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Communication between cultures 8TH EDITION Chapter 4 Cultural History: Our Antecedents © Cengage 20121Chapter 4 Cultural History: Our Antecedents
Key Ideas Importance of history U.S. history Russian history Chinese history Japanese history Indian history Mexican history Islamic civilization © Cengage 2012 Chapter 4 Cultural History: Our Antecedents2
Importance of history The word culture can be substituted for the word history iHstory can provide insight into the values, traditions, and social institutions that a culture deems important History is one of the deep deep structures of a culture – incorporates a culture’s formal and informal governmental procedures, – incorporates its sense of community, its political and economic processes, – Incorporates its key historical heroes, and even its geography © Cengage 2012 Chapter 4 Cultural History: Our Antecedents3
United States History U.S. national character can be traced to the European people who arrived in the early years of the nation’s formation Values that continue to characterize the United States, such as hard work, self-improvement, practicality, freedom, responsibility, equality, and individuality Shared desire of the first immigrants to be free from the oppressive dictates of such English institutions as “the Crown,” “divine right,” and the Church of England motivated them to seek unity © Cengage 2012 Chapter 4 Cultural History: Our Antecedents4
United States History Early Americans wanted to separate alienable rights The common desire to escape religious authoritarianism and monarchy rule also gave rise to what is referred to as the doctrine of separation of church and state Individualism was perhaps among the initial values to emerge in the new country A distaste for formality and wasting time was also part of the colonial experience © Cengage 2012 Chapter 4 Cultural History: Our Antecedents5
United States History United States history is also replete with instances of violence and war, experiences that shaped both the culture and the geographical borders Expansion has been an important part of U.S. history Continuing manifestation of a cultural heritage that emphasizes egalitarianism, independence, frequent change, and a willingness to engage the unknown © Cengage 2012 Chapter 4 Cultural History: Our Antecedents6
United States History Contemporary social issues and culture – Immigration – Right to life vs. freedom of choice – Same sex marriage – School prayer © Cengage 2012 Chapter 4 Cultural History: Our Antecedents7
Russian history Prominent aspect of Russia’s history is its geography – Vast land – 11 time zones Lacking any significant barriers to passage, geography has left the country vulnerable to historical invasions by armies from both Europe and Asia © Cengage 2012 Chapter 4 Cultural History: Our Antecedents8
Russian history Russians have developed a perception of the world that frequently incorporates a sense of distrust toward outsiders Russia’s historical political heritage has helped mold the contemporary Russian worldview Russia’s political tradition has historically been autocratic Vivid example of the Russians being dominated by harsh, authoritarian rule had its beginning in the 1917 Bolshevik Revolution – Supposed to overturn the oppressive czarist regime, – Eliminate economic inequities, – Gave working class a political voice © Cengage 2012 Chapter 4 Cultural History: Our Antecedents9
Russian history Result much of the country was destroyed and the entire socio-cultural structure was changed in the name of Communism – State agricultural and industrial collectivism – Deaths in political purges Deep appreciation to Greek Orthodox Christianity – Predominated Russian architectural, music and art – Cultural arts remain important part of Russian life © Cengage 2012 Chapter 4 Cultural History: Our Antecedents10
Russian history Russia in turmoil after collapse o communism Putin moved to consolidate and centralize political and economic power Putin asserted three distinct Russian values: – Patriotism – The state should play a role in world affairs – state-centeredness Explains why Russia continues to move from liberal democratic form of government © Cengage 2012 Chapter 4 Cultural History: Our Antecedents11
Russian history Contemporary social issues – Official corruption – Declining population – Constraints on productivity and growth – Resentment and violence toward ethic groups by Russian nationalists © Cengage 2012 Chapter 4 Cultural History: Our Antecedents12
Chinese history China’s long record of achievements and experiences form an important part of how the more than 1.33 billion contemporary Chinese perceive and experience the world Archeological data suggest that the prehistoric origins of Chinese society extend back to 7000 BCE Geography has played a significant role in China’s uninterrupted record of cultural development Confucianism as a state ideology written language common to all facilitated the consolidation of control under a centralized ruler © Cengage 2012 Chapter 4 Cultural History: Our Antecedents13
Chinese history Since 1949 China has been governed by the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) – The early years of CCP rule, particularly those under Mao Zedong, were characterized by internal strife and political turmoil. – Postwar Communist leaders initiated a series of reform programs the (Great Leap Forward and the Cultural Revolution) had disastrous effects on the nation and the populace. – recent study by Professor Dikötter estimates that the Great Leap experiment (1958~62) may have resulted in the premature deaths of as many as 45 million people © Cengage 2012 Chapter 4 Cultural History: Our Antecedents14
Chinese history Early 1970s China began to move away from “revolutionary” programs and responded to political overtures from the United States In the 1990s Chinese leaders opted for a market-driven economy – Has proven enormously successful and improved the lives of millions of China’s citizens – In 2010 China became the world’s second largest economy ( following the United States) and the leading exporting country © Cengage 2012 Chapter 4 Cultural History: Our Antecedents15
Chinese history Communicating history – Chinese society has been predominantly agricultural, with people maintaining strong ties to their home village and the land – Two central values are the Chinese patriarchal family, or clan, as the basic social unit and the acceptance of centralized patrimonial governance – China also offers us an example of how governments can use history as a form of communication to promote nationalism and foreign policy goals © Cengage 2012 Chapter 4 Cultural History: Our Antecedents16
Chinese history Contemporary social issues – Widespread official corruption – Growing social inequality between the rich and poor – Rising unemployment in urban areas. – Changing structure and location of the Chinese population. – Cultural imperative for sons and availability of selective abortion, China’s official one-child policy, instituted over 30 years ago, has resulted in a disproportionate number of males among the younger generations. © Cengage 2012 Chapter 4 Cultural History: Our Antecedents17
Japanese history History of Japan is a product of geography – 100 miles of ocean separate Japan from the Korean peninsula – China is just 500 miles to the east across the Yellow Sea Confucianism and Buddhism, both brought from China through Korea, exerted a significant and enduring influence on the development of Japanese society © Cengage 2012 Chapter 4 Cultural History: Our Antecedents18
Japanese history A relatively small nation composed of four major islands and several thousand smaller ones – Accessible only by sea until the early part of the twentieth century – This insularity also made Japan relatively immune to large-scale immigration from the Asian mainland – Invading foreign armies were often stymied by the sea – Natural isolation, and 250 years of governmental imposed national seclusion during the Tokugawa or Edo era (1603–1867) instrumental in the development of Japan’s cultural distinctiveness and self-image. © Cengage 2012 Chapter 4 Cultural History: Our Antecedents19
Japanese history Historical isolation, low numbers of immigrants, and a feudal-based system of governance produced a society characterized by its relative cultural homogeneity One expression of cultural homogeneity is the Japanese attitude toward foreigners While their culture specifies the appropriate behavior for working and socializing with other Japanese, no established “correct” way of dealing with foreigners has evolved. The Japanese uncertainty toward foreigners continues today, as evident in contemporary attitudes toward immigration. © Cengage 2012 Chapter 4 Cultural History: Our Antecedents20
Japanese history Another important link between Japan’s long history and its contemporary cultural values is the Tokugawa historical heritage Central government specified strict codes of behavior to regulate the conduct of every aspect of personal and public life Japanese formed a culture where in many contexts there was a single correct way to perform a task © Cengage 2012 Chapter 4 Cultural History: Our Antecedents21
Japanese history The objective of these protocols was to ensure external peace and internal group stability by subordinating the individual to the central authority and the greater social order Societal stability was the paramount objective, and this continues to be a central focus of Japanese social act Modern corporations and government institutions became substitutes for the castle town and have traditionally offered lifetime employment © Cengage 2012 Chapter 4 Cultural History: Our Antecedents22
Japanese history Feudalism also inculcated in the Japanese an acceptance of discipline, sacrifice, and conformity – People were required to conduct every aspect of their lives in a highly proscribed manner, depending on their social class membership – conditions have been translated into contemporary Japanese dedication to societal and organizational formality and an acceptance of higher authority, status differentials, and conformity to group expectations © Cengage 2012 Chapter 4 Cultural History: Our Antecedents23
Japanese history Due to the necessity of group cooperation in early Japanese village life, exclusion, or the threat thereof, became a form of punishment Group orientation continues to guide contemporary Japanese society, where one’s status is based more on the schools attended, profession, or employer than on individual achievement © Cengage 2012 Chapter 4 Cultural History: Our Antecedents24
Japanese history Contemporary social issues – Demographic changes – Immigration issues – Risk management. © Cengage 2012 Chapter 4 Cultural History: Our Antecedents25
Indian history Diversity characterizes the geography, peoples, cultures, languages, and history of India A product of influences from South and Northeast Asia, Central Asia, the Middle East, and Europe Archeological record indicates hunter- gatherers were active on the subcontinent as early as two million years ago © Cengage 2012 Chapter 4 Cultural History: Our Antecedents26
Indian history Arrival of nomadic Aryans coming from the west, bringing with them cattle and horses. conquered and settled northern India, establishing various warring principalities Alexander the Great crossed into India in 327 BCE, he found a politically and territorially divided land, highly vulnerable to conquest Following Alexander’s departure most of the subcontinent consolidated into the Maurya Empire (321–185 BCE) India’s first unified state © Cengage 2012 Chapter 4 Cultural History: Our Antecedents27
Indian history The decline of Mauryan culture left India the politically fragmented until the second unification of northern India, The Gupta Dynasty (320–550 BCE) again unifed northern India. During During these two eras, – Buddhism and Hinduism arose and flourished in India – Rulers practiced religious tolerance, which became one of India’s principal values. – Hinduism provided a unifying framework © Cengage 2012 Chapter 4 Cultural History: Our Antecedents28
Indian history Islam first arrived in the southern part of present-day Pakistan as early as 711 CE, but influence was initially contained within that region Muslim invaders, arriving from the west via the Khyber Pass, who established an enduring presence on the subcontinent Muslim raiders set about conquering the Hindus and destroying their temples that planted “communal hatred” in the hearts and minds of India’s populace © Cengage 2012 Chapter 4 Cultural History: Our Antecedents29
Indian history The Delhi Sultanate was deposed in 1526 by a new wave of Muslim invaders Mongols from Central Asia established the Mughal Empire – Established the strongest dynasty in all of Indian history – Nominally held power until the mid-1800s – Indian culture flourished under Mughal rule – A civil service was established to administer the country – Religious and ethnic differences were tolerated – Meritocracy was practiced, and – Persian became the language of the court. – The arts were encouraged and thrived. 85 – The famous Taj Mahal, a monument to the wife of one of the Mughal rulers, was built during this era. © Cengage 2012 Chapter 4 Cultural History: Our Antecedents30
Indian history Decline of Mughal rule opened the door for Western powers evelopment of sea power, the Western Europeans were able to circumvent the overland route by sailing around Africa to reach Indian Ocean littoral lands – Portuguese ships arrived on the west coast of India in 1510 – England’s East India Company gained power through a military takeover and established itself as the dominant trader on India’s southeast coast until 1813 © Cengage 2012 Chapter 4 Cultural History: Our Antecedents31
Indian history The Indian National Congress was established in 1885 to address the excesses of British colonial rule Largely ineffective until Mohandas Gandhi was able to build an effective coalition Led to India’s independence from British rule in 1947 Long-standing discord between Hindus and Muslims, India led to partitioning into two separate sovereign states—India and Pakistan. – The partition displaced some ten million people – Led to widespread political violence between Hindus and Muslims, resulting in the loss of as many as one million lives – Enduring conflict between India and Pakistan over the Kashmir region is a legacy of the partition. © Cengage 2012 Chapter 4 Cultural History: Our Antecedents32
Indian history India instituted a government-controlled, socialist-oriented economy – Characterized by marginal growth – Characterized by budget deficits – Characterized by a bloated bureaucracy – Characterized by high levels of unemployment In the 1990s, effective economic reforms were undertaken that led to India’s current rise in the global economy © Cengage 2012 Chapter 4 Cultural History: Our Antecedents33
Indian history Benefits derived from this economic growth have been felt disproportionately among the population, which remains predominantly rural, poor, and often illiterate The digital age is bringing significant cultural change to traditional Indian society Digital revolution is also changing Indian courtship practices Digital age has enabled young couples to communicate via email, social networking sites, and mobile phones © Cengage 2012 Chapter 4 Cultural History: Our Antecedents34
Indian history Contemporary social issues – Extensive, persistent poverty – Widespread official corruption – Lack of adequate primary school education in many of the Indian states – Long-standing schism between Muslim and Hindu © Cengage 2012 Chapter 4 Cultural History: Our Antecedents35
Mexican history Pre-Columbian – Agriculturally based Olmec, Maya, Toltec, and Aztec civilizations flourished – Each of these great societies made unique contributions to modern Mexican culture – Mexicans are extremely proud of this period of their history, not only for its achievements in agriculture, creative arts, and the establishment of large urban settlements, but also for scientific advancements © Cengage 2012 Chapter 4 Cultural History: Our Antecedents36
Mexican history Invasion by Spain – Brought an end to pre-Columbian in 1519 – Spanish occupation changed country and people forever Introduction of Catholicism Development of rigid social class system Granting large amounts of land to Spanish conquerors – Aristocrats dominated a population of primarily agrarian peasants under what was called the hacienda system © Cengage 2012 Chapter 4 Cultural History: Our Antecedents37
Mexican history Independence from Spain – Independence in 1821 when Spain and Mexico negotiated a treaty, called the Plan of Iguala sometimes referred to as the Plan of Three Guarantees – Final freedom came in 1824, when Mexico became a federal republic under its own constitution. During this period – Neither independence from Spain or the Mexican Revolution changed the basic structure of social relations in which a small, largely Hispanic elite © Cengage 2012 Chapter 4 Cultural History: Our Antecedents38
Mexican history Mexican-American War – Territory of Texas declared its independence from Mexico – U.S. doctrine of Manifest Destiny a major cause of the Mexican-American War that began May 13, 1846 – President Polk, with the backing of the American people, sought to acquire what amounted to half of Mexico’s territory – T he two countries fought over the land for two years (1846–48) in a war that is seldom remembered in the United States, but which Mexico considers “its greatest disaster.” 113 On February 2, 1848, the war ended with the signing of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo © Cengage 2012 Chapter 4 Cultural History: Our Antecedents39
Mexican history The Revolution of 1910 – 90 percent of Mexico’s mestizos and Indians were still desperately poor on the ranches and haciendas of a handful of wealthy land owners – Ushered in widespread social change Rejected Europe as a model Asserted an Indian identity for Mexico Committed the government to providing security for peasants and workers by redistributing land and income © Cengage 2012 Chapter 4 Cultural History: Our Antecedents40
Mexican history Modern Mexico – Huge oil and natural gas reserves, manufacturing, agriculture, tourism, and the hundreds of maquiladora factories along the U.S.-Mexico border have made Mexico a major economic force – The 1994 passage of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Mexico, the United States, and Canada became free-trade partners – Still many critical issues between U.S. and Mexico require intercultural interaction © Cengage 2012 Chapter 4 Cultural History: Our Antecedents41
Mexican history Contemporary Social Issues – Poverty – Unemployment – Smuggling of illegal © Cengage 2012 Chapter 4 Cultural History: Our Antecedents42
Islamic civilization Muslim demographics – Muslims represent the majority of the population in 49 nations – Growing populations of Muslims in Europe and North America. – Muslims now number approximately 1.6 billion, constituting over one-fifth of the entire world population – These numbers are expected to grow between now and 2030 before leveling off at more than 2.1 billion © Cengage 2012 Chapter 4 Cultural History: Our Antecedents43
Islamic civilization Age of Ignorance – Early Arabs composed poems that embodied their code of values: bravery in battle, patience in misfortune, persistence in revenge, protection of the weak, defiance of the strong, loyalty to the tribe, hospitality to the guest, generosity to the needy, and fidelity in carrying out promises – Loyalty to one’s tribe was paramount and intertribal wars and raids against trade route caravans were common © Cengage 2012 Chapter 4 Cultural History: Our Antecedents44
Islamic civilization Age of Ignorance – Early groups practiced a variety of religions, including Judaism, Christianity, animism, and ancestor worship, – A tradition developed among the tribes to annually suspend hostilities and conduct a pilgrimage to an ancient shrine in the city of Mecca. © Cengage 2012 Chapter 4 Cultural History: Our Antecedents45
Islamic civilization Rise and spread of Islam – Muhammad, from a merchant family in Mecca, received his heavenly revelations about 610 CE and began recruiting followers. – The rise and spread of Islam began with his death, in 632 CE. – No clear line of succession for the Islamic leadership when Muhammad died. © Cengage 2012 Chapter 4 Cultural History: Our Antecedents46
Islamic civilization Rise and spread of Islam – This void was filled by a series of Caliphs (Arabic for “successor” or “representative”) role assumed by successive leaders of Islam until the demise of the Ottoman Empire in 1923 First caliphs were drawn from those who had directly served Muhammad and were known as the Patriarchal Caliphate Many of the Arab groups that had previously submitted to his teachings and leadership sought to disassociate themselves from the new caliphs Armed groups of “believers” were quickly dispatched to suppress dissenters © Cengage 2012 Chapter 4 Cultural History: Our Antecedents47
Islamic civilization Rise and spread of Islam – the last of the caliphates who had known Muhammad ended the era of the Patriarchal Caliphate and ushered in the Umayyad Caliphate (CE 661–750) – Relocation of the capital from Medina in Arabia to Damascus in Syria – Consolidation of the Middle East enabled Muslims to embark on the conquest of distant lands – Questions of leadership succession persisted and ultimately led to civil wars and the division of Islam into its two major branches—Sunni and Shiite © Cengage 2012 Chapter 4 Cultural History: Our Antecedents48
Islamic civilization Rise and spread of Islam – Sunni believe that the leader of Islam should be whoever is best qualified – Shiites, however, contend that leadership is a function of heredity, through lineage traced to Muhammad. – Originally, the two groups saw themselves divided not by ideology but by a question of politics, but over time, varied theological and religious practices have evolved. © Cengage 2012 Chapter 4 Cultural History: Our Antecedents49
Islamic civilization Rise and spread of Islam – In the mid-eighth century, the Umayyad Caliphate was succeeded by the Abbasid Caliphate (749– 1258), the seat of government was moved to Baghdad – early years of the eleventh century saw the onset of history’s most storied clash between Christianity and Islam—the Crusades, which lasted almost 200 years © Cengage 2012 Chapter 4 Cultural History: Our Antecedents50
Islamic civilization Rise and spread of Islam – The final era of unified Islamic governance was brought about by Mongol invaders moving out of Central Asia through Afghanistan and Persia into the Middle East – The defeat of the Ottomans at the end of the First World War concluded more than thirteen centuries of a unified Islam and replaced it with nation-states, many of which remained under the domination of Western colonial masters until after the World War II © Cengage 2012 Chapter 4 Cultural History: Our Antecedents51
Islamic civilization History and the worldview of Muslims – Islamic history, for Muslims, has an important religious and also legal significance, since it reflects the working out of God’s purpose for His Community— those that accept the teachings of Islam and obey its law. (Lewis 2004, p. xix) – The history of Islam is continually reinforced through Language Geography Tribal affiliation © Cengage 2012 Chapter 4 Cultural History: Our Antecedents52
Islamic civilization Contemporary social issues – Authoritative, repressive regimes – Official corruption – Absence of viable democratic processes – Stagnant economic development – Lack of women’s equality – Expanding population - a majority of which are under 25 years of age and see little opportunity for economic advancement © Cengage 2012 Chapter 4 Cultural History: Our Antecedents53
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