Presentation on theme: "Objectives of EFL Teaching objectives The difference between ”aims”, “goals” and “objectives”. An aim is an expression of a long-term purpose, usually."— Presentation transcript:
objectives The difference between ”aims”, “goals” and “objectives”. An aim is an expression of a long-term purpose, usually over the course of one or more years. A goal is the outcome of a series of successfully completed objectives, possibly measured over a series of days. An objective is a measurable, observable behavior of less than a day’s duration.
Goals address more general, societal, community, or institutional concerns. In developing a language curriculum, issues concerning language planning and policy must be taken into account since it is the society or broader community which the program serves that fundamentally determines the goals to be manifested in the course. In an ideal situation, thus, goals are determined by carefully examining information about the patterns of language use within the various domains of the society, as well as by studying
group and individual attitudes toward English and toward all other languages which are used in the setting. Objectives, in turn, are specific outcomes or products of courses which are outlined in a syllabus. Objectives guide teachers; they also help learners understand where the course is going and why. Objectives can be expressed in terms of proficiency scores, or as performance objectives such as language skill attainments. Setting objectives in the course plans makes it possible to carry out
the necessary evaluation measures. It also makes it possible to specify the various levels of instruction within a program. Course designers ideally make use of information from all interested sources when they write objectives. Effective course design begins with the question, what do I want my students to be able to do or produce by the end of my course? In answering this question, you will articulate course aims and objectives that will guide your choice of topics and your sequence of assignments.
Considerations in choosing objectives : Objectives should reflect three important factors: the nature of organized knowledge, the nature of society, and the nature of learners.
Objectives of teaching English as a foreign Language at Intermediate schools of the Kingdom The Saudi Ministry of Education (1978:4) has determined the following four aims of Teaching English as a foreign language at Intermediate schools of the Kingdom. 1.To produce, in three years, an individual who is able to speak, read and listen with understanding to simple current English and to write a connected passage of up to half a page about a simple subject or incident.
2.To give pupils who finish their formal education in the Third year Intermediate enough knowledge of the language to help them in their vocations. 3.To give pupils who proceed to the Secondary stage a sound foundation on which to build their future studies. 4.To lay the foundation of a knowledge of English so that later they can acquire sufficient grasp of the language to enable them to preach their religion to English speakers, and to refute the errors of the enemies of Islam concerning religion.
The above-mentioned aims of teaching English at the Intermediate stage very explicitly emphasize the importance of imparting high level instruction of English language and maintaining its standards in all the four skills, i.e. listening, speaking, reading and writing.
In a language curriculum, objectives can both be general and specific. The general objectives include the four-fold aims of learning English i.e. listening, speaking, reading, and writing. The specific aims pertain to each lesson and clearly indicate what the teacher wants to achieve by the end of the lesson i.e. how many new words and structures he will teach, what particular grammatical items he will stress upon, and what skills he will practise.
The specific aims, therefore, are designed for each lesson; they vary from lesson to lesson and are limited, exact and definite to be achieved in one lesson or one class period. Objectives are also divided into two broad categories, i.e., behavioral objectives and instructional objectives. Behavioral objectives state the kind of ideas, values, skills, techniques of thinking and feeling that the learners are supposed to learn, utilize and develop.
These objectives are too general and are largely related to learner’s character building and personality development. However, they should be stated in behavioral terms in order to specify the desired changes in the action patterns of learners. That is, how the learner will think, feel or act after an experience has been given to them. Behavioral objectives should be consistent with the goals of education, the purpose and the policy of the school system.
Instructional objectives are the same as specific objectives stated above. They are drafted to teach a particular topic or a lesson and they differ from topic to topic. These objectives should also be stated in behavioral terms clearly stating what academic changes will take place in the learners after learning a particular topic or lesson. How many new words and structures they would have mastered and what new grammatical items they would have learned.
The instructional objectives should be consistent with the behavioral objectives to avoid any clash or disagreement between the two.
Behavioral ObjectivesInstructional Objectives 1-They are long-range objectives to be achieved over a long period of time. 1-They are short-range objectives to be achieved in a limited period of time, say one class period. 2-They specifically pertain to subject area, course-outline and the textbook. 2- They mainly pertain to character building and personality development
3- They are abstract in nature. 3- They are concrete in nature. 4- They are exact, definite, and limited. 4- They are broad, indefinite and unlimited. 5-They involve values, ideas and thinking techniques e.g., thinking critically, thinking creatively etc. 5- They also aim at developing thinking skills by using problem solving approach, discovery method, heuristic approach, role-playing dramatization etc.
Best of luck Dr. Nissrein Abdel Bassett El-Enany