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Characteristics of the Situation Pertemuan 21 & 22 Matakuliah: L0244 – Psikologi Kepemimpinan Tahun: 2010.

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Presentation on theme: "Characteristics of the Situation Pertemuan 21 & 22 Matakuliah: L0244 – Psikologi Kepemimpinan Tahun: 2010."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Characteristics of the Situation Pertemuan 21 & 22 Matakuliah: L0244 – Psikologi Kepemimpinan Tahun: 2010

3 Background The appropriateness of a leader’s behavior with a group of followers often makes sense only in the situational context in which the behavior occurs. The situation, not someone’s traits or abilities, plays the most important role in determining who emerges as a leader. Great leaders typically emerged during economic crisis, social upheavals, or revolutions. –It was believed that leaders were made, not born, and that prior leadership experience helped forge effective leaders. Bina Nusantara University 3

4 Situational Factors That Affect Leaders’ Behaviors Role theory: A leader’s behavior depends on a leader’s perceptions of several critical aspects of the situation: –Rules and regulations governing the job. –Role expectations of subordinates, peers, and superiors. –Nature of the task. –Feedback about subordinates’ performance. Multiple-influence model –Microvariables –Macrovariables Situational levels: Task, organizational, and environmental levels. Bina Nusantara University 4

5 An Expanded Leader-Follower-Situation Model Bina Nusantara University 5

6 From the Industrial Age to the Information Age In the new information age, many fundamental assumptions of the industrial age are becoming obsolete. Changes in the ways companies operate: –Cross functions –Links to customers and suppliers –Customer segmentation –Global scale –Innovation –Knowledge workers Bina Nusantara University 6

7 A Congruence Model Bina Nusantara University 7

8 The Work – Job Characteristics Skill variety: Degree to which a job involves performing a variety of different activities or skills. Task identity: Degree to which a situation or task requires completion of a whole unit of work from beginning to end with a visible outcome. Task significance: Degree to which a job substantially impacts others’ lives. Autonomy: Degree to which a job provides an individual with some control over what and how he does it. Feedback: Degree to which a person accomplishing a task receives information about performance from performing the task itself. Bina Nusantara University 8

9 The Work – Task Structure People vary in their preferences for, or ability to handle, structured versus unstructured tasks. Subordinates need help when: –A task is unstructured. –They do not know what the desired outcome looks like. –They do not know how to achieve the outcome. Reducing the degree of ambiguity inherent in an unstructured situation is a leadership behavior usually appreciated by followers. Bina Nusantara University 9

10 The Work – Task Interdependence Task interdependence: Degree to which tasks require coordination and synchronization for work groups or teams to accomplish desired goals. Tasks with high levels of interdependence place a premium on leaders’ organizing and planning, directing, and communication skills. Task interdependence can also dictate which leader behaviors will be effective in a particular situation. Bina Nusantara University 10

11 The People Leaders should look at the followers in terms of: –Skills –Knowledge –Experience –Expectations –Needs –Preferences In a rapidly changing environment, diversity allows the species to sense and adapt more quickly. Diversity is essential to quality and survival in a rapidly changing world. Bina Nusantara University 11

12 The Formal Organization – Level of Authority Level of authority: One’s hierarchical level in an organization. The types of behaviors most critical to leadership effectiveness can change substantially as one moves up an organizational ladder. Leaders at high organizational levels often perform a greater variety of activities and are more apt to use participation and delegation. Bina Nusantara University 12

13 The Formal Organization – Organizational Structure Organizational structure: The way an organization’s activities are coordinated and controlled, and represents another level of the situation in which leaders and followers must operate. Organization structure can be thought of in three terms: –Complexity: Horizontal complexity Vertical complexity Spatial complexity –Formalization: Degree of standardization. –Centralization: Diffusion of decision making. Bina Nusantara University 13

14 Organizational Design - Functional Design Bina Nusantara University 14

15 Organizational Design – Product Design Bina Nusantara University 15

16 Organizational Design – Matrix Design Bina Nusantara University 16

17 Organizational Design – Lateral Interdependence Lateral interdependence: Degree of coordination or synchronization required between organizational units in order to accomplish work-group or organizational goals. Leaders are more likely to use rational persuasion as an influence tactic when the level of lateral interdependence is high. Bina Nusantara University 17

18 The Informal Organization Organizational culture: System of shared backgrounds, norms, values, or beliefs among members of a group. Organizational climate: Members’ subjective reactions about the organization. Leaders can change culture by attending to or ignoring particular issues, problems, or projects. Leaders can modify culture –Through their reactions to crisis –By rewarding new or different kinds of behavior –By eliminating previous punishments or negative consequences for certain behaviors. Bina Nusantara University 18

19 Some Questions That Define Organizational Culture Bina Nusantara University 19

20 Environmental Characteristics Environmental characteristics: Situational factors outside the task or organization that still affect the leadership process. These factors include: –Technological forces –Economic forces –Political forces –Social forces –Legal forces These factors often create anxiety, and therefore cause an increase in employees’ security needs. Bina Nusantara University 20

21 Technology and Uncertainty Environments of low technological complexity: Workers play a large role and are able to modify their behavior depending on the situation. –A range of technological complexity can exist. Different kinds of organizational structures or designs are best suited for different technological environments. The degree of environmental uncertainty affects optimal organizational design. Bina Nusantara University 21

22 Crisis Behaviors associated with effective leadership during crises differ from those associated with noncrisis situations. During crises, followers are more likely to look to leaders to identify the problem as well as develop and implement a solution. Leaders are less apt to use participation or consultation during crises. Bina Nusantara University 22

23 Situational Engineering A leader or follower can become more effective by identifying problem areas and restructuring the situation so that problems become easier to overcome. A variety of ways in which leaders and followers can change the task, organizational, and environmental factors affecting their behaviors and attitudes exist. Leaders and followers must think about how they can change the situation for everyone to be more satisfied and productive. Bina Nusantara University 23

24 Summary The situation may well be the most complex factor in the leader- follower-situation framework. Situations vary not only in complexity but also in strength. The Congruence Model can be used as a way to consider many of the situational factors leaders should consider. Research has shown that organizational factors play a major role in the leader-situation framework. The informal organization or the organizational culture can have a profound impact on the way both leaders and followers behave. Factors in the environment, such as legal, political, or economic forces, can also affect leaders’ and followers’ behaviors. Bina Nusantara University 24

25 Reference Hughes., Ginnett., & Curpy. (2009). Leadership: Enhancing The Lesson of Experience. 6 eds. McGraw-Hill. Boston. Bina Nusantara University 25


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