2 Metamorphic Rocksproduced from preexisting igneous, sedimentary, or from other metamorphic rocks (called parent rock)Metamorphism means to “change form”leads to changes in the mineralogy, texture, and sometimes the chemical composition of rocks.
4 Metamorphic RocksCauses include changes in temperature, pressure (stress), and the introduction to chemically active fluids.Heat is the most important of metamorphism because it provides the energy to drive chemical reactions that result in the recrystallization of existing materials and/or the formation of new materials.Earth’s internal heat comes mainly from radioactive decay within the Earth’s interior.
5 Metamorphic Rocks2. Pressure, like temperature, increases as you get deeper into the Earth. Buried rocks are subjected to:Confining pressure – equal squeezing and minerals closer together; denseDifferential pressure – unequal squeezing and develops folds or foliation
9 Metamorphic Rocksslight changes (low-grade metamorphism) shale turning into slate because of not terribly high pressures or temperatures. Fine grainedsubstantial changes (high-grade metamorphism). Slight melting may occur, as well as folds or obliteration of fossils in the parent rock. Coarse grained
10 Examples of Metamorphic Rocks QuartziteSlateGneissMarblePhylliteSchist
11 Metamorphic Rock Textures Texture is used to describe the size, shape, and arrangement of grains within a rock.2 types:FoliatedNon-foliatedquartzite
12 Examples of Foliated Textures Schist has minerals (such as mica) that have grown large enough to be seen by the unaided eyeSlate is a rock with excellent rock cleavage, as it breaks in flat slabs.Gneiss results from high-grade metamorphism
16 The exterior of the Taj Mahal is constructed mainly of the metamorphic rock marble.
17 Metamorphic Environments Hydrothermal metamorphism occurs when hot fluids circulate through fissures and cracks that develop in rock. This hot fluid chemically alters rocks and is closely related to igneous activity.
18 Metamorphic Environments There are a number of environments in which metamorphism occurs. Most are in the vicinity of plate margins, and many are associated with igneous activity.Contact or thermal metamorphism occurs when rocks immediately surrounding a molten igneous body are “baked” and therefore altered from their original state.
19 Metamorphic Environments Regional metamorphism occurs where rocks are squeezed between two converging lithospheric plates during mountain building.
20 Igneous Rocks Igneous rock forms when magma cools and makes crystals. Magma is a hot liquid made of melted minerals. When magma pours onto the earth’s surface it is called lava. The minerals can form crystals when they cool. Fast cooling results in small crystals.Igneous rock can form underground, where the magma cools slowly and results in large crystals. Or, igneous rock can form above ground, where the magma cools quickly.The crystals grow together and form one igneous rocks.
21 What kind of igneous rocks form when molten lava cools and hardens? ExtrusiveExtrusive = forced out while molten through cracks in the earth's surface
22 What is the Latin word that the word igneous comes from and what does it mean? ignis = fire
23 Extrusive Igneous Rocks Formed by lava on the Earth’s surface
24 Intrusive Igneous Rocks Form from magma below the earth’s surface
25 What is the difference between magma and lava? Lava = molten rock flowing on the earth’s surfaceMagma = molten rock below the earth’s surface
26 Silicon, oxygen, aluminum, iron, calcium, sodium, potassium, magnesium What are the 8 elements that make up magma?Silicon, oxygen, aluminum, iron, calcium, sodium, potassium, magnesiumBasaltic rocks are low in silica. They are dark colored and dense. Basaltic rock is called “MAFIC”Granitic rocks have high silica content, are light in color, and have lower densities. Granitic rock is called “FELSIC”
27 In what ways are the two rocks similar? Look at the granite rock and the rhyolite rockGraniteRhyoliteIn what ways are the two rocks similar?Both are from melted rockTheir composition is the same – quartz and feldspar
28 In what ways are the two rocks different? GraniteRhyoliteGranite – coarse texture, made from magmaRhyolite – fine texture, made from lava
29 What causes the two rocks to be different? GraniteRhyoliteGranite – Slow cooling below the earth’s surfaceRhyolite – Quick cooling on the earth’s surface
30 Why do you think some rocks are heavier than others? Some are denser – less air space between particles
31 Which rock would have greater density? PumiceGranite
33 GabbroBasaltThese 2 are related. They form the oceanic crust.Which one is most likely on the surface of the crust?Are they mafic or felsic?
34 PumiceObsidianBoth Pumice and Obsidian are extrusive.Why don’t they exhibit crystalline structure?The pumice has “vesicles” like a slice of bread. How do those form?Which one has such low density that it floats in water?
35 Slow cooling magma will form rocks with a a. coarse grained texture.b. fine grained texture.c. glassy texture.d. porphyritic texture.
36 Rapid cooling magma will form rocks with a a. coarse grained texture.b. fine grained texture.c. glassy texture.d. porphyritic texture.
37 Imagine magma cooling slowly, deep in Earth’s crust Imagine magma cooling slowly, deep in Earth’s crust. Suddenly, it is moved higher in the crust and some erupts onto the surface. What type of texture would result?a. coarse grained texture.b. fine grained texture.c. glassy texture.d. porphyritic texture.
38 Bet Cha’ Weren’t Expecting A…. POP QUIZ!!!!!* What are the three types of rock?Which type of rock has been formed by magma or lava?What do we classify rocks by?How do sedimentary rocks form (in order)?Metamorphic rocks are rocks that have?(fill in the blank)What is the process of sediments forming a sedimentary rock?What does “ignis” mean in the word igneous?*Answers are on next slide!
39 ANSWERS!!!! Igneous, Sedimentary, and Metamorphic Igneous Texture, Color, and Mineral CompositionErosion, Deposition, Compaction, CementationMorphedLithification“ignis” means fire