Presentation on theme: "TYPES OF OPERATION RESEARCH MODELS. A MODEL is a representation of the reality. Most of our thinking of operations research in business take place in."— Presentation transcript:
A MODEL is a representation of the reality. Most of our thinking of operations research in business take place in the context of models. The objective of model is not to identify all aspects of the situation but to identify significant factors and their intre- relationship. A major advantage of modelling is that it permits the decision maker to examine the behaviour of a system without interfering with as going operations.
TYPES OF OR MODELS TYPES OF OR MODELS PHYSICAL MODELS MATHEMATICAL MODELS BY NATURE OF ENVIRONMENT BY THE EXTENT OF GENERALITY ICONIC MODELS ANALOG MODELS DETERMINISTIC MODELS PROBABALISTIC MODES GENERAL MODELS SPECIFIC MOELS
(A) PHYSICAL MODELS These models include all forms of diagrams, drawings graphs and charts. Most of which are designed to deal with specific types of problems. By presenting significant factors and inter-relationships in pictorial term, physical models are able to a problem in a manner that facilitates analysis. There are two types of physical models which are explained as follows: ICONIC MODELS An icon is an image or likeness of an object or system it represents. An iconic model the least abstract physical replica of a system, is usually based on a smaller scale than original. These models can stimulate the actual performance of a product thereby availing the treamenduous expense of designing full scale experimental models.
ANALOG MODELS Analog models are closely associated with iconic models. However they are not replicas of problem situations. Rather, they are small physical systems that have similar characteristics and work like an object or systems it represents e.g children’s toys model of rails, roads etc., whereas the actual objects are complex and might not allow direct handling or manipulations. (B) MATHEMATICAL MODELS Symbolic models employ a set of mathematical symbols to represent the decision variable of the system under study. These variables are related together by mathematical equations. Following are the examples of mathematical models which have been applied to business and industry.
- ALLOCATION MODEL - ROUTING MODEL - QUEUING MODEL - SIMULATION - REPLACEMENT MODEL - MARKOV’S ANALYSIS - SEQUENCING MODEL (C) BY NATURE OF ENVIRONMENT DETERMINISTIC MODELS In this model every thing is defined and the results are certain. Certainty is the state of nature assumed in these models.
PROBABALISTIC MODEL In cases of risk and uncertainty, the input and output variables take the form of probability of occurrence of an event. (D) BY THE EXTENT OF GENERALITY GENERAL MODELS General model is one in which does not apply one situation only rather it has got general applications. SPECIFIC MODEL Specific model is applicable under specific condition only e.g. sales response curve, or equation as a function of advertising is applicable in marketing function alone.