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MANAGEMENT of PARK AND RECREATION AGENCIES. Key Ingredients for Successful Management Innovation Innovation Interpersonal Skills Interpersonal Skills.

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Presentation on theme: "MANAGEMENT of PARK AND RECREATION AGENCIES. Key Ingredients for Successful Management Innovation Innovation Interpersonal Skills Interpersonal Skills."— Presentation transcript:

1 MANAGEMENT of PARK AND RECREATION AGENCIES

2 Key Ingredients for Successful Management Innovation Innovation Interpersonal Skills Interpersonal Skills Willingness to Adapt management style Willingness to Adapt management style

3 Successful Managers are: Well integrated Well integrated social social communicative communicative well rounded well rounded Practical and Organized Practical and Organized possess common sense possess common sense have a plan have a plan are prepared are prepared

4 Role of Managers Leader Leader Tranforms others by example to reach goals Tranforms others by example to reach goals Communicator Communicator Uses all forms well Uses all forms well Coach/Mentor Coach/Mentor Cares for and develops employees Cares for and develops employees Change Agent Change Agent Has sound strategy for change – is flexible/promotes flexibility Has sound strategy for change – is flexible/promotes flexibility Power Broker Power Broker Power to broker deals, power to exercise needed authority Power to broker deals, power to exercise needed authority

5 5 Core qualities of managers Ethics and Values Ethics and Values Follows a model code of ethics Follows a model code of ethics Groups and Group Processes Groups and Group Processes Able to gain consensus via group decision making Able to gain consensus via group decision making Service Matters Service Matters Need to be able to articulate the level of service quality Need to be able to articulate the level of service quality Alliances and Partnerships Alliances and Partnerships Widens spectrum and increases allies Widens spectrum and increases allies Positive and Productive Work Climate Positive and Productive Work Climate Several approaches (power/trust/etc.) find one that works Several approaches (power/trust/etc.) find one that works

6 Specific Managerial Competencies Understand Recreation Behavior Understand Recreation Behavior Understand $$$$$ Understand $$$$$ Recognize effective ways to deal with people Recognize effective ways to deal with people Strategic planner of resources Strategic planner of resources Deliverer of quality programs Deliverer of quality programs

7 CEO competencies (version 2) Business skills Business skills Financial, technology, human resources Financial, technology, human resources Communications and Marketing Skills Communications and Marketing Skills Effective public speaker – can work with media Effective public speaker – can work with media Community Relations Community Relations Accountable to public Accountable to public Leadership and Management Leadership and Management Leader, Decision Maker, resolver of conflicts Leader, Decision Maker, resolver of conflicts Planning and Evaluation Planning and Evaluation Visionary Visionary Political acumen Political acumen Understand law and legislative process – play the political game Understand law and legislative process – play the political game Professional Practice Professional Practice Technically proficient Technically proficient

8 Managerial Competencies according to CAPRA Accreditation Standards Managerial Competencies according to CAPRA Accreditation Standards

9 Is Management a Science or Art ??

10 ARTART requires judgment requires judgment sensitivity sensitivity intuition intuition imagination imagination dealing with irrational elements dealing with irrational elements “does it feel right” “does it feel right”

11 SCIENCESCIENCE based on theories developed over decades based on theories developed over decades social psychology social psychology economics economics business administration business administration holds that whenever possible, management decisions should be based on principles verified through research holds that whenever possible, management decisions should be based on principles verified through research

12 SCIENCE (continued) Decisions tend to be Decisions tend to be rational rational objective objective analytical analytical systems oriented systems oriented

13 Time Line of Management Theory

14 SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT Frederick Taylor’s Machine Model Frederick Taylor’s Machine Model involved time and motion studies involved time and motion studies focus on productivity focus on productivity the one best way to complete the task the one best way to complete the task piecemeal piecemeal

15 CLASSICAL MANAGEMENT THEORY also called the Human Relations Movement. More concerned about the individual also called the Human Relations Movement. More concerned about the individual Tenets of Hierarchy Tenets of Hierarchy scalar principle (unbroken chain of command) scalar principle (unbroken chain of command) unity of command (one superior) unity of command (one superior) span of control (limited # of subordinates) span of control (limited # of subordinates)

16 Hierarchy illustrated in organizational charts An organizational chart is a chart which represents the structure of an organization in terms of rank. The chart usually shows the managers and key players who make up an organization. The chart also shows relationships between staff in the organization which can be: An organizational chart is a chart which represents the structure of an organization in terms of rank. The chart usually shows the managers and key players who make up an organization. The chart also shows relationships between staff in the organization which can be: Line - direct relationship between superior and subordinate. Line - direct relationship between superior and subordinate. Lateral - relationship between different departments on the same hierarchical level. Lateral - relationship between different departments on the same hierarchical level. Staff - relationship between a managerial assistant and other areas. The assistant will be able to offer advice to a line manager. However, they have no authority over the line manager actions. Staff - relationship between a managerial assistant and other areas. The assistant will be able to offer advice to a line manager. However, they have no authority over the line manager actions. Functional - relationships between specialist positions and other areas. The specialist will normally have authority to insist that a line manager implements any of their instructions Functional - relationships between specialist positions and other areas. The specialist will normally have authority to insist that a line manager implements any of their instructions

17 Hawthorne Studies (E. Mayo) improvements in morale were due to improved social conditions improvements in morale were due to improved social conditions

18 Henri Fayol, 1930 Known as the father of Classical Management Known as the father of Classical Management ELEMENTS: ELEMENTS: Planning, Planning, Organizing, Organizing, Coordinating, Coordinating, Controlling Controlling

19 Max Weber Bureaucratic Model Bureaucratic Model a rational structure for large organizations a rational structure for large organizations gives necessary order, but virtually all decisions are made at the top gives necessary order, but virtually all decisions are made at the top many decisions are political rather than technical many decisions are political rather than technical

20 Parks and Recreation and Classical Theory Luther Gulick Luther Gulick applied classical theory to parks and recreation applied classical theory to parks and recreation particularly Fayol’s approach, expanded to POSDCORB particularly Fayol’s approach, expanded to POSDCORB still a popular approach today still a popular approach today helps to understand manager’s responsibilities: helps to understand manager’s responsibilities: planning, organizing, supervising, directing, controlling, operating, research and budgeting planning, organizing, supervising, directing, controlling, operating, research and budgeting

21 BEHAVIORISM ’s Organizational theorists applied Maslow’s needs to the workplace Organizational theorists applied Maslow’s needs to the workplace Herzberg Herzberg Motivation - Hygiene Theory Motivation - Hygiene Theory job enrichment needed for motivation job enrichment needed for motivation happiness due to job content happiness due to job content McGregor McGregor Theory X and Y Theory X and Y workers will respond as treated (need control) workers will respond as treated (need control)

22 MANAGEMENT BY OBJECTIVES Proactive, results oriented style Proactive, results oriented style Effective only if employees trust management Effective only if employees trust management MBO illustrates the 2 directions modern management is heading.... focusing in part on a systems (objectives) approach and simultaneously on an employee participation (setting their own goals) tack. MBO illustrates the 2 directions modern management is heading.... focusing in part on a systems (objectives) approach and simultaneously on an employee participation (setting their own goals) tack.

23 PARTICIPATIVE/TEAM MANAGEMENT Theory Z, a hybrid based on Japanese Management Style Theory Z, a hybrid based on Japanese Management Style TQM total quality management TQM total quality management initially derived from Z but greatly expanded initially derived from Z but greatly expanded One minute manager One minute manager Benchmarking (from in Search of Excellence) Benchmarking (from in Search of Excellence) MBWA Management by Walking Around MBWA Management by Walking Around

24 Buzzwords of Today TEAMS TEAMS PARTICIPATORY MANAGEMENT PARTICIPATORY MANAGEMENT EMPOWERMENT EMPOWERMENT INTREPRENEURISM INTREPRENEURISM RIGHTSIZING RIGHTSIZING PRODUCTS WITHOUT COMPANIES PRODUCTS WITHOUT COMPANIES VALUE ADDED VALUE ADDED OUTCOME BASED MANAGEMENT OUTCOME BASED MANAGEMENT RESOURCE BASED VIEW RESOURCE BASED VIEW Core competencies Core competencies Tangible and intangible resources Tangible and intangible resources

25 Agency Resources Tangible Tangible Labor Labor Capital Capital Equipment Equipment Time Time Information Information In-Tangible In-Tangible Goodwill Goodwill Reputation Reputation Also labor/people Also labor/people

26 Issues Doing more/less with less ?? Doing more/less with less ?? Increase revenue generation Increase revenue generation Improve accountability Improve accountability efficiency of operations efficiency of operations Measurable outcomes/benefits Measurable outcomes/benefits Address duality of mission (social service vs. pay as you go private service) Address duality of mission (social service vs. pay as you go private service) Changing Demand Changing Demand Transfer to the private sector Transfer to the private sector


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