
Unit 2 47 Need for a Stronger Government The wealthy wanted a stronger National government to deal with these problems. 1786, Annapolis Convention – Only 5 states showed up. – Constitutional Convention was to be held next year in Philadelphia. The purpose would be to change the Articles of Confederation. – But, they ended up making a Constitution.
Unit 248 Creation of the Constitution The Constitutional Convention: 1.Most were wealthy men 2.Washington elected chairman with Madison, Franklin, Hamilton, John Adams attending. – Federalists 3. Sessions were held in complete secrecy. AntiFederalists: Thomas Jefferson, Patrick Henry, and Samuel Adams were not invited to attend.
Unit 249 Madison: Father of the Constitution Two major ideas of James Madison had for a better government. 1.National principle: National government should be stronger than the states. 2.Separation of powers: Each Branch of government had different powers. 3 Branches: 1. Legislative = Makes Laws (Congress) 2.Executive = Enforces Laws & runs government (President) 3.Judicial = Judges and ensures the laws are Constitutional (Court system and Supreme Court)
Stronger President Strong, independent executive branch (President) created. – Washington earned the trust of the delegates. Presidential powers: 1.Military Commander in Chief. 2.Power to appoint judges. 3.Veto of legislation. Electoral College elects the president rather than direct vote. – Electors would be chosen by the states. Vast majority of the people excluded from voting for president. – Wealthy Elites wanted the power to pick the President. Unit 250
Features of the Constitution Congress makes our laws. The number of votes per state (Representation) in Congress was the biggest issue of the Convention. "Large-State Plan" (Virginia Plan) – Representation in Congress should be based on population. Larger states advantage. "Small-State Plan" (New Jersey Plan) – "Equal representation" by states, regardless of population. "Great Compromise“ = Both Ideas 1.Representation by population in the House of Representatives. – Census every 10 years 2.Equal Representation in the Senate – 2 Senators each. – Were to be the wealthy elite, picked by State Legislators. Both “Houses” of Congress must approve all of the U.S. laws.
North-South Issues In the North slavery was ending but in the South slavery was growing. – Constitution ended African Slave Trade by 1808. North and South disagreed over how their population would be counted. – More People = More Votes in House of Representatives. "Three-fifths" Compromise: Slaves counted as 3/5 of a person. America as a land of Equality was sacrificed for a United States. – South would not have ratified Constitution. Unit 252
Unit 253 Supreme Law of U.S. “Elastic Clause” = Congress can make laws it needs to carry out the Constitution. – Nationalists wanted a powerful Federal government. – States’ rights wanted to limit federal government's power. Continues to be Controversial. "Supremacy Clause” = Constitution became the “Supreme Law of the Land.” – Federal power over state power. Originally, no Bill of Rights
Unit 254 Ratification Congress submitted the Constitution to the states for Ratification. – People shocked that the Articles of Confederation was to be ended. – Secrecy left the country in the dark. Federalists vs. Antifederalists – AntiFederalists: Constitution would kill liberty. – Federalists: America needed a stronger National Government. George Mason: "Father of the Bill of Rights" Refused to sign the Constitution until rights were added. Federalist Papers (85 in all): series of articles promoting the Constitution. 1788, Constitution ratified with agreement that a Bill of Rights would be added to the Constitution.
Bill of Rights Bill of Rights – 1791, First ten amendments to the Constitution – Guarantees Freedom and Rights Amendments based on the rights the British took away from us before and during the American Revolution. 1.Amendment 1. Freedom of speech, religion, press, petition & assembly. 2.Amendment 2. Right to bear arms. 3.Amendment 3. Soldiers may not be quartered in people’s homes. 4.Amendment 4. No Unreasonable searches and seizures. 5.Amendment 5. Rights at trial and to life, liberty and property. 6.Amendment 6. Right to a fair and speedy trial in criminal cases. 7.Amendment 7. Right to a trial in civil cases. 8.Amendment 8. No Excessive fines and unusual punishments. 9.Amendment 9. People have rights not listed in the Constitution. 10.Amendment 10. Powers not given to the National government are for the states or the people. 55Unit 3 Handout
56 President Washington 1789, Washington unanimously elected president by the Electoral College. Washington set precedents on how the country would run and function that we still have today. – Constitution and government was first created to favor the wealthy and businesses. Washington created a Cabinet of advisors to help him run the government. – Precedent: Consulting of cabinet members (department heads) in order to make decisions. Secretary of State: Anti-Federalist Thomas Jefferson Secretary of the Treasury: Federalist Alexander Hamilton Why might people with different ideas help the President make good decisions? __________________________________ Why might people with different ideas make it difficult to for the President to make good decisions? __________________________________ Unit 3
Hamilton’s Financial Plan Federalist Alexander Hamilton devised a Financial Plan to strengthen the United States. Report on Public Credit (1790): all state debt from the American Revolution should be paid by the new United States government. – Assumption of State Debt. New England states (North) liked the idea of the U.S. pay back the debt. – (they still owed debt) Southern states did not like this idea. – (they had paid the debt back) Compromise: The capital was moved from New York City to Washington D.C. To pay the debt, Hamilton added higher Tariffs and Excise Taxes. – Tariffs: Tax on Imported goods – Excise taxes: Taxes on manufactured goods (Whiskey Tax)
1 st Bank of the United States Hamilton wanted a Bank of the United States (BUS) to help businesses and deposit government money. – Bank printed the National currency, held tax revenues, helped industry with loans Anti-Federalists hated the idea of a bank because it was not in the Constitution. – Strict Constructionists Federalists liked the idea of a bank because they believed it was needed for a better government and a stronger economy. – Loose Constructionists Anti-Federalists hated the higher taxes and laws of the Federalists. – Created a new Political Party = Democratic-Republicans Called Republicans for short – Today’s Democrats Unit 258
John Jay and the Supreme Court Judicial Act of 1789: Organized the Judicial Branch – Supreme Court with a chief justice (John Jay) and five associates – Organized Supreme Court, federal district, and circuit courts.
Whiskey Rebellion Poor farmers felt victimized by the wealthy. 1794, Whiskey Rebellion: Pennsylvania farmers were angry from Hamilton's excise tax and they rebelled. – Some talked of secession (leaving) from U.S. Washington and Hamilton accompanied troops to stop them. – The Whiskey Boys dispersed. Significance: Federal government showed it could stop rebellions. (protect the people) – Proved that a Shays’-type rebellion could not succeed under the new Constitution. The poor Anti-Federalist farmers hated the wealthy Federalists.
Birth of the Two-Party System Two groups emerged in opposition to each other Anti-Federalists become the Democratic-Republicans Jeffersonians: Advocated the rule of the people. Less Government State’s Rights. mostly farmers. Strict Constructionists Believed in freedom of speech Pro-French: Supported ideas of the French Revolution. Federalists Federalists: Believed in gov't by upper class. John Jay: "Those who own the country ought to govern it." More government Supported a strong central government Most lived in cities Loose Constructionists. Distrusted the common people. Pro-British in foreign policy
62 Franco-American Alliance War broke out between Britain and France. – (French Revolution) U.S. was an ally to France under the Franco-American Alliance of 1778. President Washington believed war should be avoided at all costs. Washington’s Neutrality Proclamation of 1793: – Proclaimed U.S. neutrality between Britain and France. Unit 3
Reaction to Neutrality Reaction to Neutrality. – Democratic-Republican Jeffersonians enraged. – Federalists supported it. Jay Treaty: – Federalist John Jay was sent to Britain. – Temporarily improved (normalized) relations with Britain Unit 363
64 Washington’s Farewell Washington reluctantly accepted a second term. But he refused to accept a third term as President – Set a precedent of 2 terms – Broken by FDR Farewell Address: – Warned against permanent (entangling) foreign alliances (like the treaty with France) – Warned of the dangers of political parties. Unit 3
65 Adams Presidency Election of 1796: Federalist John Adams defeated Jefferson. – Democratic-Republican Jefferson, as runner-up, became vice president America wanted diplomatic relations with France and Britain. – Jay Treaty with Britain XYZ Affair, 1797: – U.S. delegates told by three French agents they had to pay a $250,000 bribe to talk to the French government. 1798-1799: Undeclared (Quasi) Naval war with France 1.Navy Department created 2.Marine Corps established 3.Army grew Unit 3
66 Convention of 1800 The Convention of 1800 avoided an all out war between France and America. 1798, Federalists passed Alien and Sedition Acts to prevent Democratic-Republicans from taking power. – Alien: Someone from another country – Sedition: Going against your country Alien Acts: Raised residence for U.S. citizenship from 5 years to 14 yrs. – President could deport "dangerous" foreigners. Sedition Act: criticizing officials (president) in speeches and the press could be fined or imprisoned. – What did this break? _________________________ Unit 3
67 Revolution of 1800 Jefferson becomes President 1800, Jefferson defeated Adams – Most support for Jefferson came from South & West (farmers and settlers). What Party was in power before? __________________ What Party came to Power? ______________________ Revolution of 1800: Significance: Peaceful transfer of power from a fair election. Unit 3
Federalist Judges Judiciary Act of 1801: Federalists created 16 new courts. Adams added Federalist "midnight judges" on his last day in office. – Federalist laws would stay in place. Federalist John Marshall appointed as Supreme Court Chief Justice. – John Marshall believed in a strong federal government = Federalist Unit 268
69 JEFFERSON’S PRESIDENCY Democratic-Republican Thomas Jefferson as President – Who supported Jefferson? ____________________ Jefferson surprisingly kept most of Federalist policies. – He did pardon those convicted of the Sedition Acts. – Ended Excise (Whiskey) Taxes Unit 3
Marbury vs Madison, 1803 In his last day, President Adams signed commissions of Federalist "midnight judges." The new Secretary of State James Madison refused to appoint Federalist William Marbury as a judge. – William Marbury sued. Supreme Court dismissed the case and said the Supreme Court cannot enforce a law. – Only the President can enforce laws. Judicial Review came from Marbury vs. Madison. – U.S. Supreme Court had the power to rule a law by Congress unconstitutional. Chief Justice John Marshall made the Supreme Court and National Government powerful through his cases. 70Unit 3
71 12th Amendment (1804) Presidential elections caused Confusion: – 1 st Place: President – 2 nd Place: Vice-President 12 th Amendment: Now electors specify that they were voting for one President and one vice president. – Today we vote for President and Vice-President together. Jefferson tried to impeach Federalist Judge Samuel Chase. – Senate failed to convict Chase. – Independence and separation of powers in government. What is the danger if Congress impeached Judges and President’s they do not like? Unit 3
McCulloch v. Maryland (1819) Issue: Maryland tried to get rid of its branch of the Bank of the United States by taxing it. Ruling: Maryland cannot tax the United States. – Power to tax is the power to destroy. Supremacy of national government over state government. – States cannot tax or make laws against the United States.
Pirates (1801-1805) Initially, Jefferson reduced the size of the U.S. Army and Navy. – Why? ________________________________ Attacks on U.S. merchant ships by North African pirates (Tripoli) forced Jefferson to increase the military. – Jefferson ordered the build up of a fleet of small gunboats. This “Mosquito Fleet” later proved ineffective during the War of 1812 73Unit 3
The Louisiana Purchase Napoleon decided to sell all of Louisiana to pay for his war in Europe. – Westward-looking Americans enthusiastically supported the purchase. Jefferson was not sure he could buy the land. As a strict constructionist, the Constitution did not authorize purchases of new lands into the U.S. Reluctantly, Jefferson accepted treaty. The Louisiana Territory was purchased for $15 million. 74Unit 3
Most important land purchase in U.S. History Results of Purchase: 1.Doubled the size of the U.S. for only 3 cents an acre. 2.Westward expansion. 3.Rise of U.S. as economic & political power – Resources for the Industrial Revolution. 4.Boosted American Nationalism. – Nationalism: Love of nation, country 5.By 1890, all Native Americans would be killed or forced onto reservations. 75Unit 3
Lewis and Clark 1804-1806: Exploration of Louisiana Territory – Jefferson interested in finding an all-water route to the Pacific. – There was not one. Meriwether Lewis & William Clark appointed to explore the region. – Sacajawea, became a scout & translator. Expedition allowed the U.S. to claim Oregon and further opened West. 1806-1807, Zebulon M. Pike: explored Colorado & New Mexico; discovered Pike’s Peak. 76Unit 3
Problems with Britain British Problems: Early 1800s, 6,000 Americans Impressed by British Navy – (Impressments = forcible enlistment of sailors) Chesapeake Affair: USS Chesapeake refused to be searched by Britain for deserters and they opened fire on our ship. Britain partly blamed for the Indian problems. Indian Chief Tecumseh formed a confederacy of Indians to stop white settlers. Tecumseh’s brother “The Prophet” led a religious movement rejecting white man’s ways. Stop using alcohol, textile clothing, and tribes should never sell land without all tribes in agreement. – British sold weapons to these Indians. – Led to the Battles of Fallen Timbers and Tippecanoe. Indians were wiped out leading the way for more American expansion. 77Unit 3
War of 1812 1809, Democratic-Republican Madison became President. War Hawks: Angry young Americans who wanted to prove themselves through war with Indians and Britain. – They also wanted to take Canada. June, 1812: U.S. declared war on Britain and invaded Canada. – The war was terrible for America. General Andrew Jackson: victorious in Southwest. Andrew Jackson Ruthless towards Indians. 1814: Battle of Horseshoe Bend, General Andrew Jackson attacked a Creek village and killed 857 warriors. – Jackson helped by Cherokee and Choctaw Indians Unit 378
Battle of New Orleans Jan 1815, Battle of New Orleans – Jackson defeated the British but ironically, battle was needless: Treaty of Ghent had been signed two weeks earlier but the two armies didn’t get word until after the battle. Battle of New Orleans resulted in American pride and Nationalism – Jackson became the hero of Westerners. Unit 379
Treaty of Ghent 1814: Treaty of Ghent ended War of 1812 Both sides agreed to stop fighting and to restore conquered territory. War resulted in improved relations and respect by British. The War of 1812 was considered by some historians to be America’s 2 nd War of Independence. – We proved we would not be taken back by Britain. 80Unit 3
Hartford Convention New England Federalists opposed War of 1812. – The war hurt the shippers and trade. – Federalists knew the Army and Navy were not big enough. Right before the end of the War of 1812, New England Federalists met at a secret Hartford Convention. A minority of radical delegates urged secession. – Secession: leaving and making a new country, – Outvoted by moderate Federalists Once America won the War, the Hartford Convention made Federalists look unpatriotic and almost treasonous. – No one wanted to be tied to them. America became controlled by One-Party in America: Democratic- Republicans. 81Unit 3
Who is welcoming back his “Yankee Boys”? What is the cartoonist saying? What would be the Democratic-Republican’s reaction? What would be the Federalist reaction? Unit 382
PRESIDENT MONROE AND THE ERA OF GOOD FEELINGS The years after the War of 1812 were named the era of Good Feelings. Causes of Good Feelings: 1.Victories in the War of 1812, especially Battle of New Orleans – Americans could defend itself. 2.Decline of dependence on Europe. – More American industry. 3.End of Federalist party. 4.Western expansion and optimism about the future.
1 st Seminole War During the War of 1812, Spanish Florida was a safe-haven for the Seminoles and for runaway black slaves. 1817-1818, U.S. army attacked the Seminoles in 1 st Seminole War. – Spain could not protect Spanish Florida. – Gen. Andrew Jackson quickly defeated the Seminoles. 1819: Adams-Onis (Florida Purchase Treaty) 1.Spain gave Florida to the U.S. 2.U.S. abandoned claims to Texas. Andrew Jackson will become the first territorial governor of Florida.
Monroe Doctrine America was concerned Europeans would start wars and take new land as colonies in Latin America. 1823: President Monroe warned Europe: Monroe Doctrine – Non-Colonization: Colonial powers could keep existing colonies but gain no new ones. – Non-Intervention: Europe stay out of the Americas!! America believed it had a sphere of power (Hegemony) over the Western Hemisphere (Central and South America) Nationalistic Americans widely supported it. – Americas for the Americans. Immediate impact of Monroe Doctrine was small. – U.S. army and navy remained weak. Long-term impact: Monroe Doctrine became cornerstone of U.S. foreign policy during 1800s and 1900s. Many Latin America Countries hated American hegemony (sphere of power). – (Communists think of this as the start of American Imperialism)
The Growing West Immigrants and settlers moved west and territories became states. New Western states' characteristics 1.Thought of themselves as the “Common Man” 2.Were not focused states' rights issues (like the South) 3.Received land and depended on federal government. 4.Contained a wide diversity of people immigrating from the east. After the War of 1812: – South had Plantation System agriculture. – North-East had early factories and industry. – West had medium size farms.
Henry Clay's American System: After the War of 1812, America had a rebirth of Nationalism (love of country) – Henry Clay wanted to grow and unite the country economically through his American System. American System 1.High tariff (Americans support American Industry) 2.Internal improvements – Roads, canals, transportation 3.2 nd Bank of the United States (BUS) – Loans, national currency According to Clay, everyone benefits: 1.Northern cities supported it = helped industry 2.Southerners should support it = north bought cotton. (South won’t) 3.Westerners should support it = north bought their food. (West won’t)
Panic of 1819 The dream of most Americans and immigrants was to own their own farms. Settlers continued to move west to buy very inexpensive land. – Bought from land speculators. Panic of 1819: Economic panic and depression came when land speculators could not pay back loans. A Panic is when people fear an economic downturn. A Bank Panic is when depositors run to a bank and try to take out all of their deposits. – If someone did not make it to the bank in time, banks would run out of money and the depositor would lose everything. Bank’s money was out on loans. – Loans for Land Speculation, farms, railroads, stocks, etc…
Farmers Blamed Banks Main Causes of 1819 panic: 1.Over-speculation of western frontier lands by small “Wildcat” banks. – Speculators could not pay back loans 2.“Wildcat” Banks lost money and could not pay back their loans to the 2 nd Bank of the United States (BUS). 3.BUS forced "wildcat" western banks to foreclose on western farms. – Farms were sold by the banks to pay back the BUS. – Many “Wildcat” Banks closed. 4.Farmers blamed BUS for losing their farms.
Missouri Compromise of 1820 1819, Missouri asked Congress if they could become a State. Northerners wanted Missouri to get rid of slavery. Southerners wanted Missouri to allow slavery. Missouri Compromise: 1.Missouri was a slave state. 2.Maine was a free state. – Balance between free and slave in the Senate. 3.Future slavery prohibited north of 36º 30' line, the southern border of Missouri – Future North/South states would have to wait until another was ready to keep the balance.
Legacy of the Missouri Compromise 1.Missouri Compromise lasted 34 years and prevented War. – Lasted until 1854 - Kansas-Nebraska Act. 2.Slavery became a dominant issue in politics. 3.Sectionalism grew. – People cared about their section of the country (North or South) more than the country as a whole. 4.The breakdown of the Missouri Compromise resulted in the Civil War.
The Missouri Compromise and Slavery 1820–1821 Note the 36° 30' line.
Common Man 1820s, more and more western “Common Man” were allowed to vote and take office. “New Democracy” based on universal white manhood suffrage. – All white men can vote even if they do not own property. Politicians had to represent common peoples' interests to win elections.
Jacksonian Democracy 1.Federalist Democracy =Wealthy ran the government for the wealthy. 2.Jeffersonian Democracy = the people should be governed as little as possible. 3.1820s and 1830s: Jacksonian Democracy: government should be done by the common people to help the people.
Corrupt Bargain Election of 1824 "The Corrupt Bargain" – Jackson, John Quincy Adams, Henry Clay, and Crawford ran. – Andrew Jackson had most popular votes but didn't have 51% of the electoral vote. Speaker of the House Henry Clay pushed for JQ Adams. Adams announced Henry Clay as secretary of state a few days later. Jackson's supporters called this the "corrupt bargain“ – The Western “Common Man” believed Jackson should have won.
"Tariff of Abominations" Tariff of “Abominations” 1828: Congress increased the tariff to 45%. Tariff would hurt South to help Northern industry. Senator John C. Calhoun's "The Southern Carolina Exposition" – Said the tariff was unconstitutional. South Carolina said states should nullify the tariff. – Nullification: State’s Rights = States should be able to not obey United State’s Laws
Election of 1828 Jackson defeated Adams 178 - 83 First President from the West; seen as a great common man. Jackson made the Presidency more powerful. Started Spoils System: Rewarding political supporters with public office (gov. jobs). Congress upset by his "Kitchen Cabinet" – Unofficial group of temporary advisors. – Not answerable to Congress. – Not unconstitutional.
Nullification Controversy of 1832 South Carolina was angry over 1828 "Tariff of Abominations.” Tariff of 1832: lowered tariff to 35% – For South Carolina this was not good enough. South Carolina nullified Tariff. (the state refused to pay the tax) – Started preparing militia. – S.C. threatened to secede. Might lead to a possible civil war. Henry Clay proposed a compromise that ended controversy. – Tariff reduced by 10%. Force Bill was passed allowing the President to use the military to collect taxes. End of talk of nullification, now talked about secession.
Vetoing the 2 nd Bank of the United States (BUS) Jackson distrusted the BUS ("moneyed monster") – Jackson and the common man thought the 2 nd BUS only helped the wealthy. – Banks took away people’s farms. 1832, Jackson vetoed BUS's charter. – The economy went down and the farmers had trouble buying land. Many people believed Jackson was acting more as a King than President.
The Hydra represents the Bank and its supporters. Who is the person, how is he fighting, and why is he doing this?
Part of Martin Luther King Jr.’s I Have a Dream speech: 1963 I have a dream today! – I have a dream that one day, down in Alabama, with its vicious racists, with its governor having his lips dripping with the words of "interposition" and "nullification" – one day right there in Alabama little black boys and black girls will be able to join hands with little white boys and white girls as sisters and brothers. I have a dream today! What does Martin Luther King Jr. say was still happening in Alabama in 1963? ____________________________________________ Alabama believed in __________ Rights over the national government. Unit 3102
King Jackson I After Jackson vetoed the 2 nd Bank of the United States, the government’s money was transferred to 23 “Pet” banks. Jackson was able to control these “Pet Banks” through his Treasury Department. – He selected the banks that received the money. These banks were not very good and they printed almost worthless money. Many people believed Jackson was acting more as a King than President. – Resulted in the Whig Party.
Indian Removal 1830, most Indian tribes in the east were surrounded by white settlements. – U.S. Treaty (Laws) gave Indians their land. – White settlers wanted their lands. Indian Removal Act (1830): law removed remaining Indians to Indian Territory (Oklahoma). – 1830s, Over 100,000 Indians forcibly moved. Bureau of Indian Affairs created. – Gave food, clothing, money to the Indians to control them on the reservations.
The Second Seminole War White Americans moved into northern Florida after the 1 st Seminole War. Treaty of Payne's Landing: 1832, Signed by a few Seminoles required Seminoles to move to the Indian Territory. 1835, U.S. Army sent to remove Indians. 1835-1842: The 2 nd Seminole War. – 1837, Chief Osceola was captured and imprisoned. – Most Seminoles moved.
Trail of Tears Cherokee nation sat on valuable land in northwest Georgia 1.1829, Gold discovered. 2.Land could be used for cotton Georgia wanted to give the land to white settlers. Worcester v. Georgia (1832) – John Marshall ruled that Georgia law did not apply to Indians. “King” Andrew Jackson – Denied power of Supreme Court and used the Army to move them anyways. – Unconstitutional. Jackson thought this was best for the common man and the Indians. Trail of Tears – 1838: Soldiers forced Cherokees to move to the Indian Territory (Oklahoma). – 4,000 died.
Black Hawk War (1832) Black Hawk War – Chief Black Hawk and his Indians in Illinois & Wisconsin resisted removal. – Crushed by U.S. troops. Volunteers included: – Captain Abraham Lincoln – Lieutenant Jefferson Davis
Whig Party Whig Party grew of people who hated the policies of Jackson. Whigs included: 1.Wealthy who supported the 2 nd Bank of the United States. 2.Business owners who wanted higher tariffs 3.Southern Plantation Owners for State’s Rights and did not like Jackson's actions with South Carolina (Nullification controversy and the Force Bill)
Jackson's Legacy Negative Contributions Spoils system Killing the BUS resulted in thousands of smaller bank failures. Disregarded authority of the Supreme Court Trail of Tears. Increased Sectionalism. Positive Contributions Strong leadership in 1832 tariff controversy Champion of common people Established Democratic Party.
Panic of 1837 1836, Democrat Martin Van Buren became President (Jackson's handpicked successor). Panic of 1837 - Causes: – Irresponsible state banks gave loans to land speculators. – Terrible wheat and cotton harvest, farmers could not pay back loans to speculators. – Land Speculators unable to pay back loans causing bank failures. Americans blamed Van Buren for the Depression.
Election of 1840 Both Whigs and Democrats battled for the common man vote. – Parades, slogans, BBQs, etc… 1840 Whig William Henry Harrison won the Presidency – Slogan: Tippecanoe and Tyler Too Democrats vs. Whigs until the 1850s when the issue of slavery will break the Whigs. – The anti-slavery Republican Party will take the Whig’s place.
The Industrial Revolution 1st Industrial Revolution: From hand made goods to using machines to make goods. – Changed labor and farming. – New markets and inventions made America wealthy. Most industry were textile (thread and cloth) mills in the north. – South became wealthy by supplying the north with cotton 1793: Eli Whitney's cotton gin: 50x more effective than picking cotton by hand Cotton production became highly profitable – "King Cotton" in the South – Slavery grew. 1798, Eli Whitney introduced principle of interchangeable parts. – Basis of modern mass production, assembly line methods. – Goods are now cheaper and made in larger quantities.
Dignity and pride of workmanship are evident in this tidy wheelwright’s shop. Small-scale, intimate workplaces like this were eventually overshadowed by the mass-production The Master Craftsman
Manufacturing Guns 1860 A rare daguerreotype showing an operator working the Lock Frame Jigging Machine in Samuel Colt’s state-of-the-art Hartford, Connecticut, gun factory.
Old Immigration The first factories were textile mills that made thread then cloth. Lowell Girls: Local farmers' daughters hired to work in the Textile Mills. Irish and German immigrants replaced Lowell Girls; worked for very low wages. Irish Immigrants: 1840s, 2 million people died from the Irish potato famine. – Irish were targets for discrimination: Catholic and very poor. – Hated by Native Protestants as they took over jobs for lower pay. Germans: 1830-1860, Over 1.5 million came to America. – largest group of immigrants. Nativism: hatred of foreigners. – Nativists feared immigrants would overpopulate. – Take jobs, lower wages. 1849, extreme Nativists formed the "Know-Nothing" Party
Crooked Voting What is this cartoon saying about the Irish and Germans? Who would agree with this cartoon?
New Inventions New inventions made American businesses wealthy. Sewing Machine: Clothing now made in factories. – 1846, Invented by Elias Howe. Telegraph: Samuel Morse – Provided instant communication across large distances. – Businesses could sell around the country and order needed resources.
Transportation Revolution Transportation Revolution (1790-1860) brought the industry goods to stores all around America. – Significance: Created a National market economy. 1811, Cumberland Road (National Road) – Road became vital highway to the west. – Shipping became cheaper. – Immigrants moved west; western cities grew. – Land values increased. Canals: – 1825, Erie Canal in New York. – Shipping cheaper and time reduced. – New York became fastest growing and wealthiest city.
Moving Goods Rivers: Traditionally river travel was only one way on rafts. 1807, Robert Fulton used a steam engine on the Clermont. Steamship Significance: ships could now be used up and down river. – Carrying capacity doubled. – Population clustered along banks of rivers. Railroads: most important transportation. – Fast, reliable, all-weather, and cheaper than canals.
By the mid-nineteenth century, steamboats had made the Mississippi a bustling river highway—as it remains today.
Regional Specialization The Industrial and Transportation Revolutions together made the Market Revolution. – New Markets around the nation to buy and sell the factory goods and deliver resources. National Market economy emerged. – East, West, and South specialized in certain economic activities. – Regional Specialization: each region of the country specialized in different products. Transportation integrated the Regional Specialization. East: Industry – Textile mills (cloth) used cotton from south & food from west – Large population = immigrants West: Farms – Nation’s breadbasket: Grain and livestock – Food for eastern cities South: Plantations – Cotton exported to New England and Britain for textile mills – Resisted change, Slavery
How did America become an Economic World Power? Early American (before 1790s): Most women could only afford 2 dresses – Small farmers, small shops with a master craftsman (apprentice-Indentured servant) – Experience and highly skilled master. – Slow, expensive, hand-made basic items After 1798: Market Revolution: A National Market for machine-made goods. Many Dresses: inexpensive, – Two parts of the Market Revolution: 1.Industrial Revolution: Goods made by machines in cities (north-east) 2.Transportation Revolution: Goods in cities could be brought to markets all over the nation. Industrial Revolution and Transportation Revolution Required: – Mass production: 1798 Eli Whitney interchangable parts – Economic freedom and laws to start businesses: no charters / Patents for new inventions – Resources: America has resources: north – rivers, south cotton – west minerals / food – Large population: buy products and unskilled or low skilled workers for factiries Led to: Regional Specialization: Goods from around country - west = grain; east = industry; south = cotton Led to Globalization of American goods: American goods were sold all over the world Led to Imperialism to compete: Rich countries controlled poor countries for more resources and new markets to grow their economy – Europe (Britain) especially believed they needed Imperialism to grow economically Europe has fewer resources, no immigration Handout
2 nd Great Awakening: 1790-1860 The Second Great Awakening: Awakening of America’s love of God. Christian Revivals and Camp meetings – Emotionalism Effects: "born-again" Christians – Repented of their sins. – Fostered new reform – America should repent of its sins.
New Religious Groups "Burned-Over District: Western NY, "hellfire and damnation" revivals became common. Adventists (Millerites): William Miller predicted Christ would return in 1843 and then 1844. 1830, Joseph Smith founded Mormons and made the Book of Mormon. – Practiced polygamy 1844, Joseph Smith murdered by mob in Illinois. – 1846-1847, Brigham Young led Mormons to Salt Lake City, Utah.
1820 - 1860: Reform 2 nd Great Awakening lead to reforms (changes). – Born-Again Christians wanted to end the sins of America. Major Issues: 1.Abolition: End sin of slavery. 2.Temperance: God wants us to slow down drinking. 3.Women’s Rights: Jesus respected women. 4.Education Reform: everyone deserves education. 5.Mental Institutions: Jesus loved the mentally ill. 6.Prison Reform: Jesus wants to minister to prisoners. 7.End all Wars: Jesus is a Peacemaker.
1800s Reforms 1800s, drunkenness was common in America. – danger to women and children. American Temperance Society: most important for women. – Temperance: Moderate use of alcohol – Prohibition: Make alcohol illegal 1848, Seneca Falls Convention: equality for women, property rights, voting. – Lucretia Mott (Quaker) and Elizabeth Cady Stanton – Women gradually admitted to college. Horace Mann : Better public education (Gov. run). Noah Webster: Dictionary standardized American English. Dorothea Dix: improved treatment of the mentally handicapped. Prisons should lead to repentance. American Peace Society: Peace Movement before the Civil War. The most important was abolition to end the sin of slavery.
Antebellum South “Before Civil War” The further South: 1.Warmer climate 2.More slaves 3.Higher commitment to keep slavery. Border South: Delaware, Maryland, Kentucky, & Missouri – Tobacco – Stayed with the Union during Civil War Middle South: Virginia, North Carolina, Tennessee, and Arkansas. – Tobacco, some cotton – Some Industry: used slave labor – Joined Confederacy after Civil War Started Deep South: South Carolina, Florida, Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, Texas – Rice, sugar cane, Cotton Plantations – Started the Civil War.
From the Map What was grown in the North, West, Border South (Virginia), and deep South in 1860?
Slavery the "Peculiar Institution" Planter "Aristocracy“ - South ruled by rich plantation owners. Eli Whitney’s Cotton Gin made slaves very valuable. – Cotton supplied New England and British Mills. – 1860, Nearly 4 million slaves. Southerners believed the only way to be successful was to use slave labor. – Few immigrants came to the South.
Attempts to Resist Slavery Horrors of Slavery: 1.Slave auctions - Families separated. 2.Brutal Punishment. 3.No opportunity for a better life. Slaves often sabotaged their master’s system. – Poisoned food – supplies often missing – equipment broken – slow work Many attempted to escape (Underground Railroad) Slave Revolts
Southern whites greatest fear was slave revolts. – relatively few. Stono Rebellion: 1739, slaves tried to go to Saint Augustine, FL. Gabriel Prosser: 1800, Prosser and 26 others were hanged. Denmark Vesey: 1822, Vesey and 30 others publicly hanged Nat Turner’s revolt: 1831, Sixty white Virginians killed - largest slave revolt in the South. – Over 100 slaves were killed; Turner was hanged. Nat Turner’s Revolt resulted in 1.Harsh Laws against slaves 2.Abolitionists blamed for revolts
From the Map Where were the most Slave Revolts? Why?
Abolition Abolition: Movement to end slavery First abolitionist movements began during American Revolution. – Quakers 1817, American Colonization Society: send freed Blacks to Africa. 1822, Liberia established on West African Coast. – 15,000 freed U.S. blacks transported over 40 years. – Most slaves felt they were Americans and did not want to leave. 2 nd Great Awakening convinced northern abolitionists of the sin of slavery.
“Am I Not a Man and a Brother? Am I Not a Woman and a Sister?” Who would feel guilty reading this?
Radical Abolitionists Radical Abolitionists wanted a law to immediately end slavery. William Lloyd Garrison – Published Liberator, antislavery newspaper – Started the American Anti-Slavery Society Angelina and Sarah Grimke – White southern abolitionists – Also involved in women’s rights. Frederick Douglass: Greatest black abolitionists – Book: Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass Depicted his life as a slave, struggle to read & write, and his escape to North. Abolitionists inspired people to help slaves escape. – Underground Railroad.
Manifest Destiny Manifest Destiny: Americans, 1840s & 1850s, believed God chose United States to control North America. – “sea to shining sea” June 15, 1846 - Oregon Treaty: U.S. received Oregon territory south of 49 th parallel from Britain. Oregon Trail: flood of American pioneers came to Oregon. – Trail blazed by Jedediah Smith.
The Birth of Texas 1821, Mexico gained its independence from Spain. 1822, Stephen Austin led Americans into Texas. Conflict between Mexicans & Americans grew over slavery, immigration, & local rights. – 1830, Mexico emancipated its slaves. Texans refused to obey Mexican law; new settlers and slaves poured in. 1835, Mexican dictator Santa Anna outlawed all local rights. 1836: Texas declared independence. – Santa Anna Killed all Americans at the Alamo. – "Remember the Alamo“, "Death to Santa Anna"
Texans’ Victory Sam Houston's army defeated Santa Anna. – Texas became a new country “Lone Star Republic.” Texas wanted to be annexed to America. – Northern Abolitionists opposed it. – Southerners welcomed idea of annexation. Jackson refused to annex Texas. – Mexico threatened war if U.S. should try. Texas left to protect itself.
Texas joins the Union Republic of Texas lasted 10 years. 1845, President Tyler annexed Texas. Mexico claimed U.S. had unjustly taken Texas. – Mexico refused to recognize the annexation. Southern expansionists wanted more Mexican territory for new slave states.
Manifest Destiny = California President Polk wanted to buy California. – Mexico said “No” and wanted Texas back. – California was seen as gateway to the Pacific. – Manifest Destiny Jan. 1846, Gen. Zachary Taylor marched from Nueces River to the Rio Grande. – Mexico believed the land was Mexican territory. April 1846, Mexican troops attacked Taylor. – Taylor said they were in American Territory on the east bank of the Rio Grande River.
The Mexican War America Declared War on Mexico Some Northern Whigs questioned if the war had begun on U.S. or Mexican territory. – Northerners called it "Mr. Polk’s War" Spot Resolutions: Northern Whig Representative Abraham Lincoln sought the exact "spot“ the war started. – If it started in Texas: Mexico started the war. – If it started in Mexico: America started the war Northern Whigs thought the southerners might have started the war on purpose. – Why would they do this? ___________________
Missouri Compromise 1820 – The South thought the Mexican territories would be slave states based on the Missouri Compromise. – Missouri slave state – Maine Free State – Future states above 36-30 free, below slave – Kept the balance in the Senate
Fighting the Mexican War Mexico’s military was no match for our military. 1.Capt. John Fremont captured California with the Bear Flag Revolt. 2.U.S. Navy seized Monterey & San Francisco. 3.Invasion of Mexico: Gen. Winfield Scott captured Mexico City. Mexico still refused to negotiate and instead carried on guerrilla warfare.
Treaty with Mexico Expansionists in South wanted all of Mexico. Feb. 2, 1848, Mexico and America signed the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. Provisions: 1.U.S. gained California, and modern day NM, AZ, UT and NV 2.U.S. paid $15 million.
Mexican War Results Results of the War with Mexico: 1.U.S. territory increased by 1/3 (including Texas) 2.Increased Sectionalism. 3.Mexican War resulted in Civil War. – Abolitionists saw Mexican War as conspiracy of southern slave owners. 4.Americans experienced in war. 5.Latin America began to fear the U.S. "Colossus of the North" 6.Manifest Destiny completed. Sea to shining sea.
New Territories = Sectionalism Slave owners saw the Mexican cession territory as an opportunity to expand slavery. Northern Whigs were against the expansion of slavery. – Mexico had outlawed slavery. Northern abolitionists and free-soilers supported the Wilmot Proviso: – Wilmot Proviso: Slavery should never exist in any of territory gained from Mexico. – Wilmot Proviso did not pass Senate. Southerners angry that the North tried to prevent the expansion of slavery.
Free-Soilers Free = No Slaves Soilers = People in the Mexican territory Free-Soilers: People who did not want slaves in their western territories. Free-soilers were not Abolitionists. They did not want slaves to take their jobs.
Gold in California 1848, Free-Soil Party created to oppose slavery into west. Most Free-Soilers were not abolitionists. – Did not want to compete for jobs with slaves in territories. – "Free-Soilers" grew into Republican Party. 1848, America’s Free-Slave States (Senate) was balanced. 1848, Gold was found at Sutter’s Mill in California. – 1849: Tens of thousands of “forty-niners” rushed into California to find gold. 1849: California’s “free-soiler” Constitution for statehood did not allow slavery. – Miners did not want slaves to compete with them for gold.
Compromise of 1850 If California became a free state, America was out of balance. – Texas would be the last slave state. Southerners were concerned that the north would soon be able to make a law outlawing slavery in America. – By 1850, Many Northerners saw slavery as morally evil and un- American. – Some southerners talked about secession. The Underground Railroad grew that helped slaves runaway. 1850, southerners demanded a new Fugitive Slave Law to bring their runaway slaves back. North wanted California, South wanted the right to keep their slaves. President Millard Fillmore signed the Compromise of 1850. – Talk of Secession of slave states died down.
Compromise of 1850 North got what they wanted South got what they wanted 1.California: Free State 2.Abolition of the slave trade (not slavery) in Washington D.C. 3.Disputed Texas territory went to New Mexico 1.New Fugitive-Slave Law: recapture runaway slaves 2.Texas received $10 million for the disputed territory that went to New Mexico.
Fugitive Slave Act Under the Fugitive Slave Law when a slave ran away: 1.Masters wrote a sworn affidavit that the person was their runaway slave. 2.Blacks could not testify they were really free. 3.Blacks were denied a jury trial. 4.Aiding a runaway slave was subject to six months' imprisonment and a $1,000 fine. 5.All northern police were required to arrest any possible runaway slave. ($1,000 fine if refused to arrest) 6.Northern Federal Marshalls were rewarded for capturing slaves
Why would the Underground Railroad now need to bring slaves to Canada as a result of the Fugitive Slave Act?
Results of Fugitive Slave Act The Fugitive Slave Act was hated in the North. – Man-Stealing Law Many northerners became abolitionists. Underground Railroad increased. Personal Liberty Laws were passed: denied use of local officials and jails. South felt disrespected that the North disobeyed law. – The one gain from the Compromise of 1850 became their greatest anger.
What does this Cartoon from Harper’s Weekly say will happen under the Fugitive Slave Act? Deuteronomy 23:15Declaration of Independence
Sectionalism Sectionalism of the Fugitive Slave Act was ripping apart the North and South. 1852, Harriett Beecher Stowe wrote the northern bestseller Uncle Tom’s Cabin. 1.Loved by the North, it talked of the horrors of slavery. 2.Hated by the South, “unfair, lies, she never saw slavery in the deep south.”
Republicans Republican Party was created with northern Whigs, Free-Soilers, and Know-Nothings. Republicans believed in (Northern Ideas): 1.Eventual Emancipation of Slaves 2.Outlawing alcohol 3.Helping farmers receive land 4.Helping industry - Tariffs The new Republican party was not allowed in the south. – It was a Sectional Party
Kansas-Nebraska Act 1854, Stephen A. Douglas proposed Kansas-Nebraska Act. Kansas would decide to be free or slave by voting: Popular Sovereignty – Kansas-Nebraska Act ended the Missouri Compromise. (Kansas above 36-30) Abolitionists outraged, southerners believed Kansas would vote to be a slave state. Groups of Abolitionists and free-soilers moved to Kansas. 1856, pro-slave Border Ruffians from Missouri burned the free- soil abolitionist town of Lawrence. – “Pro-Slavery” Ruffians hated their newspaper and ideas – “Bleeding Kansas”
The Legal Status of Slavery, from the Revolution to the Civil War
Violence 1856, Senator Preston S. Brooks of South Carolina beat northerner Senator Charles Sumner unconscious with a cane. – Sumner had made a speech against the south. 1856, Fanatical John Brown hated slavery and believed he was sent by God to destroy slave- owners. – John Brown killed 5 pro-slavery Border Ruffians in Pottawatomie, Kansas.
Lecompton Constitution 1857, Kansas had enough settlers (mostly free-soilers) to vote to become a state and vote on the Lecompton Constitution. Border Ruffians from Missouri came to Kansas right before the vote and fraudulently voted for slavery. Senator Stephen Douglas supported another up or down vote on the State Constitution. – Popular Sovereignty Kansas Free-soilers voted the entire Constitution down and Kansas remained a territory.
Dred Scott Decision Dred Scott’s master moved from Missouri to Illinois. 1857, Dred Scott sued for freedom claiming since slavery was illegal in Illinois he was automatically free. Dred Scott Supreme Court Decision: 1.He was a slave he could not sue in court. 2.Because he was property (slave) he could be taken to any territory and held as a slave. Result of Dred Scott Decision: – Missouri Compromise of 1820 was unconstitutional – Congress could not ban slavery in the territories. – No Free Territory in America. Southerners were very happy. Northerners said they would not obey the decision. – Northern nullification
Lincoln-Douglas Debates 1858, Illinois Senate: Republican Abraham Lincoln vs. Democrat Stephen Douglas. Lincoln-Douglas Debates: 1.Free-Soiler Republican Lincoln was against the Dred Scott Decision and slavery in the territories. 2.Democrat Stephen Douglas was for continuing popular sovereignty. (Voting) – Douglas’ Freeport Doctrine: Slavery would not spread if the people did not support it. Stephen Douglas won the Illinois Senate seat. Lincoln’s anti-slavery views became famous throughout the North and South.
John Brown - 1860 Presidential Election John Brown believed he was called by God to be a Moses for the black slave. – 1859, tried to start a slave revolt at Harpers Ferry, Virginia. John Brown was caught and executed. – His trial turned him into a hero of the northern abolitionist and a terrorist for southerners. Presidential Election of 1860: – Election of 1860 was divided between four candidates. Republican Lincoln won the Presidency. – Republicans were so hated by the south, Lincoln was not on southern ballots.
Who are these 4 People? What are they doing to America? How did this relate to Sectionalism?
S.C. Secedes South was outraged that Lincoln won the Presidency. Southerners declared that states rights must be protected. – Right to own slaves South Carolina seceded directly because of the Lincoln’s election. Secession 1.December 20, 1860, South Carolina left the United States. 2.Mississippi 3.Florida 4.Then Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, and Texas.
CSA February 1861, 7 original secession states met in Montgomery, Alabama and formed the Confederate States of America. – Confederate President: Jefferson Davis U.S. government said they were not a real country. South took southern forts that belonged to the U.S. Army and Navy. – Fort Clinch Video Fort Clinch Video The most important fort was Fort Sumter in Charleston, South Carolina. – The United State’s Army occupied this fort.
Lincoln Believed the Confederacy Never Existed Most Northerners wanted to keep America united. Crittenden Compromise: Kentucky Senator Crittenden proposed Amendments to the Constitution to prevent war. – Slavery prohibited north of the 36-30 line. – Southern rights for slavery would be protected. Lincoln rejected the Crittenden Amendments. Lincoln believed No State Can Leave the Union!
Fort Sumter Charleston Harbor, Ft. Sumter was one of two last remaining federal forts in the South. The day after inauguration, Lincoln was notified that supplies to the fort would soon run out. Lincoln notified South Carolina that he was sending supplies to the fort. – Lincoln wanted the South to fire the first shot. April 9, 1861: A supply ship left New York for Fort Sumter. April 12: Fort Sumter bombarded by more than 70 Confederate cannon – No loss of life during bombardment; fort heavily damaged – U.S. surrendered the fort. – Start of the Civil War.
The Civil War Confederate Advantages South fought for homes and states rights Defensive war strategy Good cavalry and soldiers Had superb military officers Union Advantages Large Population of 22 million, immigrants Overwhelming superiority in manufacturing, shipping, and banking. Railroads to bring Supplies Wealth Controlled the sea Lincoln much better leader than Jefferson Davis
U.S. Strategy to Win Union War Strategy: 1.Strangle the South by blockading its coasts – Anaconda Plan 2.Control the Mississippi River to cut the Confederacy in half. Vicksburg 3.Devastate the South through GA and then sending troops North through the Carolinas. Sherman’s March 4.Capture Richmond– Fall of Richmond (most important – Lee Defended Richmond)
New Technology New Union and Confederate weapons made Civil War terrible. 1.Rifling and Minie Balls 2.Rifled Cannons 3.Ironclad Ships 4.Spencer Repeating Rifles - North 5.Telegraph – North communicated directly with Washington D.C. 6.Railroads brought soldiers and supplies to battle. The North had better technology and had more of the new weapons and supplies. – Northern factories
South won the first Civil War battles Lincoln called on soldiers to attack the South. Lincoln called on soldiers to attack the South. – Middle South joined the Confederacy because they could not attack the South. – The capital was moved to Richmond, Virginia. 1861, 1 st Battle of Bull Run (1 st Manassas) 1861, 1 st Battle of Bull Run (1 st Manassas) – The Union army attacked northern Virginia. – Union lost and retreated back to Washington D.C. – McClellan was put in charge. North realized it was in for a long and bloody war. North realized it was in for a long and bloody war. – South thought the war would be easy. Peninsula Campaign: Richmond, Virginia attacked again by Union Gen. McClellan Peninsula Campaign: Richmond, Virginia attacked again by Union Gen. McClellan 2 nd Battle of Bull Run 2 nd Battle of Bull Run – Lee forced Yankees to retreat again. Guided Notes
Antietam Sept. 17, 1862: Battle of Antietam: Lee invaded the North - Maryland. – South wanted Britain help Confederacy. – Ended in a stalemate but Lee withdrew. Results: 1.Antietam: South never again so near victory 2.Britain decided not to help the South 3.Lincoln got the "victory" he needed to announce the Emancipation Proclamation.
The Emancipation Proclamation Emancipation Proclamation: All slaves in states in rebellion declared now and forever free. – Border states still in the Union could keep slaves. Emancipation Proclaimed on Sept. 22, 1862. – effective Jan. 1, 1863. Civil War now was to end slavery. – What was the Civil War about before the Proclamation? Slavery ended with the 13th Amendment in 1865.
Reaction to Emancipation Proclamation 1.Many Northerners felt Lincoln went too far. Irish started draft riots 2.Most abolitionists were pleased but it did not end slavery in the northern border states. 3.South now cannot go back to their life they had before the war unless they win. 4.Europe can’t help slave masters, so they can’t help the Confederacy. 5.New black soldiers increased the numbers for the Union.
War in East War in the East – Take Richmond Lee’s last victories: Fredericksburg: Lee defeated General Burnside. Chancellorsville (May 2-4, 1863) – Lee’s smaller force split and defeated the U.S. Army. – Significance: Stonewall Jackson killed accidentally by own man. Lee: "I have lost my right arm."
Gettysburg Battle of Gettysburg (July 1-3, 1863) – Lee invaded the North (Pennsylvania) – 53,000 casualties. Day 1 -- July 1: Confederates and Union fight around Gettysburg. Day 2 -- July 2: Major engagements. U.S. held Little Round Top. Day 3 -- July 3: – Lee ordered Pickett’s Charge. – Pickett’s division annihilated. – Lee retreated, never to invade North again.
South is Doomed War in the West Gen. Ulysses S. Grant: Lincoln’s most able general. July 4, 1863: Union defeated Confederates at Vicksburg. – Union controlled the Mississippi. Significance: South doomed after Gettysburg and Vicksburg.
Total War 1864: Sherman: burned Atlanta, Georgia – Sherman’s "March to the Sea": Atlanta to Savannah – Inflicted the horrors of war on the South to break its will. – Destroyed supplies Total War: Using a country’s resources to Destroy everything the enemy has to wage war. – Supplies, shelter, soldiers, industry, food, etc…
Politics of 1864 Peace Democrats (Copperheads) did not support Lincoln. 1864 Presidential Candidates: 1.Union party - Lincoln. – Andrew Johnson was Lincoln's Vice-President – War Democrat – Southerner that stayed with the United States. 2.Democratic Party - George McClellan – Copperheads said the war was a failure. Northern victories boosted Lincoln politically. – Northern soldiers voted for Lincoln.
Results of Election Lincoln defeated McClellan 212 to 21 Lincoln’s election continued policy of "total war" Most important result of Lincoln’s Election: now no real hope for Confederates. Confederate desertions increased sharply
Lincoln’s Second Inaugural speech "With malice toward none, with charity for all” What does this quote mean? – _________________________________
END OF THE WAR IN THE EAST: Grant’s Virginia Campaign Grant promoted to lead all Union armies. – Grant’s strategy: attack & destroy Confederate Army. Wilderness Campaign (May & June, 1864) were terrible but the Union was winning. – Battle of Spotsylvania Courthouse – Battle of Cold Harbor – Campaign resulted in 50,000 Union casualties. Critics called him "Grant the Butcher" Grant determined to continue Total Warfare. – Lincoln supported him because he was winning battles.
Lee’s Surrender (June-Oct. 1864) Lee evacuated Richmond. Early 1865, Confederates tried to negotiate peace between the "two countries." – Lincoln wanted an unconditional surrender. – To Lincoln they were never two countries. April 9, 1865: Lee surrendered the Army of Northern Virginia at Appomattox Court House, VA. – War in Virginia officially over. Terms of surrender were generous. – Grant: "The war is over; the rebels are our countrymen again."
Know this Results and Costs of Civil War 1.620,000 soldiers dead (2% of population) 2.Slavery ended. 3.No more talk of Nullification and secession. 4.We are one nation. 5.Northern industries grew wealthier. 6.South destroyed and poor. 7.Monroe Doctrine became more effective; U.S. had military power