2 Classification of fungi According to nutrition :SaprobesDecomposersMolds, mushrooms.ParasitesHarm hostRusts and smuts (attack plants)mutualistsBoth benefitLichensMycorrhizas
3 Classification of fungi Kingdom fungiDivision zygomycotaDivision AscomycotaDivision BasidomycotaDivision DeuteromycotaAccording to sexual reproduction :Sexual reproductionidentifiedSexual reproduction not identifiedConjugation FungiSac FungiClub FungiImperfecti Fungie.g : Rhizopus stolonifer(Black Mold or Black Bread )e.g: YeastAspergillusPenicilliume.g :MushroomRust fungiSmut Fungie.g :Fusarium
4 ZygomycotaMost zygomycota are saprobes, while a few species are parasites.Hyphae have no cross walls (Aseptate)Zygomycota usually reproduce asexuallyAsexual reproductive structure called sporangium atop sporangiospores make sporesRhizoids anchor the mold & release digestive enzymes & absorb food
5 Zygomycota Sexual spores are produced by conjugation Sexual spores are called ZYGOSPORESE.g : Rhizopus stolonifer (Black Mold or Black Bread ) causes fruit rot on strawberry, tomato, and sweet potato
7 Ascomycota Called Sac fungi Includes Cup fungi, truffles, yeasts The mycelium of ascomycetes is usually made up of septate hyphae.Reproduce sexually & asexuallyAscus - sac that makes ascospores in sexual reproductionSpecialized hyphae known as Ascocarps contain the asci
9 AscomycotaAsexual spores called conidia form on the tips of special hyphae called conidiophores (conidia)
10 Ascomycota But chlamydospores are also frequently produced. Furthermore, Ascomycota also reproduce asexually through budding.
11 Example of AscomycotaPenicillium mold makes the antibiotic penicillin.Some ascomycetes also gives flavor to certain cheeses.Saccharomyces cerevesiae (yeast) is used to make bread rise and to ferment beer & wine.
12 Importance of Ascomycota Almost half of all members of the phylum Ascomycota form symbiotic associations with algae to form lichens.
13 Note :A lichen is a composite organism that arises from algae or cyanobacteria (or both) living among filaments of a fungus in a symbiotic relationshipThe fungus benefits from the algae or cyanobacteria because they produce food by photosynthesis. The algae or cyanobacteria benefit by being protected from the environment by the filaments of the fungus, which also gather moisture and nutrients from the environment, and (usually) provide an anchor to it
14 Basidomycota Called Club fungi Includes: Mushrooms Puffballs Rusts and smuts
15 BasidomycotaReproduce sexually via the formation of specialized club-shaped end cells called basidia that normally bear external spores (usually four). These specialized spores are called basidiospores.
17 BasidomycotaMany basidiomycota produce a typical toadstool-shaped fruitbody, with basidia lining the gills ( Mushrooms )
18 Example of of basidomycota Mushrooms : some are edible, while others are poisonous
19 Importance of basidomycota damage crops (rusts & smuts)
20 DeuteromycotaFungi which do not fit into the commonly established taxonomic classifications of fungi because their sexual form of reproduction has never been observed ,only their asexual form of reproduction is knownhence the name "imperfect fungi."Most of the species are saprobes but some are parasitic.Many fungal diseases that infect humans belong to this group including species which cause athletes foot
21 Athlete's foot Also known as tinea pedis: is a common skin infection of the feet caused by fungusIt often results in itching, scaling, and rednessIn severe cases the skin may blisterAthlete's foot may affect any part of the foot, but occurs most often between the toes, the next most common area is the bottom of the footFungal infection of the nails or of the hands may occur at the same time]Tinea pedis is caused by a number of different ,E.g :Trichophyton