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Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia

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1 Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia
Welcome. My Name is Corrina Hawke. I am currently Head Teacher English at Wagga Wagga High School. Earlier this year I had the opportunity to take part in Teacher Education Visit to South Korea which was a joint venture between the Asia Education Foundation and the Department of Education and Training (now Communities). What I aim to do today is to share with you some of my experience and my take on the integration of Asian education and texts into the English curriculum. Presented by Corrina Hawke of Wagga Wagga High School

2 Overview Insights into the world of Korea
Images have been removed from this presentation to enable it to be uploaded to the web. Insights into the world of Korea A discussion regarding the relevance of teaching Asian texts and context in Australian schools An overview and access to a pre-devised unit of work which will include a variety of pedagogical strategies Information regarding access to valuable teaching resources and tools Ideas about how other Korean texts might be integrated into further units of work

3 The Asia Teacher Education Visit Experience
First some of the basics – This is the group that travelled to South Korea – this is our arrival at Seoul

4 16 Teachers from across NSW
Infants, Primary Schools and Secondary Schools Wagga Wagga High School Ballimore Public School Glen Innes West Infants School Merriwa Central School Campsie Public School Blayney Public School Whitebridge High School Table Top Public School (Aubrey) St Ives Park Public School Mayfield West Demonstration and Preschool Airds High School Lismore High School Principals Deputy Principals Head Teachers Teachers Primary Teachers Infants Teachers Secondary Maths Secondary IT Secondary English Secondary Science Secondary Art We came from many school across NSW. We represented both Primary and Secondary schools and came from an array of roles including Principals, Head Teachers and Classroom teachers. Among the secondary teachers: Maths, IT, Science, Art and English were represented.

5 If you are anything like me – your first question might be – Where exactly is Korea? For me and I know many others, Korea is one of those Asian countries that we know very little about. A common statement from friends was “Everything I know about Korea I learned from MASH”. Other than that we might hear bits and pieces on the news about the unsettled political situation in Nth Korea and the concern about the development of nuclear weapons. I knew that the Korean war happened but knew very little about: Australia’s involvement; about the situation the Korean people were in prior to war or after; the devastating consequences of the decision to split the country into North and South Korea; or the current issues facing the Nth Korean people or the amazing achievements of the Sth Koreans since the war ended in 1953.

6 This is Korea. Situated on a Peninsula attached to China, it has been separated into Nth and Sth Korea since the end of the war in The two countries are separated by the DMZ, the De Militarised Zone, a 4 kilometre stretch of no mans land where only authorised personnel are allowed to venture. There is a fence on both sides right along the boarder.

7 Remembering that Australia’s population is approximately 20 Million - consider this Sth Korea is home to almost 50 million people and is only about the size of Victoria. And much of the countryside is mountainous. Our excursion started in the capital Seoul, took us to Busan, Gyeongju (locally referred to as the museum without walls), Daegu and then back to Seoul.

8 We had the opportunity to see many Buddhist monasteries, extraordinary market places, beautiful palaces full of history, ancient royal burial grounds, the Korean War Museum and Memorial in honour of the UN Soldiers, the National Art Gallery, the National Museum. We visited many wonderful restaurants and sampled a wide array of Korean foods. We heard first hand stories from Nth Korean Refugees that made us all cry. We learned about the work of the Comfort Women Foundation – the Korean Council for Women drafted for Military Sexual Slavery, and the horrors experienced by the Comfort Women during WWII. We visited the Hyundai Car Factory – learned about the amazing industrial achievements of the Hyundai corporation – due a Mr Hyundai (Chung Ju-yung) - a true rags to riches story. Starting as a seller of rice from a push bike in the 1930’s – he worked hard until he could open a small car repair business. From there he continued to work tirelessly with great vision and tenacity to become one of the worlds leading manufacturers and traders in more areas of business that I can mention. Not the least of which are the well known cars - he is also builds some to the best ships in the world. His family continue to head this amazing and powerful conglomerate today. I think Mr Chung is significant because he is a really positive representation of the Korean nature. Passionate, tenacious, fiery, extreme, diligent, aggressive, and very clever – Did you know they are considered to be the Irish of the Asian world? I think one of the most important experiences for me – especially having not travelled extensively – was to experience what it was like to be in a country where I didn’t have the language to communicate, I learned how debilitating and disempowering this can be, how it feels to be in a world where I am among the minority, to be odd one out. This increased my empathy tenfold for our own immigrants. I would love to be able to bring this experience to the classroom.

9 Education 5.5 Days Per Week Start 8.00/8.30 – Finish 4.30 Straight to Cram Schools – til 11.00pm Extra Curricula activities a must Not many play parks – kids told by neighbours to go study Lottery system for access to private schools $19 Billion spent by parents on Cram Schools every year Students clever but losing creativity Educational programs very similar until you get to High School - Two tracks – trades or academia Academic track does not finish until 23 for women, 25 for men (2 years military service from age 21) Teachers revered (but still not paid well) As for the Korean Classrooms – We were really sad to not actually visit a school – but we got to talk to many people and here are a few of my insights: Don’t step on my shadow – old sign of respect – 1980’s

10 Highest teenage suicide rate in the world
Fight for three best Universities – entry means guaranteed success in career and better opportunities for marriage Highest teenage suicide rate in the world Dedicated – Government Funded Educational TV and Radio Network – with a number of different channels Physical punishment only just made illegal, physical workout is now used. Students reported teachers to police with phones. Behavioural issues becoming a problem – looking to us for pedagogical strategies – teachers excited but old fashioned Principals are blocking the path to change Schools cleaned by students in last 20 minutes of the day The pressure for students to perform is significant for teachers In the month prior to our visit three students and one university professor had taken their own life.

11 TSHIRT SLEEP FOUR HOURS AND FAIL (THE UNIVERSITY ENTRANCE EXAM) SLEEP THREE HOURS AND YOU MIGHT PASS Koreans are famous for their tiger mums – whose lives revolve around the education of their children. So important is it to get into the right university they have this T-Shirt.

12 Opinions of Australians
Didn’t seem to be many Westerners – especially in some areas People openly asked you on the street where you are from – smiles and warm greetings when you say you’re from Australia 2011 – Year of Friendship with Australia The Koreans are tenacious people. They are proud of what they consider to be a homogenous country, but they welcome visitors – they are realising the importance of being a part of the global community and seem to particularly like Australians. These are images of an Oceania display at the local Shinsegae supermarket – No Vegemite – but there were Tim Tams

13 Purpose of the Tour To allow our teachers to become familiar with Asian societies and to learn about ways that we might integrate Asian texts into our curriculum so that our students become Asia literate. The program that I was involved in aimed to provide teachers across NSW direct experience with Asian communities in an effort to enhance our understanding of these rich cultures and provide material to devise quality resources that aim to strengthen our connection with Asia.

14 Asia and Australia’s Engagement with Asia Questions?
Why Teach Asian Texts? Why do our students need to know about Asian societies – why do they need to be Asia literate? Why should we focus on Asian societies to the exclusion of others? I guess the big questions of this session are.....

15 Korea – Third major exporter in the world; No
Korea – Third major exporter in the world; No. 4 in Trade Korea is currently still considered Second World but fast becoming First World – fast becoming a major contender Currently 40,000 Koreans in Australia (most in NSW) – 35,000 Australians in Korea at any one time. Did you know

16 Learning about Asian cultures will help to create:
Tolerance and Acceptance for both cultures – in our multicultural world and in their homogenous world. An understanding that we are connected with other countries – reduce our sense of isolation and disconnection – and raise awareness that what happens elsewhere in the world ultimately impacts on us – our economy, environment, education, technological advances, business and industry etc . Increased understanding of cultural differences in customs, traditions, mannerisms - philosophies and historical events that guide their ideologies (and ours), which will ultimately assist our students to function effectively and confidently in our Asian community.

17 Asia and the National Curriculum
Asia Priority v’s Intercultural Understanding Asia Priority Intercultural Understanding Recognises that Australia is part of Asia. That much of our future business negotiations and dealings will be within the Asian Region. Focus is on developing student ability to function as informed and responsible members of the Asian community which will better enable to our students to interact, especially in business, with people from within Asian communities. Developing student understanding, appreciation and empathy for people from different cultures in Australia and wider world To create a culturally inclusive curriculum and classrooms, that allows all students within our multicultural society to “see themselves” within the curriculum. There seems to have been some confusion about the difference between the Asia Priority in the Australian Curriculum and the general capability of Intercultural Understanding. While to some degree the Asia Priority is an extension of Intercultural Understanding – it actually progresses beyond that. More than developing student understanding of different cultures and ensuring that all students gain a sense of cultural inclusivity by studying texts by and about different cultures. The Asia Priority recognises that we actually are PART of the Asian community and that our students – who all too quickly venture into the wide world of employment and business – need to be able to function as informed and responsible citizens within that community. I was among those whose immediate response to the Asia Priority was “why are we singling out Asia?” But I can now really see the benefit of this focus. If our role is not only to teach our students to be responsible citizens - ethical, moral and knowledgeable with a high level of literacy, citizens that do not forget to observe and interpret with a critical eye – surely it is also to ensure that they know about the world that they will be required to function in. The notion that the future of Australian Industry and business lies in our negations with Asia – is not something that our children will have to deal with in the future – it’s already here. I grew up in farming family and I could not imagine for one moment my father venturing to China or Japan to negotiate the sale of his stock or his wheat – and I am sure he would have said it will never happen. But that is what our Australian farmers are already doing and I have no doubt that other industry is doing the same. In Wagga, our local representative – Darryl McGuire is preparing to travel with a team of local farmers to China to negotiate deals to get their produce on the shelves and in the shopping trolleys of the Chinese.

18 Intercultural Understanding
In the Australian Curriculum students develop intercultural understanding as they learn to understand themselves in relation to others. This involves students valuing their own cultures and beliefs and those of others, and engaging with people of diverse cultures in ways that recognise commonalities and differences, create connections and cultivate respect between people.

19 Intercultural Understanding
As they develop intercultural understanding students learn to: identify increasingly sophisticated characteristics of their own cultures and the cultures of others recognise that their own and others’ behaviours, attitudes and values are influenced by their languages and cultures consider what it might be like to ‘walk in another’s shoes’ compare the experiences of others with their own, looking for commonalities and differences between their lives and seeking to understand these reflect on how intercultural encounters have affected their thoughts, feelings and actions accept that there are different ways of seeing the world and live with that diversity stand between cultures to facilitate understanding take responsibility for developing and improving relationships between people from different cultures in Australia and in the wider world contribute to and benefit from reconciliation between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians. This is a definition of Intercultural Understanding from the Australian Curriculum Website: I’ll just let you read through some of this ....

20 Asia and Australiaʼs engagement with Asia
The Asia and Australiaʼs engagement with Asia priority provides a regional context for learning in all areas of the curriculum. This understanding underpins the capacity of Australian students to be active and informed citizens working together to build harmonious local, regional and global communities, and build Australiaʼs social, intellectual and creative capital. This priority is concerned with Asia literacy for all Australian students. Asia literacy develops knowledge, skills and understanding about the histories, geographies, cultures, arts, literatures and languages of the diverse countries of our region. It fosters social inclusion in the Australian community. It enables students to communicate and engage with the peoples of Asia so they can effectively live, work and learn in the region. Australia now has extensive engagement with Asia in areas such as trade, investment, immigration, tourism, education and humanitarian assistance and these are vital to the prosperity of all Australians. Asia Content In the Curriculum – UMELB – Asia Education Foundation This is the Asia Education Foundation explanation of the purpose and significance of the Asia Priority to our children. You can see here the Asia Priority has a much stronger focus on preparing our students to be part of the global community – including Asia. Where as the Intercultural Understanding is more about creating empathy, tolerance and respect in a multicultural society I think the Asia Priority is also important because we already know so much more about the European or American cultures through our television programs, our heritage, our history. I believe we have traditionally found Western and European cultures to be much more accessible and easier to learn about because they much more closely resemble our own ideologies and belief systems– and the language is much easier to grasp. Once we remove the boundaries of accessibility – it stands to reason that our students and our citizens will be more likely to embrace the cultures through text and business.

21 Year 7 Y7: exploring languages and dialects through building webcam relationships with schools across Australia and Asia (ACELA1528 elaboration) Y7: exploring traditional stories from Asia and discussing their engaging features, for example use of the oral mode, visual elements, verse, use of puppets to convey the narrative (ACELT1622 elaboration) Y7: Understand, interpret and discuss how language is compressed to produce a dramatic effect in film or drama, and to create layers of meaning in poetry, for example haiku, tankas, couplets, free verse and verse novels (ACELT1623) Y7: drawing on literature and life experiences to create a poem, for example ballad, series of haiku (ACELT1805 elaboration) The Australian Curriculum has outlined a number of learning objectives specific to each Year group. Year 7 – talks about developing our familiarity with the languages – I can tell you that just from my two week immersion in the Korean culture – while I don’t understand much of the language I can now tell the different between the Chinese, Korean and Japanese languages – and I do – oddly - feel somewhat empowered by that. These objectives also refer to alternate and creative use of narratives such as oral story telling and puppetry. It also refers to the exploration of Asian forms of poetry. Some of these elements we were perhaps already incorporating into our lessons and programs.

22 Year 8 Y8: exploring examples of Singlish (Singapore English) from a Singlish dictionary (ACELA1540 elaboration) This is apparently the only reference listed for Year 8

23 Year 9 Y9: reviewing historical fiction or nonfiction written by and about the peoples of Asia (ACELT1633 elaboration) Y9: analysing literary texts created by and about Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples (including documentaries, picture books, print texts and other multimodal texts) and also texts including film produced by and about peoples of Asian background, and considering the different ways these texts represent people, places, things and issues (ACELT1633 elaboration) Y9: analysing how issues are debated and reported in the media in different countries, and the possible reasons for this, for example ‘whaling’ in Japan and Australia (ACELY1742 Year 9 – is a little more complex and it is these objectives that I have focused on in the unit I am about to present.

24 Year 10 Y10: exploring models of sustained texts created for persuasive purposes about a challenging or complex issue from other cultures, including Asia (ACELY1756 elaboration) The Year 10 objective continues to add to the level of complexity of understanding.

25 A Unit for Stage 5 Year 9 What I have devised is a unit for Stage 5 – Year 9 – based “Korea Unmasked” - a fantastic graphic text that was recommended to us by Mr Anthony Skews during our introduction at the Australian Embassy in Seoul to help us understand more about the Korean culture.

26 Korea: a virtual cultural excursion using graphic non-fiction text
Because there is so much to learn about and so many different facets of language to explore I really struggled to keep the unit to 5 weeks. So the unit has been devised to take place over 10 weeks, but if you needed to review it and shorten it – there are a few sections you could brush through quickly or remove from the program. The title of the Unit may not elicit immediate excitement but it does adequately relay what the unit is about. As we can see here by the contents page: We get to learn not only about the Koreans but also the Chinese and the Japanese cultures as these are used as a point of comparison by Won-bok Rhie - the Korean Author. That makes this text – a text about Koreans written by a Korean from the Korean perspective. So we also get to learn about the Chinese and Japanese culture and people through Korean eyes. I have included – links to both the old and the new (draft) BOS syllabus and the National Curriculum 8-10 Weeks 48-60 x 40 minute lessons

27 Rationale This unit addresses the cross curricular dimension of the National Curriculum: Asia and Australia’s engagement with Asia. The unit is designed to raise student awareness of Asian cultures and diversity among cultures through a close study of Korea and the Korean culture by engaging with a Korean text by a Korean author. This unit also allows students to explore the features of non-fiction text and graphic text in a combined format different to typical non-fiction text or graphic novels.

28 Through this study: Students will gain an understanding of the diversity of cultural values and belief systems by developing their understanding of perspectives and the way cultural identity, ideologies and values are created by difference in cultural beliefs as well as variance in situation and experience. Students will learn about their place within the Asian and global communities. Students will explore the notion of human rights, morality and ethics in political practise. Students will further their critical literacy skills; they will learn about differing perspectives, bias, subjectivity and objectivity. Students will develop an awareness of positive and negative connotations that can be derived from stereotypical descriptions of cultures.

29 Students further develop their vocabulary and spelling skills.
Students develop their understanding of metalanguage, as well as their ability to discuss how meaning is made in graphic non-fiction text. This will allow them to expand on their understanding of visual literacy and the nature of meaning made through the partnership of visual and written language. Students also develop interpersonal skills that will empower them to interact and negotiate with people from diverse backgrounds with empathy, understanding and diplomacy and may also improve their personal management skills. Students develop learning skills that contribute to toward their development as lifelong learners.

30 Cross Curricula Dimensions
kamsa hamnida = thank you Geography Social Science History LOTE Annyeong haseyo = Hello

31 Features of graphic texts
Combination of visual and written language to create meaning. Terms: Panel Symbols Tier Mood Narrator Motion Lines Dialogue Word Balloons Caricatures Thought Bubble Body Language Subtext Facial Expression Angles Costume Point of View Frames Shots Border Satire Gutter Pun Tail Visual Metaphor Cliff Hanger Visual Hyperbole Captions Irony Position Proximity

32 Features of Non-Fiction Texts
Figures Formal direct language Facts Opinions Statistics Charts Graphs Scientific Evidence Tables Maps Expert references

33 Critical Literacy Reader/Viewer beware........
Bias – conscious and subconscious Connotations – positive and negative Perspective – culturally defined Subjectivity and Objectivity in authorship

34 Building Vocabulary and Spelling skills
Students are introduced to a range of new words, terms and concepts: Students are encouraged to skim through the material first to create a list of words they are unfamiliar with, when definitions are provided then they can continue reading. Success reading can only be achieved if students have the information they require to unlock the meaning. New Words: (meanings, spelling, etymology) ideology, democracy, communism, capitalism, conglomerate, shamanism, egregious, dissenters, Stalinism, Confucianism, Animism, Shintoism, polytheistic, monotheistic Students explore the different spelling techniques they might use to assist them in the remembering the correct spelling of the terms (4 spelling knowledges: phonological, visual, etymological, grammatical) Students also explore the world of adjectives as they are used to describe different cultures. They are then required to reflect on and create a list of adjectives they could use to describe the Australian culture.

35 Ethics Exploring the difference between the development of Nth and Sth Korea allows for a direct exploration of the impact of different forms of leadership. Issues that would arise from discussion would include: Human Rights Impact of government on civil and human rights Impact of war Civil liberty Survival v’s morality Kim Jong-il, current leader of the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (North Korea). Took over from his father Kim Il Sung in He is the Chairman of the National Defense Commission, General Secretary of the Workers' Party of Korea, the ruling party since 1948, and the Supreme Commander of the Korean People's Army, the fourth largest standing army in the world. In April 2009, North Korea's constitution was amended and now implicitly refers to him as the "Supreme Leader". He is also referred to as the "Dear Leader", "our Father", "the General" and "Generalissimo". His son Kim Jong-un was promoted to a senior position in the ruling Worker's Party and is heir apparent. Students will learn about North Koreas very unique political situation; the paradox – on the one hand it is suppose to be a democracy – on the other – it is an Oligarchy – come hereditary Monarchy. The notion of Ethics can be explored in this unit by looking at the impact of the political regime under the dictatorship of - Kim Jong-il on the living conditions experienced by the North Koreans.

36 North Korea Currency Change – 2009 (10,000 won = 10 won)
Limited amount of money permitted per household People starving Teachers starving – living off trade with parents Black market very strong and only way to survive Bribery common place Education very restricted No communication permitted with outside world Travel around Nth Korea limited Government recently cracking down on issues previously ignored China supposed to have a treaty with Sth Korea but repatriate Nth Korean refugees despite the treaty Under the rule of these tyrants – life has been horrific for many in Nth Korea. The full extent of what goes on in Nth Korea is very much a mystery even to the Nth Koreans but here a few insights given by the Nth Korean refugees. In an extension activity students get the opportunity to research and respond to some of the stories of North Korean refugees. However, many of the stories are quite horrific so I would vet your students well and warn them in advance. Through these stories – students get to explore issues pertaining to Human Rights, the Impact of government on civil and human rights, Impact of war, Civil liberty and the notion of survival v’s morality – what are people prepared to do to survive?

37 Creation of texts Throughout the unit students are required to create a range of texts including: Scripts Graphic texts Non-fiction texts Short stories, journal entries or letters Tables Presentations Reflections on learning and on process of creation

38 Cultural Understanding
Cultural Diversity Empathy The Global Community Through this element of the study – student learn to empathise with others – to walk in the shoes of another. They learn about: the values underpinning the beliefs and behaviours and lifestyle of not only the Koreans but also the Chinese and Japanese. They learn about the formation and evolution of their religious beliefs. They learn about the Korean people – their character, their political ideologies, their history and how their history helped to shape their beliefs and values, their achievements, their educational philosophies and much more. They also get the opportunity to consider and represent the Australian values and beliefs in direct comparison. In exploring these factors that gain a much better vision of the global community. 6W3

39 Teaching Strategies BDA (Before During and After) Debates
Think, Pair, Share 6W3 Role Playing Collaborative Learning – group activities Self Directed Learning – research of selected topic Visual representations Coding Strategy The unit incorporates a number of different teaching strategies. Some of them are listed here. Many of the strategies used throughout the unit can be found in these two texts.

Many of these activities draw on the SUPER SIX Metacognitive Strategies that are woven throughout the unit. This is the element that develops students lifelong learning skills. These strategies have just recently been introduced to our school through a Department of Education and Communities Training Course called “Focus on Reading” which we touched in a Secondary Literacy Strategies Course. The idea is that these strategies are commonly used by students to comprehend and learn – regardless of what they are learning – and that by making students more aware of the strategies they are employing they will be more likely to call upon them in independent learning – thereby – consciously activating their lifelong learning skills. One of them is the 6W3 – which focuses on questioning SUPER SIX – METACOGNITIVE LEARNING STRATEGIES

41 BDA Another is the BDA Which is a combination of both questioning and monitoring – students create a list of questions before they commence reading – during reading and then – a list of questions that remain unanswered . These questions then guide further research. By using this questioning technique – students have to actively engage with the text – rather read through the material in a superficial manner.

42 Coding Strategy * I already know this + New information ! Wow
* I already know this New information ! Wow ?? I don’t understand _ What’s this word? The coding strategy is another technique that helps the students to really engage with what they are reading. They need to consider what they already know, what they learn, what excites or interests them, what they don’t understand and identify words that are difficult to decipher. Student use the symbols to mark the text as they read. If it’s a novel – they can use a strip of paper at the side of the page or sticky note.

43 Development of Personal Skills
Covey’s 7 Habits – aiding successful negotiation and diplomacy skills  Students are introduced to Covey’s – 7 habits with an emphasis on Habit 5 and 6 as they relate to positive negotiations 1. Be Proactive 2. Begin with the end in mind 3. Put First Things First 4. Think Win Win 5. Seek first to understand, then to be understood 6. Synergise 7. Sharpen the saw Students go to: and create a summary of the seven habits Class discussion: Which is the most important of the 7 habits for successful negotiation?  Written response: How would you apply the 7 habits to your life? Another element of the unit is to introduce the students to Covey’s 7 Habits with the knowledge that the principles that underlie these Habits can not only assist the students with their own personal management but also in creating positive, healthy and empathetic interactions with others which aim to find solutions to benefit all -“think win win”. Students are required to not only learn about the habits but to apply the habits to hypothetical situations in role plays or script writing activities.

44 Assessment - Ideas Student presentation – group work – research.
Students create a graphic text which incorporates the Australian ideology and identity as it might be compared with the Asian. Scaffold provided. Students complete along with the graphic text a reflection on process where they identify and discuss the intended effect of the techniques they employed in the creation of their work. Students submit their script which demonstrates an understanding and appreciation of cultural diversity, empathy and conflict resolution which results from cultural misunderstanding. Alternately, students could use their scripts to role play different scenarios. Students complete a multiple choice task which assesses their understanding of non-fiction texts and relevant terminology as well as new terminology introduced throughout the unit. Student reflection: students complete a one page reflection where they identify the reasons why it is important to learn about different cultures, in particular those of our neighbours in the Asian communities.

45 Korean Film JSA – Stage 5 or 6 Authority/Freedom
Joint Security Area (JSA) is a South Korean film released in 2000 , directed by Park Chan-wook and based on the novel DMZ by Park Sang-yeon. The film, which was shot on location in South Korea, concerns an investigation into the circumstances surrounding a fatal shooting incident within the DMZ, the heavily fortified border that separates North and South Korea. More than that – it is an insightful and passionate exploration into the complex nature of the relationship between the North and South Koreans. It was the highest grossing film in Korean film history at the time and won Best Film at the 2000 Blue Dragon Awards and the 2001 Grand Bell Awards. It is an M Rated film and a bit bloody in a few places and highly emotional. I would use only a few very select excerpts of this film to show the Year 9 students the DMZ area, to let them gain a sense of the strict nature of behaviour expected by the Korean military personnel and the tension felt on the boarder. However, I also thought it would make an excellent Preliminary study – especially for AOS if you were studying a concept such as Authority or Freedom. Freedom would be a particularly interesting concept to study because I think it is a concept that we generally too readily take for granted. I also think it is a very complex and multi-faceted concept with many different interpretations and perceptions. What constitutes freedom for one can be a prison for another. With this film students can explore the variation in the perception of freedom between North and South Koreans and between individuals; and then compare these perceptions with their own understanding of the concept as it is shaped in the Australian society.

46 Korean Film The King and the Clown – Stage 6
The King and the Clown is a 2005 South Korean film, directed by Lee Jun-ik adapted from the 2000 Korean play titled "Yi", ("You") about Yeonsangun of Joseon, a Joseon dynasty king who falls in love with a court clown who mocks him. The movie is based on a small passage from the Annals of the Joseon Dynasty that briefly mentions the king's favorite clown. It was the highest-grossing Korean film from 2005 until displaced by The Host in 2006. The movie is referred to by various names. It is sometimes known as The King's Men or The King's Man (the literal translation of the Korean title to English) and All the King's Men (working title). This film (which interestingly is dubbed the Broke Back Mountain of Korea) has subtle homosexual undertones. However, it is nowhere near as explicit as Broke Back Mountain – only very subtle innuendo. It is a very intriguing story about two clowns – with great acrobatic skill - and their plight to survive under the rule of an Emperor. The costumes are exquisite and it is for this reason that it was recommended to me. I would use excerpts from this text for Year 9 to give the students the opportunity to develop an appreciation for the language, the culture, the rich traditional costumes and lifestyle of the Koreans. You could also consider using the text in its entirety for a Stage 6 unit on Foreign Film which would perhaps be more suited to Extension than Advanced. You could also use this text in an exploration of the concept of Freedom.

47 Highlighting the Importance of Remembering our History The Comfort Women
Another of the experiences that has remained with me is the plight of the Comfort Women. And I think some of the texts they are creating around their story could be used in a Preliminary Extension Unit - such as an exploration of representations of the DARKSIDE of human nature. For those of you who are unfamiliar with the story. During WWII – many young girls (mostly Koreans) were taken by Japanese Soldiers from 14 years of age (sometimes younger) and placed in stations where they would serve sometimes 50 or more men a day. It is believed that almost 200,000 young girls were taken. At the end of the war most of those surviving were exterminated. The survivors spent many years living in shame – but have over the last decade or two been progressively coming forward with their stories. The Korean Council for Women drafted for Military Sexual Slavery has published range of texts – including artistic and photographic representations of the horrific conditions endured by the young women as well as the emotional and sometimes physical pain they lived with if they managed to survive. They also have written reflections and video interviews of some of the more proactive survivors. This story has really haunted me... The situation – for both the women and the soldiers involved – has to be likened to the holocaust in terms of how and why such atrocities could be committed by so many – seemingly without question. I can only explain the actions of the soldiers in terms of Stanley Milgram’s – Obedience to Authority theory. The psychology of following orders without question and not wanting to go against the flow for fear of your own survival. When everyone around you is condoning an action – the laws of morality seem to become burred. The important point that comes to mind here is the need to justify why our students need to be aware of such atrocities . We know that we are told we must remember our history – our global history – and the theory is that if we remember – then we won’t make the same mistakes. But I think it goes even deeper than that. Follow up studies on the Milgram Experiment revealed that if we have had time to consider a situation before being confronted with it – we are more likely to go against the flow and to stand up for what we believe is morally right rather than just follow what we are told to do. If we take this theory as true – then by exposing our students to situations that make them engage their ethical and moral intellectual muscles they are much less likely to allow unethical situations, such as this, to occur. This is short news clip to you a bit more insight into the situation.

48 That is just about all from me today. What you have here is the URL for a great online bookstore that gives you access to Korean texts in English. Korea Unmasked is available through this outlet for $29.99 from memory. In Korea – it was 15 won (approximately $15) from Kyobo Bookstore. Books are cheap in Korea because they value their education and want to make it accessible to all.

49 Asia Education Foundation
The other thing you should do to stay informed and get access to some great resources is to sign up to Asia Education Foundation e-News.

50 CD - Resources Copy of the Stage 5 Unit – Korea: a Virtual Cultural Excursion Using Graphic Non-Fiction Text A range of support material for the unit including worksheets and informational sheets PDF – Asia content in the Australian Curriculum Bibliography - resources and references What I have for you is a CD which contains: If there is insufficient – perhaps you could take just one per school. Alternately you can me and I am more than happy to forward the material on. Thank you

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