Presentation on theme: "INTERNATIONAL JUDICIAL MUTUAL LEGAL ASSISTANCE IN CRIMINAL MATTERS."— Presentation transcript:
INTERNATIONAL JUDICIAL MUTUAL LEGAL ASSISTANCE IN CRIMINAL MATTERS.
NATIONAL SOVEREIGNITY Exclusive and excluding power: Definition of crimes (Penal Law) Organize the police estructures: Prevention and investigation Organize the judicial estructures:Investigation, prosecution and trial Organize the estructure: Serving sentences
INTERNATIONAL JUDICIAL MUTUAL LEGAL ASSISTANCE: A RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN POLITICAL AUTHORITIES
DIFICULTIES INHERENT TO MUTUAL LEGAL ASSISTANCE A.- Different lenguages. B.- Diverse judicial systems. - Competent executing authority. - Competent authority according to the territory. C.- The existence of different rules for penal procedure. D.- The existence of different Penal Law. E.- Stremely slow mecanisms in order to transmit the request for Mutual Legal Assistance. F.- The lack of measures to follow up and control of the execution of MLA requests.
DIFFICULTIES INHERENT TO MUTUAL LEGAL ASSISTANCE.Double incrimination.. Protection for own nationals..Cumbersome proceedings in the requested countries in order to examine that procedural garanties will be accomplished. Absence of mutual reliance.. A certain field for discretionality: The defense of national interest and of the public order.
SOLUTIONS -The direct contact between judicial concerned authorities.
SOLUTIONS -The direct contact between concerned judicial authorities. -The aproximation of Penal Laws and Penal Procedural Laws..
SOLUCIONES: A APROXIMACION DE LAS LEGISLACIONES -.Decisión Marco, adoptada por el Consejo el 27-1-2003, relativa a la protección del medio ambiente a través del Derecho Penal. -.Decisión Marco, adoptada por el Consejo el 28-11-2002, relativa a reforzar el marco penal para la represión de la ayuda a la entrada, circulación y estancia irregular. -.Directiva 2002/90/CE del Consejo, de 28-11-2002, destinada a definir la ayuda a la entrada, circulación y estancia irregular. -.Decisión Marco, adoptada por el Consejo el 19-7-2002, relativa a la trata de seres humanos. -. Decisión Marco sobre el delito de terrorismo adoptada por el Consejo el 13 de Junio del 2002. -. Decisión Marco, adoptada por el Consejo el 26 de Junio del 2001, sobre el delito de blanqueo de dinero, identificación, seguimiento, inmovilización, embargo, y confiscación de los instrumentos y efectos procedentes de delito. -. Decisión Marco, adoptada el 6-12-2001, en relación con la falsificación del Euro. -. Decisión Marco, adoptada el 28 de Mayo del 2001, en relación con los delitos derivados de la utilización de instrumentos de pago distintos del dinero. -. Decisión Marco, adoptada por el Consejo el 15-3-2001, relativa al estatuto de la victima en el proceso penal.
SOLUTIONS -The direct contact betwen concerned judicial authorities. -Apromximation of Penal Laws and Penal Procedural Laws. -Mutual recognition of judicial decisions. -Common european mechanisms for evaluation. -To create proceedings allowing the competent authorities of one concerned country to act inside the territory of another one: joint investigating teams; hot pursuits; under cover agents. Joint investigating teams. -To create structures in order to facilitate MLA.
NEW STRUCTURES IN ORDER TO FACILITATE MUTUAL LEGAL ASSISTANCE A.- Liaison magistrates. B.- The European Judicial Network. C.- EUROJUST
LIAISON MAGISTRATES Common Action 22 April 1996. Low legal effect. Creates a frame work allowing the exchange of liaison magistrates, based in bilateral or multilateral agreements: Between Member states of the EU? No procedural rules on international MLA are concerned
LIAISON MAGISTRATES Objectives: -Improve eficiency of MLA --Facilitate the knowledge of different judicial systems -- Facilitate the fight against transnational organized crime Profile: Expert in MLA.
LIAISON MAGISTRATES Functions: a) Any activity aiming to speed up and push all kind of judicial cooperation, through direct contact with the competent authorities. b). Scope: Any kind of judicial cooperation, not only in criminal matters, but in civil ones too. c). Exchange of information ans statistics aiming to promote the mutual knowledge of the different systems ans the existence of data bases.
LIAISON MAGISTRATES SPAIN: United Kingdoom: ALED WILLIAMS France: Samuel Vuelta Simon. Spain: Manuel García Castellón.(France) Spain: Angel Llorente (Morocco) Morocco: FRANCE
EUROJUST, ONE STEP MORE IN THE CONSTRUCTION OF AN EUROPEAN SPACE OF FREEDOM, SECURITY AND LIBERTY.
Council Framework Decission of 28th February 2002 LEGAL FRAMEWORK
¿ WHAT DOES EUROJUST CONSIST IN ? A body of the European Union. With its own legal personality. With budgetarian initiative.
.National Members: Each Member State appoints one NM ( judge, prosecutor or police officer having similar powers). Only NM are entitled to vote in the College..One or more assistants (optional) who helps and replaces the NM. - COMPOSITION
EUROJUST FUNCTIONS COOPERATION To improve cooperation between the competent authorities of the MS, in particular facilitating the execution of international MLA and the implementation of extradition requests. The traditional way to investigate.
EUROJUST FUNCTIONS COORDINATION To stimulate and improve the coordination of investigations and prosecutions in the Member States, taking in account any request emanating from a competent authority of a MS and any information provided. A new way to investigate organized crime.
TWO WAYS IN ORDER TO FULFILL ITS FUNCTIONS. A.- As a College. B.- Through one or more National Members.
- To undertake an investigation or prosecution of specifis acts. - To accept that one of them may be in a better position to undertake an investigation or to prosecute specific facts. -To coordinate between the competent authorities of the MS concerned. - To set up a joint investigation team. - To provide it with any information that is necessary to Eurojust in order to carry out its tasks. EUROJUST POWERS -A) To ASK (request) the competent authorities:
EUROJUST FIELD OF ACTIVITY.COMPETENCES. Serious crimes. Organized Crime Transnational crimes
A- Transmisión. SOLUTIONS PROVIDED BY EUROJUST TO THE PROBLEMS INHERENT TO MLA
B- Different languages. SOLUTIONS PROVIDED BY EUROJUST TO PROBLEMS INHERENT TO MLA
C-Different judicial systems. SOLUTIONS PROVIDED BY EUROJUST TO PROBLEMS INHERENT TO MLA
D- Absence of follow up and control in the execution of MLA requests. SOLUTIONS PROVIDED BY EUROJUST TO PROBLEMS INHERENT TO MLA
Eurojust More Effective Co-ordination & Co-operation
The fight against organized crime THE COORDINATION OF INVESTIGATIONS AND PROSECUTION AS AN SPECIFIC TASK FOR EUROJUST
a.Information coming from request of help. b.Information obtained through requests done by Eurojust to the national competent authorities. c.Information obtained from european units (Europol, Olaf) through specific agreements or conventions. d.Information coming from the use of powers given to NM by the Member States. ¿ Information existing in national or european judicial data bases ? EUROJUST AND THE OBTAINING OF INFORMATION
Coordination meeting. ( All concerned authorities, Eurojust is not a judicial forum): In order to facilitate informal exchange of information..HOW, AS A MATTER OF FACT, EUROJUST CAN STIMULATE COORDINATION. Action plan for coordination and cooperation: - Coordination: a. To undertake investigations or prosecutions. b. To set up a joint investigation team. c. To adopt coordinated investigation measures. d. To determine which authority is better placed to continue the investigations and prosecution. - Cooperation: a. Coordination of the execution of MLA requests. b. Speed up, monitoring of the execution of MLA requests. c. Preparation of MLA requests.
HI-TECH MEETING ROOMS AND TRANSLATION FACILITIES
THE COORDINATION OF INVESTIGATIONS AN PROSECUTIONS The most convenient moment
- College Decisions:. THE BINDING EFFECT OF EUROJUST DECISIONS
, Frequent when investigating organized crime Absence of an superior international authority in order to solve them. The non bis in idem principle.EUROJUST AND THE INTERNATIONAL JURISDICTION CONFLICT
Problems: -The existence of a higher authority: jurisdictional or non jurisdictional. -Setting up rules: flexible or stiff criteria. EUROJUST AND THE INTERNATIONAL JURISDICTION CONFLICT
Article 7 of the Decision of 28-2-2002 gives Eurojust the power to ask to the competent national authorities: i) To undertake an investigation or prosecution. ii) To accept that one of them may be in a better position to investigate or prosecute. EUROJUST AND THE INTERNATIONAL JURISDICTION CONFLICT
A.Framework Decisión of the 13th June 2002. EAW. Article 16: Concurrence of different eaw. EUROJUST AND THE INTERNATIONAL JURISDICTION CONFLICT.
. Framework Decisión of 2002 concerning terrorism crimes. EUROJUST AND THE INTERNATIONAL JURISDICTION CONFLICT
(7) Conviene establecer normas sobre competencia para garantizar que puedan emprenderse acciones judiciales eficaces contra cualquier delito de terrorismo. (Artículo 9) Competencia y acciones penales 1.Todos los Estados miembros adoptarán las medidas necesarias para establecer su competencia respecto de los delitos a que se refieren los artículos 1 a 4, en los siguientes casos: a) el delito se ha cometido, total o parcialmente, en su territorio; todos los Estados miembros podrán ampliar su jurisdicción cuando el delito se cometa en el territorio de un Estado miembro; b) el delito se ha cometido a bordo de un buque que enarbole su pabellón o una aeronave matriculada en dicho Estado miembro; c) el autor del delito es uno de sus nacionales o residente en él; d) el delito se ha cometido por cuenta de una persona jurídica establecida en su territorio; e) el delito se ha cometido contra sus instituciones o ciudadanos, o contra una institución de la Unión Europea o de un organismo creado en virtud del Tratado constitutivo de la Comunidad Europea o del Tratado de la Unión Europea y que tenga su sede en el Estado miembro de que se trate. EUROJUST Y LOS CONFLICTOS DE JURISDICCIÓN.
Articulo 9) 2. Cuando un delito sea competencia de más de un Estado miembro y cualquiera de estos pueda legítimamente iniciar acciones judiciales por los mismos hechos, los Estados miembros implicados colaborarán para decidir cuál de ellos llevará a cabo las acciones judiciales contra los autores del delito con el objetivo de centralizar, en la medida de lo posible, dichas acciones en un solo Estado miembro. Con este fin, los Estados miembros podrán recurrir a cualquier órgano o mecanismo creado en el marco de la Unión Europea con el fin de facilitar la cooperación entre sus autoridades judiciales y la coordinación de sus actuaciones. Se tendrán en cuenta sucesivamente los siguientes elementos para sumarse a ellas: -- ser el Estado miembro en cuyo territorio se hayan cometido los hechos, - ser el Estado miembro del que el autor sea nacional o residente, - ser el Estado miembro de origen de las víctimas, - ser el Estado miembro en el que se haya encontrado al autor. EUROJUST AND THE INTERNATIONAL JURISDICTION CONFLICT
Flexibility The European Convention in order to fight crimes against the financial interest of the European Comunity EUROJUST AND THE INTERNATIONAL JURISDICTION CONFLICT
Cases Referred 1 March - 31 December 2001 = 192 1 January - 31 December 2002 = 202 1 January - 31 December 2003 = 300 1 January - 31 December 2004 = 382
TIME-SHARE FRAUD. REAL CASES Action plan. 1.- To identify victims of the criminal organization (XX) under prosecution in Madrid. 2.- Victims of the XX organization should be able to claim through the Spanish proceeding. As far as the normal way to do it means to travel to Spain in order to perform a formal claim before the competent authority, some solutions to avoid such a travel and expenses has to be devised. Solution 1. a) To undertake in every country an investigation procedure in order to receive denunciations from all national victims and to collect evidence. b) Every national investigation will have to be finished before a given time, coincident with time the spanish judge has to finish its investigation. c) Every national competent authority will have to forego his jurisdiction in favour of the Spanish judge, so this last one could consider the claims from the victims in the Spanish proceeding in order to obtain a decision on civil liabilities. d) The spanish competent authority will have to provide:
- A document establishing:. The requirements to be considered a victim of XX organization. -.The minimum data that a denunciation has to contain in order to be considered in the Spanish proceedings. -.The formal requirements that have to be fulfilled by the investigation developed by every country, allowing the different denunciations been legal and efficient in order to be considered in the Spanish proceeding, avoiding victims to be present before the Spanish judge. 3 3. Concerning the rest of the victims. Their denunciations or claims have to be examined in order to establish which are the different organizations that could have cheated them. This task could be developed by Europol, through an AWF. Once this have been done, competent authorities from every country, with the help of Eurojust, if requested, will have to decide the strategy to be followed in order to further prosecution. TIME-SHARE FRAUD.
E. Action Plan. Eurojust, EJN and the liaison magistrates may help the judicial authorities in the preparation and execution of the request for mutual legal assistance that will be necessary according to the international scope of the case.
E. Action Plan. The prosecution and the sentencing must be performed only by the competent judicial authorities of one of the two countries that are leading a judicial investigation.
E. Action Plan. The best solution from the point of view of international judicial cooperation will be that, once the two competent authorities have received all the claims from victims, one should transfer it procedure to the other.
E. Action Plan. As far as the Convention for the transfer or procedure of the Council of Europe has not been signed by France, some similar and legal solution, giving a similar level of protection to victims interest, has to be envisaged.
E. Action Plan. Eurojust can give a legal assessment about the possibility of obtaining, through a legal cooperation measure ( perhaps the official denunciation foreseen in article 21 of the 1959 Convention for Mutual Legal Assistance), the same effects produced by the transfer of procedures, or a different ones that could preserve the interest of victims.
E. Action Plan. As a first step, a questionnaire, about the possibilities, in the different countries of the European Unión, of the official denunciation could be prepared by the Casework Committee.
. Trafic in human beings and children prostitution
1.- THE FACTS: -a. In Rumania: A group of persons, offering a secure and legal work abroad, is recruiting young girls. Using this method two sisters, under eighteen year( 16 and 17), were recruited and transported by the organization to Barcelona (Spain).
1.- THE FACTS: -b. In Spain: The two young girls are received by other members of the organization that keep them in custody untill they are sold to different procurers. The youngest sister is raped and forced to prostitution. She escapes and denounces. After the first acts of investigation, the spanish judge sent the minor back to Rumania in order that she will join her parents. Once in Rumania she has been object of violence and menaced by the organization forcing her to change her denounciation. The elder sister was sold in Barcelona to albanians in order to prostitution. As she needed a false passport......
1.- THE FACTS: -c. In France:.... she is driven to Paris by one of the albanians. In Paris prostitutions acts are attempted without succes because of the presence of the police. In their way back to Spain, when using a false pasport, they were arrested in the frontier. The man that is accompainig the elder sister is suspect of participation in the murder of one person in Paris, under a different identity. He is suspected to belong to an albanian organization dedicated to explotation of prostitution.
2.- THE JUDICIAL INVESTIGATIONS. a.- In Paris: The murder of one person comitted by the albanian organization is investigated ( the albanian that wasaccompaining the elder sister is one of the suspects, under different identity).
2.- THE JUDICIAL INVESTIGATIONS. b.- In Perpignan: An investigation was begun because of the arrest of one of the albanian procurers when, using false identity, was trying to enter to Spain accompainig a minor provided with a false passport.
2.- THE JUDICIAL INVESTIGATIONS. c.-In Barcelona: An investigation is driven, because of the denonciation of the younger sister, against some people that have been arrested: - The members of the organization that received the two sisters when they arrived from Rumania, and the ones that sold the two to procurers. - The procurers that have been exploiting the prostitution of the two young girls. - The persons that were facilitating their prostitution. The procurers who raped one of the young girls.
3.- PROBLEMS RAISED. a.- Neither Spain nor France are trying to investigate and prosecute the acts related to trafick in human beings performed out of these countries: The recruiting and the trasport. The contact point from Rumania refers no on going investigation in her country and the need of a formal denunciation to begin one.
3.- PROBLEMS RAISED. b. The albanian procurer arrested in France, when crossing the frontier,is going to be prosecuted in France and Spain. In France: Because his participation in a murder in Paris, because the using of false identity and buying a false passport for the minor young girl, and because of the prostitution of the young girl. The proceedings conducted in Perpignan are going to be sent to Paris, in order to acumulation to the ones conducted in this town. In Spain –Barcelona( in the same proceedings that are being conducted against all the arrested people): Because of the participation in the ilegal trafick in human beings ( he bought one of the minors, because of forcing her to prostitution. These two prosecutions need some coordination, in order to avoid one to be an obstacle to the continuing of the other, as, according to the spanish rules of procedure, it is necessary the presence in Spain, during the audience,of the arrested suspect,who is under custody in France.
3.- PROBLEMS RAISED. c. Letters of request from the competent judge in Paris have been sent to a wrong court in Barcelona; their execution need some coordination.
3.- PROBLEMS RAISED. d. Due protection for one of the victims is necessary, not only for her own security but in order to assure that she will not change her denonciation and declaration when the audience will take place.
4.-ACTION PLAN. a.- In order to promote an investigation in Rumania. The spanish competent authority ( Juez de Instruccion 18 de Barcelona), acting according to article 21 of the 1959 convention, has to denunciate to the competent ones in Rumania the facts relating recruiting and transport. A doubt to be referred.
4.-ACTION PLAN. b.- In order to coordinate the prosecution of the albanian procurer arrested in France. Spain will continue its prosecution against him because of acts of trafick in human beings and prostitution. In order to do so, the obligatory declaration of the suspect after the procesamiento will be performed through letter of request. In order to obtain the presence in Spain of the suspect during the audience, an extradition shall be promoted and, once ih has been accepted, a temporary transfer will be possible. French NM should have to check the possibilities of succes of a prosecution because of the act related to the prostitution of the elder sister in France, in order to advise that the prosecution for this kind of acts should be undertaken by Spain. The risk: In case of absolution in France, the principle ne bis in idem will avoid sentencing in Spain on this kind of crime.
4.-ACTION PLAN. c.- In order to protect the younger sister, the spanish judge should send a letter of request to the competent authority in Rumania asking them, either the adoption of measures for the protecton of wirnesses foreseen by its national law, or offering the possibility of transfering the witness to Spain wher she will be submitted to the measures foreseen by spanish law.