Presentation on theme: "South, East, Southeast Asia 1 images 192-197 Content Area 8 Themes: Sacred architecture, After life, Representation of Deities, Landscape, Royal Portraiture,"— Presentation transcript:
South, East, Southeast Asia 1 images 192-197 Content Area 8 Themes: Sacred architecture, After life, Representation of Deities, Landscape, Royal Portraiture, Power and Authority, Propaganda
Guiding Questions 1.How do art and architecture reflect beliefs and practices? 2.How do art and architecture reveal cross- cultural connections and influences?
Required Images (21) 1.Great Stupa at Sanchi. Madhya Pradesh, India. Buddhist; Maurya, late Sunga Dynasty. c. 300 BCE – 100 CE. Stone Masonry, sandstone on dome ( 4 images) 2.Terra cotta warriors from mausoleum of the first Qin emperor of China. Qin dynasty. c. 221-209 BCE. Painted terra cotta. (2 images) 3.Funeral banner of Lady Dai (Xin Zhui). Han Dynasty, China. c. 180 BCE. Painted silk. 4.Longmen caves. Luoyang, China. Tang dynasty. 493-1127 CE. Limestone. (3 images). 5.Gold and jade crown. Three Kingdoms Period, Silla Kingdom, Korea. Fifth to Sixth century CE. Metalwork. 6.Todai-ji. Nara, Japan. Various artists, including sculptors Unkei and Keikei, as well as the Kei School. 743 CE; rebuilt c. 1700. Bronze and wood (sculpture); wood with ceramic tile roofing (architecture). (5 images). 7.Borobudur Temple. Central Java, Indonesia. Sailendra dynasty. c. 750-842 CE. Volcanic-stone masonry. (3 images)
Required Images p. 2 8.Angkor, the temple of Angkor Wat, and the city of Angkor Thom, Cambodia. Hindu, Angkor dynasty. c. 800 – 1400 CE. Stone masonry, sandstone. (5 images) 9.Lakshmana Temple. Khajuraho, India. Hindu, Chandella dynasty. c. 930-950 CE. Sandstone. (4 images) 10.Travelers among Mountains and Streams. Fan Kuan. c. 1000 CE. Ink and colors on silk. 11.Shiva as Lord of Dance (Nataraja). Hindu; India (Tamil Nadu), Chola dynasty, c. 11 th century CE. Cast bronze. 12.Night Attack on the Sanjó Palace. Kamakura Period, Japan. c. 1250-1300 CE. Handscroll (ink and color on paper). (2 images) 13.The David Vases. Yuan Dynasty, China. 1351 CE. White porcelain with cobalt-blue underglaze. 14.Portrait of Sin Sukju (1417 – 1475). Imperial Bureau of Painting. c. 15 th century CE. Hanging scroll (ink and color on silk).
Required images p. 3 15.Forbidden City. Beijing, China. Ming dynasty. 15 th century CE and later. Stone masonry, marble, brick, wood, and ceramic tile. (5 images) 16.Ryoan-ji. Kyoto, Japan. Muromachi Period, Japan. c. 1480 CE; current design most likely dates to the 18 th century. Rock garden. (3 images) 17.Jahangir Preferring a Sufi Shaikh to Kings. Bichitr. c. 1620 CE. Watercolor, gold, and ink on paper. 18.Taj Mahal. Agra, Uttar Pradesh, India. Masons, marble workers, mosaicists, and decorators working under the supervision of Ustad Ahmad Lahori, architect of the emperor 1632-1653 CE. Stone masonry and marble with inlay of precious and semiprecious stones; gardens. (2 images) 19.White and Red Plum Blossoms. Ogata Korin. c. 1710-1716 CE. Ink, watercolor, and gold leaf on paper. (2 images) 20.Under the Great Wave off Kanagawa, also known as the Great Wave, from the series Thirty-Six views of Mt. Fufi. Katsushika Hokusai. 1830- 1833 CE. Polychrome woodblock print; ink and color on paper. 21.Chairman Mao en Route to Anyuan. Artist unknown; based on an oil painting by Liu Chunhua. c. 1969 CE. Color Lithograph.
Hinduism 101 Monotheism displayed through polytheistic views literary origins of Hindu date to the Vedic period and to the Indus Valley Civilization Multiplicity of deities suggest the all-pervasive nature of the Hindu gods. Three main gods: Shiva, Vishnu, and Devi The Hindu Trimurti consists of Brahma the Creator, Vishnu the Preserver, and Shiva the Destroyer. Hinduism is bound to the hierarchal structure of the caste system: Scholars (Bramans), Warriors/princesses/princes (Kshateriya), Merchants (Vyshas), and farmers and laborers (Shudras) Position in caste system is reflection of accumulated merit in past lives, cause and effect = karma. Samsara is the cyclical reincarnation Ultimate goal is liberation and release from samsara, known as Moksha
Hinduism 102 - Shiva Shiva is the Destroyer as well as a regenerative force. Duality through multiplicity of roles. Shiva can be represented in the form of a linga, a phallic or cosmic pillar, emphasizing his regenerative nature. Frequently depicted with many limbs or heads, again multiplicity in form and power – suprahuman Shiva as Nataraja, Lord of dance Attributes: multiple heads/arms, third eye on forehead, carries trident, dreadlock hair, represented as great yogi and teacher, linga, serpent scarf, rides the bull, Nandi Son is Ganesha, god of good fortune and remover of obstacles, has the head of an elephant
Hinduism 103 - Vishnu Vishnu is the Preserver of the Universe, embodiment of mercy and goodness, and maintains the cosmic order Often depicted with four arms holding different attributes, such as conch-shell, disc, a club, and a lotus Often laying on a coiled serpent Shesha in the cosmic sea Has transformed into 9 out of 10 avatars to help bring balance back to earth: fish, turtle, boar, lion, dwarf, Parasurama, Ram, Krishna, Buddha, and the tenth is yet to come (Kalki).
Hinduism 104 - Devi Devi the Great Goddess who take many forms Parvati is the wife of Shiva Lakshmi is the wife of Vishnu Radha is the lover of Krishna In on manifestation, Devi is Durga, a multi- armed goddess who often rides a lion. Devi creates and destroys Son is Ganesha
Buddhism 101 - Buddha Buddha (the Enlightened One) was born Siddhartha Gautama, eldest son of a royal family. Was a Hindu At the age of 29, the prince abandoned everything and everyone, witnessed pain and suffering, and became an ascetic Reached enlightenment at age of 35 through meditation under the Bodhi tree at Bodh Gaya in eastern India.
Buddhism 102 – Four Noble Truths The Wheel of the Law, or dharmachakra, are the teachings of the Buddha Four Noble Truths: 1.Life is suffering 2.The cause of suffering is desire 3.one can overcome and extinguish desire 4.the way to conquer desire and end suffering is following Buddha’s Eightfold Path
Buddhism 103 – Eightfold Path 1.Right understanding 2.Right thought 3.Right speech 4.Right action 5.Right livelihood 6.Right effort 7.Right mindfulness 8.Right concentration Buddha’s path leads to nirvana. Life is cyclical until nirvana is reached.
Questions addressed by architects of sacred structures: 1. Is there communal ritual? 2. Is there movement from point to point by ritual participants? 3. Is there a focal point participants must be able to see during the ritual? 4. How can transitions into more sacred space be provided? 5. How can the plan and decoration reflect beliefs of the participants?
Great Stupa at Sanchi. Madhya Pradesh, India. Buddhist; Maurya, late Sunga Dynasty. c. 300 B.C.E.–100 C.E. Stone masonry, sandstone on dome. 192
-represents burial mound of the Buddha where relics were enclosed -focal point of worship -perched on a hill, surrounded by other smaller Stupas -4 Gateways (toranas) mark the cardinal directions – added later -Worshippers circumambulate in a clockwise direction -Toranas were elaborately carved, connecting secular world with spiritual realm (next slide) -Local Fertility deities, served to sanctify the site Great Stupa at Sanchi. Madhya Pradesh, India. Buddhist; Maurya, late Sunga Dynasty. c. 300 B.C.E.–100 C.E. Stone masonry, sandstone on dome. Built by King Ashoka, a converted Buddhist Buddhist Monuments at Sanchi (UNESCO/NHK) 2:53
North Torana There are no human depictions of Buddha here because he has reached enlightenment Women depicted are Yakshi, Pre-Buddhist personifications of water, fertilit,y and vegetation
Great Stupa at Sanchi. Madhya Pradesh, India. Buddhist; Maurya, late Sunga Dynasty. c. 300 B.C.E.–100 C.E. Stone masonry, sandstone on dome. 1.Harmika: square area symbolizes the sacred domain of the gods 2.yashti is a pole = axis of universe 3.chatras represent Buddhas past, present, and future
Buddhists venerated Buddha’s remains by circumambulation Stupa WAS NOT entered Circular movement echoed that of the earth and sun – brought the devotees in harmony with the cosmos Stupa represents a mountain, a axis mundi – connecting earth with the heavens Great Stupa at Sanchi. Madhya Pradesh, India. Buddhist; Maurya, late Sunga Dynasty. c. 300 B.C.E.–100 C.E. Stone masonry, sandstone on dome.
Cross Cultural Connections Take a moment with your partner(s) and connect the Great Stupa at Sanchi with another sacred site that incorporates the idea of axis mundi. Please fully identify your site, justify your decision, and be ready to share in a few minutes!
Terra cotta warriors from mausoleum of the first Qin emperor of China. Qin Dynasty. c. 221–209 B.C.E. Painted terra cotta. 193
8,000 or more terracotta soldiers and horses, bronze horses and chariots guard the tombs of China’s First Emperor, Qin Shi Huangdi Emperor Qin built the Great Wall to keep nomadic invaders out from the north (Huns) He restored order and consolidated power BRUTALLY The basic but considerable difference between the state of Qin and the states that had been conquered was that privileges of the nobility were abandoned and officials who were assigned for government positions were selected according to merits.
Artists varied the combination of parts and the coloration, thus individualizing each figure Uniformity + individuality Even shows different ethnic groups that made up Emperor Qin’s army Emperor Qin conscripted more than 700,000 laborers to work on his tomb construction About 2,000 statues of cavalry, archers, lancers, chariots, and hand-to-hand fighters Undeniable connection to the POWER AND AUTHORITY of Emperor Qin Also, kudos to his imperial workshop Aligned to the road to the Mausoleum, army is to guard the Emperor in the after life VideoVideoes
In order to consolidate his power the Qin emperor standardized: - the script, - weights and measures, - the currency, and - the length of the cart axles. - He standardized a law code which everybody had to obey to and which prohibited the private possession of arms, and he - installed a state police and a secret service as government agencies. - Roads and canals were built to link all areas of the territory and move soldiers and supply fast.
Early China The Han Dynasty Lady Dai 12:22 Funeral banner of Lady Dai (Xin Zhui). Han Dynasty, China. c. 180 B.C.E. Painted silk. 194
This T-shaped silk banner covered the coffin of Lady Dai Lady Dai was the wife of Han ruler Marquis Li Cang Also in her tomb was additional embroidered silk gowns, 154 lacquer dishes, 51 ceramics, 48 bamboo suitcases of clothing and household goods, baskets of gold pieces and bronze coins. All things needed to be comfortable in the AFTERLIFE There was also an inventory of food items offered in her tomb: rice, wheat, barley, millet, soybeans, red lentils, 13 different meat dishes made from a variety of 7 kinds of meat. The scenes are interpreted as showing the modes of existence of the soul after death. The corpse is placed in the tomb where it is served by underworld attendants. The body soul enjoys and consumes the burial objects and offerings. At the same time the spirit soul (hun) ascends to the realm of the immortals and seems to rejuvenate during this process.
The lower section of the banner shows the offerings and ceremonies devoted to her body soul (po). Sacrificial vessels are provided for her and attendants are standing next to her, ready to serve her soul which resides in the tomb. Beneath the tomb we get a glimpse of the creatures living in the underworld: A deity of the earth carries the foundation of the tomb, her netherworld dwelling.
The central part of the banner shows Lady Dai in a standing position. She leans on a cane, while two persons crouch or kneel in front of her and three women, presumably female attendants, stand behind her.
The upper part of the banner is said to show the realm of the immortals. The entrance is guarded by two deities holding the records of the life span of Lady Dai. They are identified as deities of destiny. In the top section we can see a standing woman. She is surrounded by a creature with a snake-like body and flanked by the depictions of the moon with a toad and a rabbit (which is said to pound the elixir of immortality) and the sun with a raven. Five birds seem to keep her company which may represent the figures of the lower parts of the banner.
Silk Road is established during Han dynasty Tomb was found as a mound Body and tomb was very well preserved Heavens Earthly World Spiritual World
Chinese Buddhist Cave Shrines 4:35 Longmen caves. Luoyang, China. Tang Dynasty. 493–1127 C.E. Limestone. 195 b/c 2300 caves were carved into the cliffs with Buddha's of all sizes Central cosmic Vairocana Buddha is more than 44ft. tall – seated Commissioned by Empress Wu Zetian flanking the central Buddha are bodhisattvas, monks, and guardian figures
The central Vairocana Buddha (more than 55 feet high including its pedestal) is flanked on either side by a bodhisattva, a heavenly king, and a thunderbolt holder (vajrapani). Vairocana represents the primordial Buddha who generates and presides over all the Buddhas of the infinite universes that form Buddhist cosmology. This idea—of the power of one supreme deity over all the others—resonated in the vast Tang Empire which was dominated by the Emperor at its summit and supported by his subordinate officials. These monumental sculptures intentionally mirrored the political situation. The dignity and imposing presence of Buddha and the sumptuous appearance of his attendant bodhisattvas is significant in this context.
Vaiśravana, one of The Four Heavenly Kings, is on the left (indicated by the stupa in his right hand). Vajrapāṇi (on the right) are spiritual beings that wield the thunderbolt, 673-675 C.E., Tang dynasty, limestone, Luoyang, Henan province
196 Gold and jade crown. Three Kingdoms Period, Silla Kingdom, Korea. Fifth to sixth century C.E. Metalwork. Silla Kingdom was the most powerful Kingdom out of three rivaling Kingdoms in Korea Known as a Kingdom of Gold Crown is very carefully constructed, looks fragile in form Worn for burial purposes & special ceremonial rites of the Silla Kingdom Before Buddhism arrived in Korea, Silla Kingdom practiced shamanism – connection to nature worship through Shaman who acts as intercessor
Silla royalty upheld shamanistic practices in ceremonial rites such as coronations and memorial services. In these sacred rituals, the gold crowns emphasized the power of the wearer through their precious materials and natural imagery. Three-pronged crown symbolized the sacred tree found in the Silla capital city, Gyeongju This sacred tree was conceived of as a “world tree,” or an axis mundi that connected heaven and earth. Silla gold crowns were used both above ground and below, and their luxurious materials conveyed the social status of the tomb occupant in the afterlife.
Take a moment to Reflect Considering symbolism and significance of the material GOLD, compare and contrast two different cultures with regards to their symbolic connection to GOLD. How is GOLD a symbol of power and authority, and how is GOLD used within that culture?
Todai-ji. Nara, Japan. Various artists, including sculptors Unkei and Kaikei, as well as the Kei School. 743 CE; rebuilt c. 1700. Bronze and wood (sculpture); wood with ceramic tile roofing (architecture). (5 images). 197a VideoVideo, :30 – 2:15
Commissioned by Emperor Shomu 2/3 the size of the original! Original had 11 bays, this one has 7
Buddhism was introduced to Japan in 552 CE to the ruling elite from the Korean king, product of silk road Seated Cosmic Buddha is larger than 53 feet. Same Buddha as Longman Caves 53 feet Associated with the sun Scale implies consolidation of Imperial authority + penetration of Buddhism 197b
Large scale god representation to elicit power and authority of Emperor Shomu (left) and Empress Wu Zetian (right) as well as power and authority of developing Buddhism
Nandaimon (Great South Gate), built during Kamakura Period 12 th century, Nara Highly inspired by Chinese architecture (product of Chogen’s travels to China) Houses two Guardian figure sculptures… 197e
Left: Ungyo, sculpted by Unkei, Kamakura Period Right: Agyo, sculpted by Kaikei, Kamakura Period Both artists were products of the Kei School of sculpture, most prominent during the 12 th century when Todai-ji was being rebuilt. 1 st rebuilt during the Kamakura Period (1185-1333) Buddhist Priest, Shunjobo Chogen, was put in charge of rebuilding 197c /d Kongo-rikishi: Guardian statues 8 meters tall = 26.2 feet
Japanese Architecture The grand Buddhist architectural and sculptural projects of early Japan share a common material—wood–and are thus closely linked to the natural environment and to the long history of wood craftsmanship in Japan. CONNECTION TO NATURE