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Chapter 8.3 The Crusades and the Wider World

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 8.3 The Crusades and the Wider World"— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 8.3 The Crusades and the Wider World
***Crusades begin in 1096 Christians battle Muslims for control of parts of the Middle East*** Lasts for 200 years

2 Video United Streaming “Moments in Time: The Crusades”
Causes, weapons, Richard the Lionheart, crusader forts, etc.

3 video 1st Crusade 4 min.

4 Focus Q: Monday, 10/14 What were the Crusades? Who was involved?
How many crusades were there? Successful? Results?

5 Focus Q: Monday, Oct. 13 Does CAHS have great school spirit?
What evidence can you cite? How could we improve our school spirit?


7 What we’ll learn…. Why? Many advanced civilizations in 1050—China, India, Mexico, Peru, Africa The Church tries to reclaim the holy land from Muslims—the Crusades Under what conditions does the Church support war? Were the Crusades “just” wars? Why is there conflict in the holy land today?

8 The World in 1050 In 1050, Europe was emerging from a period of isolation. Islam had brilliant civilization from Spain to India India and Chinese culture flourished Ghana, in West Africa, was building a trading empire Mayans in Mexico and Incas in Peru had great empires

9 Mayans—Mexico

10 Ghana

11 Incas—Peru

12 The World in 1050 Byzantine Empire (Eastern Roman Empire) was attacked by Seljuk Turks (Muslims) Seljuks overrun the Holy Land Threatens the Byzantine Empire and stops Christian pilgrims going to the Holy Land


14 The Crusades Byzantine Emperor asks Pope Urban II for help to fight Muslims Urban agrees to help his longtime rivals Urban II was very progressive 

15 Called to War Urban calls his bishops and nobles to action
***Council of Clermont (1095)— Calls for a crusade to free the Holy Land from Muslim control***

16 This means……Knights, peasants, etc…. attacking castles……

17 …and fighting in the name of God

18 Called to War 1000s of Knights went b/c of Religious enthusiasm
Dreams of wealth and land To escape troubles For adventure… all wars Write down 2 of these.

19 Called to War Pope had mixed motives too Increase his power
Heal the schism btwn the Roman and Byzantine churches—remember when the Roman Empire split? Get Christian knights to fight Muslims, not each other

20 The 1st Crusade

21 There were 9 crusades.

22 Let’s review…….. What were the Crusades? Who was involved?
How many crusades were there? Successful? Results?

23 Fighting a Losing Battle
***1st Crusade captures Jerusalem in 1099*** Crusades continue on and off for 200 years Any land captured by Christians, Muslims tried to get back 1187, Jerusalem falls to Saladin and the Muslims 3rd Crusade fails to re-take Jerusalem, Saladin opens it to Christian pilgrims 1291, last Christian lands re-captured, Acre

24 Third Crusade: Richard I

25 Impact of the Crusades Increase religious hatred
Atrocities on both sides Christians even massacred whole communities of Jews Divided Muslim groups come together to fight Christians—have a common enemy Saladin unifies a region from Syria to Egypt Quickens the pace of change in Europe

26 European Economies Expand (examples of change)
4. Trade increases Crusaders bring back fabrics, spices, perfumes Northern Italian cities trade sugar, cotton, and rice w/ the Middle East 5. Encourages the growth of $ economy Nobles need $ to finance crusades, allow peasants to pay rent in $, peasants sell stuff in towns for $, undermines serfdom

27 Effects on Monarchs and the Church
1. Monarchs increase their power Get new powers to tax to pay for crusades Some lead crusades, Richard the Lion-Hearted 2. Papal power peaks 3. Byzantines angry at the west for looting Constantinople during 4th Crusade

28 A Wider Worldview Evolves
b/c of contact w/ Middle East, a few Europeans explore India and China 1271, Marco Polo goes to China Experiences of crusaders and people like Marco Polo would lead to an age of exploration in the 1400s

29 Heard of anyone who sailed
the ocean blue in 1492?

30 The Reconquista 1. Crusading spirit continued after the defeat at Acre, esp. in Spain Moors, North African Muslims, had conquered most of Spain by the 700s In northern Spain, several small Christian kingdoms grew slowly 2. ***Christian campaign to rid the Iberian Peninsula of Muslims was the called “the Reconquista”***

31 Christians Conquer Spain
Will take about 400 years 1085—1st success, capture city of Toledo 1140—Christian kingdom of Portugal est. 1300—Christians control all of Iberian Peninsula, except Granada 1469—marriage of Isabella of Castile, Ferdinand of Aragon creates a united Spain 1492, Granada falls—Reconquest is complete

32 Spain Expels Non-Christians
1. Isabella wants spiritual and political unity That means everyone must be Christian Under Muslim rule; Christians, Jews, Muslims lived in relative peace Isabella now goes after Jews and Muslims who had converted to Christianity

33 Isabella and the Inquisition
***after the Reconquista, Isabella begins a crusade against Jews and Muslims who had been forced to convert to Christianity*** She had the help of the INQUISITION—a church court set up to try people for heresy (not practicing Christianity) many were burned at the stake

34 Spain Expels Non-Christians
Isabella achieved religious unity at a high price Over 150,000 mostly Jews and Muslims left Spain Many were skilled, educated people …..brain drain

35 Graphic Organizer—is on back of 8.3 ws
Cause Cause Cause Crusades Result Result Result

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