3 OBJECTIVESPRESENTATION- What is a conditional ?What are zero and 1st conditionals and how do I use them? PRACTICE- Can I recognize zero conditionals and 1st conditionals? Can I use zero conditionals and 1st conditionals in guided exercises? PRODUCTION- Can I use zero conditionals and 1st conditionals in speech and writing ?
4 What are zero and 1st conditionals and how do I use them? PresentationWhat is a conditional?What are zero and 1st conditionals and how do I use them?
5 WARM-UP EXERCISE- WOULD YOU? Read the activities listed on the paper and organize into the columns: “I would do this,” “I might do this,” or “I would never do this.”For exampleI would never go bungee jumping.After find a partner and interview then and record their answers.After we will have a whole class discussion
6 We will be studying zero, 1st, 2nd and 3rd conditionals. WHAT IS A CONDITIONAL?A conditional sentence is used to show an if/then relationship between two actions.If I go to the store, I will…We can call the “if” clause the condition clause and the main clause the result clause.In conditional sentences, the verb tense can change- present, past or future.We will be studying zero, 1st, 2nd and 3rd conditionals.
7 WHAT IS A ZERO CONDITIONAL? Zero conditionals are used to talk about general truths and laws of nature.We use zero conditionals to talk about things that always happen under certain given conditions.So zero conditionals are facts that will happen or believed to happen under correct circumstances.Zero conditionals also can be used to describe typical reactions to things: If X happens, then I do Y.Often called a real conditional
8 ZERO CONDITIONALSGeneral Truths: If condition result If it rains, we get wet. If I get wet, I change my clothes. Scientific Facts/ Laws of Nature: If condition result If the water boils, it is not cold
9 If you heat water to 100°C, it boils. ZERO CONDITIONALSTense :Present tense in both clausesExample :Present TensePresent TenseIf you heat water to 100°C, it boils.If you pour oil into water, it floats.
10 “When” instead of “If” Sometimes we use “when” instead of “if” Both words express law of nature or general truth.For example:If it is cold, I stay inside the house.When it is cold, I stay inside the house.
11 ATTENTION:If the conditional comes first, you need a comma. When you heat water to 100°C, it boils. You don’t need a comma if the conditional doesn’t come first. Water boils if you heat water to 100°C.
12 EXAMPLES: If it rains, the grass gets wet. The grass gets wet if it rains.When there is no air, wood doesn’t burn.When I eat dinner, I am full.Wood doesn’t burn if there is no air.I am full if I eat dinner.
13 ZERO CONDITIONALS If clause If/when+present simple If the sun shines, Main clausepresent simplesnow melts.Usescientific factsgeneral truthslaws of nature
15 WHAT IS A 1ST CONDITIONAL? We use the First Conditional to talk about real possibilities/ real conditionals.There are two parts to 1st conditionals: if clause(condition) and the result clause.The first conditional is used with events that will likely happen in the future.If X happens, the Y will happen.Use the present tense in the if clause (condition). Use the future tense in the result.If it rains, I will get wet.If I don’t study for the test, I will fail it.Unlike Zero conditionals 100%, 1st conditionals are based upon a probability
16 What are 2nd & 3rd conditionals and how do I use them? PresentationWhat are 2nd & 3rd conditionals and how do I use them?
17 If it is sunny, we will go the park. 1ST CONDITIONALSTense :Present tense in if clauses. Future tense in results clause.Example :Present TenseFuture TenseIf it is sunny, we will go the park.If you study, you will pass the test.
18 ATTENTION:If the conditional comes first, you need a comma. If it is sunny, we will go the park. You don’t need a comma if the conditional doesn’t come first. We will go to the park if it is sunny.
19 EXAMPLES If it rains, we will stay home. When I get the job, I will move to Brazil.We will stay home if it rains.I will move to Brazil if I get the job.
20 1ST CONDITIONAL If it rains, we will stay home. Often we use “will” in the result clause.However we can substitute will with other words, depending on the meaning we want to convey.Might (possibility)Can (stronger possibility)Should (suggestion)If it rains, we will stay home.If it rains, we might stay home.If it rains, we can stay home.If it rains, we should stay home.
21 1ST CONDITION- NEGATIVE FORM One or both clauses can be negative.Remember the if clause (present) and the result clause ( future)If it rains, we won’t go.We won’t go if it rains.If it rains, we can’t go.We can’t go if it rains.If I don’t get the job, I won’t move to Brazil.I won’t move to Brazil if I don’t get the job.
23 1ST CONDITION – QUESTION FORM The “if” clause in a question is always expressed in present time. The main clause is expressed in future time.The if clause may appear either at the beginning or the end of the sentence.If it rains, will we go?If it rains, should we go?If you don’t get the job, can you go to Brazil?
24 “UNLESS” IN 1ST CONDITIONALS When the if clause expresses a negative condition, “unless” can be used to replace “if”If + negative form of the auxiliaryUnless+ present verb :If you don’t hurry, you will be late.Unless you hurry, you’ll be late.“Unless” is often used in threats to express negative consequences
26 1ST CONDITIONAL If+present tense If it rains, Unless+ present tense If CLAUSEIf+present tenseIf it rains,Unless+ present tenseMain ClauseFuture – will, can, should, mightNegativewe won’t go out.Usereal situation (likely to happen in the present or future)
27 PRESENTATION EXERCISES- remember to try to use alternative words and negatives Complete the following 1st condition sentences, after rewrite sentences in reverse order.1. If I _______(go) out tonight, I ______________(go) to the movies.2. If we ________________(wait), we ______________(be) late.3. If it rains, we _____________ (find) shelter.4. If it snows, we ___________(will negative) be able to drive.5. If you _________(be negative) careful, you ____________(hurt) yourself.6.What ____________(we) do if it doesn’t rain?7. Unless he ___________(work), he ___________(pass negative) his course.8. If you can, you __________(read) that article.9. If I __________(negative do) have to work late, I __________(come) to your party.10. I _____________(do) your homework if you _____________(want).
28 Can I use zero conditionals and 1st conditionals in guided exercises? PracticeCan I use zero conditionals and 1st conditionals in guided exercises?Can I see the differences between zero conditionals and 1st conditionals?
29 EXERCISE 1This hand-out has 2 parts: In the first part, decide whether the sentence is zero conditional or 1st conditional. In the second part, complete the sentences. Do the work individually (10) and then compare your answers with a partner (10 minutes) After we will look at the sentences as a whole class.
30 PART I If babies are hungry, they cry. _________ If I have enough money, I'll buy some new shoes.People die if they don't eat. ________If I see her, I'll tell her.If I study today, I'll go to the party tonight.You get water if you mix hydrogen and oxygen. ______If it rains, I won't go to the park.If you touch a fire, you get burned. _______She'll be late if the train is delayed.If people eat too much, they get fat. _____She'll miss the bus if she doesn't leave soon.Snakes bite if they are scared. _______
31 PART II13. If you push the button, ____________________________________________. (0)14. If there is a snowstorm tonight, ___________________________________________. (1)15. If you heat ice, _____________________________________.(0)16. If you____________________________________________, you should pass the class.(1)17. If _______________________________________________, you get the colour purple. (0)18. Unless you wear shoes, _______________________________________________. (1)19. If the sun shines, ________________________________________________(0) .20. You won’t get dessert if _________________________________ .(1)
32 ProductionCan I use zero conditionals and 1st conditionals in speech and writing ?
33 ZERO CONDITIONALS GUESSING GAME ***remember zero conditionals can be about scientific facts, laws of nature and general truths.I will hand-out a worksheet with a number of zero conditional prompts.Individually complete the sentences with a result clause.After I will assign you a partner and read your part of each sentence. Your partner will try to guess what the condition is.You get 2 guesses each. After move on.After find a new partner and repeat.
34 EXAMPLE DIALOGUE Student A: I go to see my friend. Student B: I think that when you want to know the latest gossip, you go to see your friend.Student A: No, I don’t.Student B: If you feel stressed, you go to see your friend.Student A: Maybe that’s true, but this sentence is different.
35 ACTIVITY 2- CHAIN LETTER GAME: Zero and 1st Conditionals This is a fun whole class activity!Each of you will receive an “if” worksheet and one “if” clause theme. For example you might receive a card with “go to the grocery store” or “ go on vacation”On your sheet record your “if” clause and then pass it to the next person- clockwise.The next person will complete the result ( using either a zero or first conditional.) After they will pass it to the next person who will write a “if” clause based upon the previous resultWe will continue until the papers are complete.Remember you can use either zero or first conditionals.
36 EXAMPLE If I go to the grocery store I drive my car. I will buy food for dinner.2. If I don’t go to the grocery storeYou save moneyI will starve.3. If you save money,You will be rich.4. If I am rich,I will take a trip.5 When I take a trip,I fly.
38 REFERENCES Cartoons from ptx/conditionals/conditionals-intermediate-b1/59696ptx/conditionals/conditionals-intermediate-b1/47142Charts from (modified)ptx/conditionals/conditionals-intermediate-b1/23648Hand-outs
40 OBJECTIVESPRESENTATION- What are 2nd and 3rd conditionals and how do I use them? PRACTICE- Can I recognize 2nd conditionals and 3rd conditionals? Can I use them in guided exercises? PRODUCTION- Can I use 2nd conditionals and 3rd conditionals in speech and writing ?
41 5 MINUTE REVIEW I need a volunteer-student to lead the review. Please review what you learned about zero conditionals and 1st conditionals from yesterday.Record all of the information.
42 WHAT ARE 2ND CONDITIONALS? We use 2nd conditional to talk about hypothetical, unreal situations or dreams.It is not true, so the results aren’t true either.To talk about impossible present situations.
43 If had money, I would buy a big house. 2ND CONDITIONALSTense :Past Simple in if clauses (condition). Present Condition (would + infinitive) in results clause.Example :Past Simple TenseUnreal ConditionPresent ConditionalImaginary resultIf had money, I would buy a big house.If I knew his number, I would phone him.
44 2ND CONDITIONALS We often use “would” but other words can be used. Could (possibility) – it can be used in the if clause or the result clause.Should (obligation)If I had a million dollars, I should give money to my family.If I had a million dollars, I could travel the world.If I could go anywhere, I would travel to Italy.
45 EXAMPLES If I had more energy, I would exercise more often. The meaning is that I don’t have more energy so exercising more is a dream.If I won the lottery, I would buy a new car.(but what are the chances that I win the lottery?)If I could choose my ideal job, I’d be a business owner.(but I’m a teacher.)If I could choose where I lived, I would live somewhere warm.(but this isn’t an option.)
46 2ND CONDITIONALS Question Form Negative Form Either clause in a 2nd conditional can be in negative form .If we weren’t so tired, we would go dancing.If we were rich, we shouldn’t work.To form a question with 2nd conditionals (result clause):a question word+ would+ subject+ main verb.If you had a million dollars, what could you do?If we went anywhere, where should you go?
48 2ND CONDITIONALS If Clause If+past tense If I were rich, Main Clause would+inf.could+inf.should+inf.I could buy a Ferrari.Useadvice or imaginary situation in the present or future(unreal or unlikely to happen)
49 EXERCISES FOR 2ND CONDITIONALS Complete the sentences, remember to use negatives, questions and alternative words (should and could)If I won the lottery, ______________________If you won the lottery,What __________ (would, could or should) you do if you ______________?What wouldn’t you do, _________________________________________ ?We __________________(have) helped if ______________________.If you _______________(go) by bicycle, you ________________ (be/not) overweight.If I ______________(be) rich, I _____________________ ______________If you _____________________(go) to China, you ___________________ (see) the Great Wall of China.If I ____________________________(be) president, I _________________________________ .If I ___________________(be/not) a student, I __________________ be a _________________ .
50 WHAT ARE 3RD CONDITIONALS? We use 3rd conditional to talk about hypothetical, unreal situations or unfulfilled dreams in the past which didn’t come true.It is not true, so the results aren’t true either.To talk about impossible past situations.Often used to express regret.
51 EXAMPLES If I had had more energy, I would have exercised more often. The meaning is that I didn’t have more energy so I didn’t do it in the past.If I had won the lottery, I would have bought a new car.(but it didn’t happen (past) so I didn’t buy the car)If I could have chosen my ideal job, I would have been a business owner.(but I’m a teacher.)If I could have chosen where I lived, I would have lived somewhere warm.(but this wasn’t an option.)
53 Would+Have+ participle 3RD CONDITIONALSTense :Had + past participle in if clauses (conditions). Have+ past participle in results clause.Example :Had/have + participleUnreal ConditionWould+Have+ participleImaginary resultIf I had know, I would have tried harder.If I had known his number, I would have phoned him.If I could have gone to the party, I would have gone.
54 3RD CONDITIONALS Could Might We often use would + have in the results clause but we do use other words:CouldMightIf I had gone to school, I could have been a pilot.If we had gone to the park, we might have loved it.
55 3RD CONDITIONALS If Clause If+had+ participle If I had studied harder, Main Clausewould+have+p.pcould+have+p.pmight+have+p.pI might have passed the exam.Useimaginary situation in the past(regrets, unfulfilled plans,wishes impossible to fulfill, criticism)
56 3RD EXERCISES- REMEMBER TO USE WOULD, COULD OR MIGHT) If you _______________(study), you ________________(passed)_____________ .If I _______________(win) the lottery, I ________________________________ .If you ________________(go), you _______________________(have) fun.If she ___________ (be/sick), we would __________________(seen) __________If they ________________(know), they ____________________(go) to see that terrible movie.If he ________________ (want) help, he ______________ (tell) us.If she _______________(listen) to me, she _________________ (learn) more.
57 PracticeCan I recognize 2nd conditionals and 3rd conditionals? Can I use them in guided exercises?
58 EXERCISE 1 : PART IIf I had heard the news, I would have gone home. ______If I had seen her, I would have told her. _______If I wanted a cookie, I would get a cookie. _______If I was sick, I would go home. _____If I had enough money, I would buy some new shoes. _____If I had studied today, I could have gone to the party. _____If it had snowed, we could have gone skiing. __________If we had longer summers, we could go to Mexico. _____If you had gotten milk, we might have had cereal. ______If you had touched the fire, you would have been burned. __People wouldn’t die if they had enough food. ________She would be late if the train had been delayed. __________
59 PART IIIf I had pushed the button, ________________________________. (3)If there was a snowstorm, ___________________________________________. (2)If I had gone to college, _____________________________________.(3)If you____________________________________________, you would succeed. (2)If had studied, _______________________________________________, . (3)If had money, _______________________________________________. (2)If had a million dollars, ________________________________________________(2) .If I had won a million dollars, _________________________________.(3)
60 ProductionCan I use 2nd conditionals and 3rd conditionals in speech and writing ?
61 “IF I HAD A MILLION DOLLARS” We are going to listen to a song by The Barenaked Ladies called “ If I had a million dollars.”The song uses 2nd conditionals in an entertaining way.Instructions:I will hand-out a gap-fill-in worksheet.We will listen to the song two times.Try to fill in the blanks
62 BEFORE WE BEGIN….HERE IS SOME IMPORTANT VOCABULARY limousine llama John Merrick fridge tree fortKraft Dinner emu fur coat
64 “If I Had a Million Dollars” If I had a $1,000,000, maybe we could put a little tiny fridge in there somewhere(We could just go up there and hang out Like open the fridge and stuff, and there’d all be foods laid out for us Like little pre-wrapped sausages and thingsThey have pre-wrapped sausages But they don’t have pre-wrapped bacon Well, can you blame them? Yeah) If I had a $1,000,000 (If I had a $1,000,000 ) I’d buy you a fur coat ( but not a real fur coat — that’s cruel)If I had a $1,000,000 (If I had a $1,000,000 ) I’d buy you a house ( I would buy you a houseIf I had a $1,000,000 (If I had a $1,000,000 ) I’d buy you furniture for your house ( maybe a nice chesterfield or an ottoman)If I had a $1,000,000 (If I had a $1,000,000 ) I’d buy you a K-car ( a nice reliant automobile) If I had a $1,000,000, I’d buy your loveIf I had a $1,000,000, I’d build a tree fort in our yard If I had a $1,000,000, you could help it wouldn’t be that hard
65 If I had a $1,000,000 (If I had a $1,000,000 ) I’d buy you an exotic pet (like a llama or an emu) If I had a $1,000,000 (If I had a $1,000,000 ) I’d buy you John Merrick’s remains (All them crazy elephant bones)If I had a $1,000,000, I’d buy your loveIf I had a $1,000,000, we wouldn’t have to walk to the store If I had a $1,000,000, we’d take a limousine ‘cause it costs more If I had a $1,000,000, we wouldn’t have to eat Kraft Dinner(But we would eat Kraft Dinner, Of course we would, we’d just eat more And buy really expensive ketchups with it That’s right, all the fanciest Dijon ketchups… mmmmm)If I had a $1,000,000 (If I had a $1,000,000 ) I’d buy you a green dress ( but not a real green dress that’s cruel) If I had a $1,000,000 (If I had a $1,000,000 ) I’d buy you some art ( A Picasso or a Garfunkel) If I had a $1,000,000 (If I had a $1,000,000 ) I’d buy you a monkey (haven’t you always wanted a monkey?)If I had a $1,000,000, I’d buy your love If I had a $1,000,000 If I had a $1,000,000 If I had a $1,000,000 If I had a $1,000,000, I’d be rich!
66 ACTIVITY: WHAT WOULD YOU DO IF YOU HAD A MILLION DOLLARS? We will now write our own lyrics to the song.What would you do if you had a million dollars?Individually, using the template complete 2 verses from the song.If I had a million dollars, I ________________________.Individual work 10 minutesAfter we will get in a circle and share our song.WE DON’T HAVE TO SING THE VERSES!!!!
69 THE TITANICI will hand-out an article about the causes of the sinking of the Titanic.After find a partner and discuss the comprehension questions. You can use information from the video and reading comprehension to discuss and answer questions.After, as a whole class we will discuss the answers.
70 NEXT … In pairs I will hand you a character card. In pairs, you will write a 3rd conditional sentence about the character you were assigned.For example.A ship called the Californian, whose captain, Stanley Lord, had ordered his crew to stop the ship for the night because of the icebergs. When Captain Lord was informed of the flares he failed to respond because he did not think they were important. Nor did the crew of the Californian wake their radio operator, who had gone to bed for the night.It was Captain Stanley Lord’s fault. If he had responded by going to the Titanic, he would have saved the passengers.
71 THE TITANICAfter we will share with the whole class.
73 Phase III: Conditional review and consolidation Day 3
74 OBJECTIVESPRESENTATION- What are the similarities and differences between the conditionals?PRACTICE- Can I differentiate between the conditionals?PRODUCTION- Can I use mixed conditionals in speech and writing?
75 What are the similarities and differences between the conditionals? PresentationWhat are the similarities and differences between the conditionals?
77 we express a general truth or laws of nature. ZERO CONDITIONALZERO CONDITIONALSIf you don’t water flowers, they die.If you have a headache, stop watching TV.If clause: PRESENT SIMPLEMain clause: PRESENT SIMPLE or IMPERATIVEWith zero conditionalwe express a general truth or laws of nature.
78 FIRST CONDITIONAL If the weather is nice, we will go for a walk. If you don’t apologize, she will never trust you again.If clause: PRESENT SIMPLEMain clause: FUTURE SIMPLEThe first conditional refers to the present and future It expresses a possible condition and its probable result in the future.
79 SECOND CONDITIONAL If I had a lot of money, I would buy a big house. If I knew his number, I would phone him.if-clause: PAST TENSE SIMPLEmain clause: PRESENT CONDITIONAL would + infinitiveThe second conditional refers to the present and future.It expresses an unreal situation and its probable result.The situation or condition is improbable, impossible,imaginary, or contrary to known facts.
80 THIRD CONDITIONALIf I had had a lot of money, I would have bought a big house.If I had known his number, I would have phoned him.if-clause: PAST PERFECT SIMPLEmain clause: PAST CONDITIONAL would + have + past participleThe third conditional refers to the past andit is not based on facts. It expresses the a situationwhich is contrary to reality in the past.
83 FIRST VS. ZERO CONDITIONAL: Zero Conditional describes a general situation1st Conditional describes the potential of a particular life situation.If you sit in the sun, you get burned. If you sit in the sun, you will get burned.Which sentence is zero conditional and which is 1st conditional?What are the differences between these two sentences?
84 FIRST VS. SECOND CONDITIONAL: 1st Conditional describes things that I think are likely to happen in the future.2nd Conditional talks about things that you don't think will really happen. It depends on my point of view. If she studies harder, she'll pass the exam. If she studied harder, she would pass the exam.Which sentence is 1st conditional and which is 2nd conditional?What are the differences between these two sentences?
85 SECOND VS. THIRD CONDITIONAL: 2nd Conditional talks about things that I don't think will really happen. It depends on my point of view.3rd Conditional focuses on past situations or regrets that can’t happen.If I won a million dollars, I would buy a car.If I had won a million dollars, I would have bought a car.Which sentence is 2nd conditional and which is 3rd conditional?What are the differences between these two sentences?
86 Can I differentiate between the conditionals? Practice PhaseCan I differentiate between the conditionals?
87 CONSOLIDATION WORKSHEET I will give each of you a worksheet.In pairs, work through the exercises.After we will compare our answers as a whole class.
88 Answer KeyIf there is a snowstorm tonight, the streets will be dangerous. 1If I had studied harder, I would have passed the exam. 3If I knew her number, I would call her. 2If there is a snowstorm, there is snow. 0If you practice hard, you will succeed. 1If he had known the way, we wouldn’t have missed the party. 3The exam will not start unless everyone is present. 1If she went to bed earlier, she wouldn’t be so tired everyday.2If you mix red and yellow, you get orange. 0If I had worked harder, I would have been rich. 3If the weather wasn’t so cold, we would go outside. 2If the tickets are available, we will go to the concert. 1If had won the lottery, I would have bought an expensive house. 3If we weren’t so tired, we would have gone to the party. 2If he wants to come, tell him to call me. 0
89 Part CIf we __had known_(know) it was Adriana’s birthday, we would have bought her a gift. (3)If I know about a friend’s birthday, I buy (buy) a gift for them. (0)If the river freezes, we ___will go___(go) skating. (1)If I went skating, I ___would wear____(wear) my hat and mitts. (2)If it is cold, ice _____freezes_______(freeze). (0)If I had known it was going to freeze, I __would have ____covered my car. (3)If it freezes, I _will_(cover) my car with a sheet. (1)If I had a million dollars, I ____would buy_____(buy) you a house. (2)If I __had won___ (win) a million dollars, I would have bought you a house. (3)If I _________win___________(win) a million dollars, I will buy a house. (1)If people win a million dollars, ___they buy________ (buy) a house. (0)If the exam was harder, many people ____would fail_______(fail) (2)If the exam had been harder, many people ______would have failed_________ (fail). (3)If the exam is harder than last year, I will fail__(fail). (1)If I am sick, I go _(go) see the doctor. (0)
90 Can I use mixed conditionals in speech and writing? Production PhaseCan I use mixed conditionals in speech and writing?
91 Production Phase In groups of three, I will give you 3 sets of cards. Each card has an “if” statement in either 0,1st,2nd or 3rd conditional.Each of you will write a response and pass it to the next person until each of you in the group has written on all 3 cards.After, have the person who began each card, read the responses. (15 minutes.) Decide which answer is the best.After each group will record on the whiteboard 1 result clause for each card.As a whole class we will compare.
92 FOR EXAMPLE If I had a million dollars, (2nd) I would buy 10 golden retrievers and a big house.
93 REFERENCES Cartoons from onals/conditionals-intermediate-b1/59696onals/conditionals-intermediate-b1/47142Charts from (modified)onals/conditionals-intermediate-b1/23648Hand-out for production (modified)Conditional review from teach-this.com