7 What we’ll learn….Why?Many advanced civilizations in 1050—China, India, Mexico, Peru, AfricaThe Church tries to reclaim the holy land from Muslims—the CrusadesUnder what conditions does the Church support war?Were the Crusades “just” wars?Why is there conflict in the holy land today?
8 The World in 1050In 1050, Europe was emerging from a period of isolation.Islam had brilliant civilization from Spain to IndiaIndia and Chinese culture flourishedGhana, in West Africa, was building a trading empireMayans in Mexico and Incas in Peru had great empires
12 The World in 1050Byzantine Empire (Eastern Roman Empire) was attacked by Seljuk Turks (Muslims)Seljuks overrun the Holy LandThreatens the Byzantine Empire and stops Christian pilgrims going to the Holy Land
18 Called to War 1000s of Knights went b/c of Religious enthusiasm Dreams of wealth and landTo escape troublesFor adventure…..like all warsWrite down 2 of these.
19 Called to War Pope had mixed motives too Increase his power Heal the schism btwn the Roman and Byzantine churches—remember when the Roman Empire split?Get Christian knights to fight Muslims, not each other
22 Let’s review…….. What were the Crusades? Who was involved? How many crusades were there?Successful?Results?
23 Fighting a Losing Battle ***1st Crusade captures Jerusalem in 1099***Crusades continue on and off for 200 yearsAny land captured by Christians, Muslims tried to get back1187, Jerusalem falls to Saladin and the Muslims3rd Crusade fails to re-take Jerusalem, Saladin opens it to Christian pilgrims1291, last Christian lands re-captured, Acre
25 Impact of the Crusades Increase religious hatred Atrocities on both sidesChristians even massacred whole communities of JewsDivided Muslim groups come together to fight Christians—have a common enemySaladin unifies a region from Syria to EgyptQuickens the pace of change in Europe
26 European Economies Expand (examples of change) 4. Trade increasesCrusaders bring back fabrics, spices, perfumesNorthern Italian cities trade sugar, cotton, and rice w/ the Middle East5. Encourages the growth of $ economyNobles need $ to finance crusades, allow peasants to pay rent in $, peasants sell stuff in towns for $, undermines serfdom
27 Effects on Monarchs and the Church 1. Monarchs increase their powerGet new powers to tax to pay for crusadesSome lead crusades, Richard the Lion-Hearted2. Papal power peaks3. Byzantines angry at the west for looting Constantinople during 4th Crusade
28 A Wider Worldview Evolves b/c of contact w/ Middle East, a few Europeans explore India and China1271, Marco Polo goes to ChinaExperiences of crusaders and people like Marco Polo would lead to an age of exploration in the 1400s
29 Heard of anyone who sailed the ocean blue in 1492?
30 The Reconquista1. Crusading spirit continued after the defeat at Acre, esp. in SpainMoors, North African Muslims, had conquered most of Spain by the 700sIn northern Spain, several small Christian kingdoms grew slowly2. ***Christian campaign to rid the Iberian Peninsula of Muslims was the called “the Reconquista”***
31 Christians Conquer Spain Will take about 400 years1085—1st success, capture city of Toledo1140—Christian kingdom of Portugal est.1300—Christians control all of Iberian Peninsula, except Granada1469—marriage of Isabella of Castile, Ferdinand of Aragon creates a united Spain1492, Granada falls—Reconquest is complete
32 Spain Expels Non-Christians 1. Isabella wants spiritual and political unityThat means everyone must be ChristianUnder Muslim rule; Christians, Jews, Muslims lived in relative peaceIsabella now goes after Jews and Muslims who had converted to Christianity
33 Isabella and the Inquisition ***after the Reconquista, Isabella begins a crusade against Jews and Muslims who had been forced to convert to Christianity***She had the help of the INQUISITION—a church court set up to try people for heresy (not practicing Christianity)many were burned at the stake
34 Spain Expels Non-Christians Isabella achieved religious unity at a high priceOver 150,000 mostly Jews and Muslims left SpainMany were skilled, educated people…..brain drain
35 Graphic Organizer—is on back of 8.3 ws CauseCauseCauseCrusadesResultResultResult