Presentation on theme: "The Crusades Background: Muslims had conquered Palestine in the 600s during the leadership of the Rightly Guided Caliphs. Muslims were at first tolerant."— Presentation transcript:
The Crusades Background: Muslims had conquered Palestine in the 600s during the leadership of the Rightly Guided Caliphs. Muslims were at first tolerant of Christians and Jews. In fact, Muslims believed that the three religions were related to each other and so they should be tolerant of each other. This changed in the late 1000s when Seljuk Turks took over Palestine and Anatolia. The Seljuk Turks threatened Constantinople and in 1095, the emperor asked the Pope for help.
Seized by the Ostrogoths after the fall of Rome Italy had strong ties to the Roman Catholic Church and classical influences (Rome) The Papal States were governed by the Pope The recovery from the plague led to a resurgence of cities, trade, and economy which allowed the bloom of Humanism and the Renaissance. Italian cities had access to trade routes connecting Europe with the Middle Eastern markets Italy served as the trading center for the distribution of goods to northern Europe—thus making Italy a powerhouse in Europe Florence, Venice, and Genoa were initially independent city- states governed as republics Italy!
Pope Urban II At a meeting of church leaders in France in 1095, Pope Urban II called all Christian Knights to wage a holy war – Crusade- against the Turks. Urban II told knights that it was acceptable to kill non-Christians. He also enticed the knights to go on Crusade by promising them wealth from the conquered lands and forgiveness from all sins just for participating in the Crusades.
The First Crusade The First Crusade lasted from 1096-1099. Feudal Knights from Western Europe pushed the Turks out of Constantinople and conquered Palestine. Palestine was made into a feudal kingdom. A feudal king lived in Jerusalem and the Holy Land was divided into four Feudal Crusader States. The First Crusade was a success for the Roman Catholic West.
The Second Crusade Muslims began to threaten the Four Crusader States almost immediately after they were created. From 1147-1155 a second major crusade was waged against the Muslims. King Louis VII as well as his wife Eleanor of Aquitaine led this crusade. The Crusaders were unable to defeat the Muslims. The Muslim leader Saladin was able to capture Jerusalem as well as the Crusader States.
Louis VII sets off on Crusade Louis VII arrives in Palestine Siege of Damascus (Syria) Scenes from the 2 nd Crusade
The Third Crusade From 1189-1192, a third holy war was waged to recapture Palestine. This crusade was led by the major European kings: Richard the Lionhearted of England, Philip Augustus of France, and Holy Roman Emperor Frederick Barbarossa. The crusade was a disaster. The three Kings quarreled and Philip Augustus went home. In an unfortunate accident, Frederick Barbarossa drowned. Only Richard the Lionhearted was left to wage war with Saladin.
Richard and Philip Augustus Frederick Barbarossa on crusade Philip Augustus and Richard quarreling.
Richard vs Saladin Both Richard the Lionhearted and the Muslim leader Saladin were skilled military leaders. Neither side could win a complete victory so they made a truce. Saladin and the Muslims remained in control of Palestine and Jerusalem. Richard was able to gain permission for Christians to visit the Holy Land without being harmed by the Muslim residents.
The Fourth Crusade Pope Innocent III was not happy with Richard’s deal with Saladin. He called for a fourth crusade. Unfortunately, the Roman Catholic and East Orthodox churches were on bad terms. The Roman Catholic Knights from Western Europe went to attack Constantinople instead! When the Roman Catholic Knights arrived at Constantinople, they sacked the city and the crusade ended there. This weakened the city of Constantinople to eventually be conquered by the Ottoman Turks in 1453.
Later Crusades There were several more crusades, including a Children’s Crusade in 1291. The children were tricked by Italian merchants who sold them into slavery. The Crusades were unsuccessful for the Roman Catholic Church. Palestine and Jerusalem remained under Muslim control. The only successful crusade was the first.
Effects of the Crusades The Crusades had many effects on Medieval Europe. 1. Lords and vassals left their manors to go on Crusade. Their power and wealth declined in their absence. The power went to monarchs. 2. Serfs left the manors when their lords were on Crusade. Some serfs went on crusade while many more moved to the towns. This meant that the manor system declined.
Effects of the Crusades 3.The manor and feudal systems began to decline and towns began to grow into cities. 4.The failure of the Crusades was a failure for the Church. By the 13 th century, the power of the Church declined. 5.Muslims and Christians distrust each other today. 6.Jews were persecuted during the Crusades. 7.Byzantine Empire declined in wealth and power.
Positive Effects 1. Towns and cities grew as the manor system declined. 2.Power of Kings (monarchs) increased as the power of feudal lords decreased. 3.Trade between western Europe and Asia increased. 4.Italian city-states grew in power and wealth due to the increased east-west trade.
Positive Effects 5.Eastern Technology was introduced to Western Europe: algebra, astronomy, medical knowledge, navigational equipment (astrolabe and compass). 6. Classical texts from the Greek philosophers and historians were translated into Latin and Arabic.
Ottoman Conquest of the Byzantine Empire In 1453, the Ottoman Turks successfully conquered Constantinople, which was weakened because of the Roman Catholic Church's attacks during the fourth crusade. The Turks were Muslim. The Ottoman Empire would include Anatolia, area around the Black Sea including Constantinople, and eventually into the Balkans including Greece. This empire would last until World War I.