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**AP Biology Reference Tables**

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**Biology Reference Tables are New**

There is a push to make AP biology more quantitative, mathematical There are aspects of these tables that have not appeared in old curricula; little guidance for teachers on how to use, no questions Students did poorly on mathematical questions on last year’s test

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**Statistical Analysis and Probability**

The AP Bio curriculium focuses on statistics based on counts, not continuous variables

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**Using You Reference Tables…**

What is the mode of the following data set? 6, 8, 1, 6, 5, 6, 8, 3, 4, 2 What is the median of the following data? 2, 5, 7, 2, 4, 6, 9, 11, 3 What is the range of these observations of plant mass? 0.20, 0.35, 0.41, 0.22, 0.32, 0.14

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**Calculate the standard deviation of the following measurements of newborn body weights (in kg)**

2.3, 3.1, 3.5, 1.7, 1.2, 2.4, 2.4, 3.0

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**This calculation is often expressed in graphs using error bars**

Questions based on this formula??

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**Remember Chi-Square tests only work with counts**

This test was developed for Mendelian genetics; a part 2 question is likely this year Last year, animal behavior question (choice chamber)

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2003 Exam, Question 1 In fruit flies, the phenotype for eye color is determined by a certain locus, E indicates the dominant allele and e represents the recessive allele. The cross between a male wild-type fruit fly and a female white-eyed fruit fly produced the following offspring: Wild-Type Male Wild-Type Female White-eyed Male White-Eyed Female Brown-Eyed Female F1 45 55 1

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The wild-type and white eyed individuals from the F1 generation were then crossed to produce the following offspring. Wild-Type Male Wild-Type Female White-eyed Male White-Eyed Female Brown-Eyed Female F2 23 31 22 24 Determine the genotypes of the original parents (P generation) and explain your reasoning. You may use Punnett squares to enhance your description, but the results from the Punnett squares must be discussed in your answer.

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Determine the genotypes of the original parents (P generation) and explain your reasoning. You may use Punnett squares to enhance your description, but the results from the Punnett squares must be discussed in your answer.

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Use a Chi-squared test on the F2 data to analyze your prediction of the parental genotypes. Show all of your work and explain the importance of your final answer. Wild-Type Male Wild-Type Female White-eyed Male White-Eyed Female Brown-Eyed Female F2 23 31 22 24

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The brown-eyed female in the F1 generation resulted from a mutational change. Explain what a mutation is, and discuss two types of mutations that might have produced the brown-eyed female in the F1 generation.

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**No clue why these are here…**

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In fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster), straight wing shape is dominant to curly wing shape. A particular population of fruit flies is in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium with respect to the alleles for wing shape. The Hardy-Weinberg equation, given below, is useful in understanding population genetics: p2 + 2pq + q2 = 1 Explain what the terms ( p2, 2pq, and q2 ) represent in the population of fruit flies. Describe one condition that is necessary for the population to be in equilibrium.

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**Hardy-Weinberg Multiple Choice**

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**Hardy-Weinberg Grid In**

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**You will be expected to know how to convert between units**

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**The rate equation should be easy to recognize/use**

The other equations are not intuitive – their awkwardness should allow you to recognize the need for an equation.

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Rate Grid-In Question

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**Rate Free Response Question**

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**Be clear on what solute and pressure potential is**

At equilibrium, pressure potential is zero

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**Calculate the solute potential of each tuber…**

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Jello Lab

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**The Gibbs equation is not (in my opinion) relevant in a freshman bio class**

What is the pH of a 1 x 10-5 M solution?

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**Not clear how to use these equations either.**

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**A student has 2 L of a 1 M stock solution of sucrose**

A student has 2 L of a 1 M stock solution of sucrose. She wishes to make 1 L of 0.3 M and 0.7 M sucrose. How much of the original solution does she need?

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