HAZARDOUS MATERIALS AWARENESS ILLINOIS OFFICE OF THE STATE FIRE MARSHAL
Definition of Hazardous Materials Hazardous Materials (DOT) –A substance or material which has been determined by the Secretary of Transportation to be capable of posing an unreasonable risk to health, safety, and property when transported for commerce, and has been so designated.
Definition of Hazardous Materials (OSHA) –A hazardous chemical is any chemical which is a physical or health hazard to employees.
Definition of Hazardous Materials CERCLA - Comprehensive Emergency Response, Compensation and Liability Act; –A hazardous substance is: Any substance designated via the Federal Water Pollution Control Act. Any substance listed in CERCLA. Any hazardous waste having the characteristics identified under the Solid Waste Disposal Act. (SWDA) Any hazardous pollutant listed under the Clean Air Act. Any immanently hazardous substance or mixture with respect to which the US EPA has taken action under section 7 of the Toxic Substance Act.
Definition of Hazardous Materials Extremely Hazardous Substance (EPA) –Chemical determined by the EPA to be extremely hazardous to the community during an emergency spill or release due to their toxicity and physical / chemical properties as listed in Section 302 of SARA.
Definition of Hazardous Materials Hazardous Waste (DOT & EPA) –waste material which is ignitable, corrosive, reactive, or toxic and which poses a substantial or potential hazard to human health and safety and to the environment when improperly managed.
Definition of Hazardous Materials Dangerous Goods ( DOT, Transport Canada) –any products, substances, or organism included by its nature or by the regulation of any of the 9 classes listed in the UN / NA classes of Haz- Mat.
Definition of Hazardous Materials Special Waste –a special waste does not meet the specific criteria for hazardous waste, but it still has components which require specific disposal procedures.
Characteristics of Hazardous Materials Boiling Point –Temp. at which vapor pressure of material = atmospheric pressure. Flash Point –Min. temp. liquid will produce vapor to form an ignitable mixture. Auto-Ignition Temperature –vapors will ignite without an outside ignition source.
Characteristics of Hazardous Materials LEL –minimum vapor concentration of a product in air which will burn. (< Too LEAN) UEL –maximum vapor concentration of a product in air which will burn. (> Too RICH) Flammable Range –The span between the LEL and UEL.
Characteristics of Hazardous Materials Vapor Density –Weight of vapor compared to air, air =1. Specific Gravity –Weight of a solid or liquid compared to water, water =1. Solubility –The degree at which a material will dissolve in a solvent.
Characteristics of Hazardous Materials Toxicity –the ability of a material to harm, destroy, poison, kill, or otherwise damage body tissue. Corrosivity –ability of a material to damage skin, tissue, steel or aluminum. Radioactivity –high energy particles and waves that emitted from radioactive materials.
Characteristics of Hazardous Materials Oxidizing Ability –ability of a material to act as an oxidizer in a fire. Instability –ease in which a chemical may undergo rapid & sometimes violent chemical change. Reactivity –ability of a chemical to react with others.
Haz-Mat Emergencies An incident that exists because of a hazardous substance. Large potential for harm. Responders MUST be specially trained.
Haz-Mat Response Guidelines Look for signs that haz-mat may be present. Uphill & Upwind. Isolate the area. DO NOT walk into, touch or inhale any materials. ID product. Call for help.
Hazardous Materials Classifications Class 1 - Explosives –1.1 Explosives A Mass explosion –dynamite, black powder Explosion w/release of heat & gas –1.2 Explosives A & B not a mass explosion hazard –det-cord, rockets Explosion w/release of heat, gas, projectile
Hazardous Materials Classifications –1.3 Explosives B fire hazard, minor blast & projectile –flash powder, ammunition tracers Explosion w/release of heat, gas, flying objects –1.4 Explosives C Minor explosion hazard –fireworks, fusees, signal flares fire & explosion hazard
Hazardous Materials Classifications –1.5 Blasting Agents Mass explosion hazard, not very sensitive –ANFO Fire hazard, mass det hazard with detonator –1.6 Do not have mass explosion hazard, limited explosion –Nuclear warhead detonators minor explosion hazard
Hazardous Materials Classifications Class 2 - Compressed Gases –non-liquefied under pressure, is a gas at 68 o F –hydrogen, nitrogen, natural gas –Liquefied partially liquefied, under pressure at 68 o F –propane, chlorine, anhydrous ammonia
Hazardous Materials Classifications –In Solution gas dissolved in solvent –acetylene –Cryogenic refrigerated liquefied gas w/boiling point < -130 o F –liquid oxygen, liquid nitrogen
Hazardous Materials Classifications Division 2.1 - Flammable Gas gas at 68 o F @ 14.7psi, LEL< 13%, Flammable range at least 12%. –Methane, propane, hydrogen Fire Division 2.2 - Non-Flammable / Non- Poisonous compressed, liquefied, and cryogenic gas. –CO 2, anhydrous ammonia container failure, thermal damage, chance of fire
Hazardous Materials Classifications Division 2.3 - Poisonous Gas gas at 68 o F @ 14.7psi, very toxic to humans if inhaled –methyl bromide, chlorine, phosgene death, toxicity
Hazardous Materials Classifications Class 3 - Flammable Liquids –Flammable Liquid Flash point no higher than 141 o F –gasoline, acetone, methyl alcohol FIRE –Combustible Liquid Flash point above 141 o F, not higher than 200 o F –Diesel fuel FIRE
Hazardous Materials Classifications Class 4 - Flammable Solids –Division 4.1- Flammable Solids explosive wetted with sufficient materials to suppress explosive properties. Self-reactive material, exothermic decomposition, at normal or high temperature. Readily combustible solid - causes fire through friction, metal powders –Magnesium, picric acid Fire, explosion
Hazardous Materials Classifications –Division 4.2 - Spontaneously Combustible Solids Pyrophoric : ignites if exposed to air in less than 5 minutes OR Self heating: exposed to air will spontaneously ignite. –Charcoal briquettes, yellow or white phosphorus, lithium aluminum hydride. Fire
Hazardous Materials Classifications –Division 4.3 - Dangerous when Wet when in contact with water will be spontaneously flammable or give off toxic or flammable gas. –Calcium carbide, sodium hydride, potassium metal fire, explosion
Hazardous Materials Classifications Class 5 - Oxidizers –Division 5.1 - Oxidizers material then yields oxygen, enhance combustion –Ammonium nitrate, calcium hypochlorite, ammonium perchlorate. Enhance or cause combustion –Division 5.2 - Organic Peroxides organic compound that contains an oxidizer and the fuel component. –MEK peroxide, dibenzoyl peroxide enhance or cause combustion, explosion
Hazardous Materials Classifications Class 6 - Poisons / Infectious Substances –Division 6.1 - Poisonous Materials liquid or solid that is toxic to humans or assumed to be when tested in lab animals –aniline, carbon tet, arsenic, tear gas. DEATH, toxicity, irritation –Division 6.2 - Infectious Substances viable microorganism, or its toxin, which may cause death or disease in humans or animals. –Anthrax, rabies, tetanus DEATH, long term disease, toxicity
Hazardous Materials Classification Class 7 - Radioactive Materials –greater than.002 microcuries. Three types, Class I - III, Class III emits the most radiation. Radioactive isotopes; iodine, cobalt, enriched uranium and plutonium. Radiation exposure, death, burns, genetic damage, poisoning
Hazardous Materials Classifications Class 8 - Corrosives –liquid or solid that causes visible destruction or irreversible alteration to skin OR liquid that severely corrodes steel & aluminum Sulfuric acid, hydrochloric acid, nitric acid, sodium hydroxide –severe damage to skin and metals
Hazardous Materials Classifications Class 9 - Miscellaneous Haz-Mat –presents a hazard during transport but does not fit it any other class. May have anesthetic, noxious, or other annoying properties. PCB’s, molten sulfur, dry ice, asbestos, marine pollutants –Could be ANY HAZARD
Hazardous Materials Classifications ORM-D - Otherwise Regulated Materials –consumer goods that are a limited hazard due to its package quantity or form. Rubbing alcohol, hair spray, cosmetics –various hazards Forbidden –Not allowed to be transported unless stabilized or diluted.
Hazards & Harm Routes of Hazardous Materials Exposure –Internal, External, Both Contact Absorption Inhalation Ingestion
Hazards & Harm Manners in which hazardous materials harm –Thermal Burns, hot & cold –Mechanical hit by an object –Poisonous harm or kill
Hazards & Harm TLV-TWA –Threshold Limit Value-Time Weighted Average concentration for a normal 8 hour work day/40 hour week that most workers can be exposed to without adverse effects. TLV-STEL –Threshold Limit Value- Short Term Exposure Limit concentration worker can be exposed to for a short period of time, 15 MINUTES, without irritation, injury, impairment, and can still self-rescue. Measures of Toxicity
Hazards & Harm TLV-C –Threshold Limit Value-Ceiling concentration that should never be exceeded during work. PEL –Permissible Exposure Limits OSHA health standards for exposure (TLV-TWA) REL –Recommended Exposure Limit NIOSH exposure for a worker up to a 10 hr work day, 40 hr week. IDLH –Immediately Dangerous to life & Health. 30 minute + exposure will cause death, damage, or prevent escape Measures of Toxicity
Hazards & Harm LC 50 –Lethal Concentration 50% concentration of inhaled material which causes 50% of test animals to die. Measures of Toxicity LD 50 –Lethal Dose 50 % Dose of material absorbed, ingested,or injected that causes 50% of test animals to die.
Hazards & Harm Corrosives –Acids Destroy skin, generate heat, cause chemical and thermal burns, irritation & itching. –Bases, Alkalis, Caustics Destroy tissue and react with fatty tissue (saponification) Deep burns.
Hazards & Harm Asphyxiants –A substance that interferes with body’s uptake of oxygen. Simple – replace oxygen in the environment. Chemical –block uptake of oxygen at cellular level.
Hazards & Harm Radiation –Non-Ionizing this form does not cause chemical change to objects, but does heat it up. –Ionizing radiated from a decomposing nucleus and can chemically alter an object
Hazards & Harm Alpha –Large, low energy –Low penetration ability –Can be stopped by paper –Dangerous internally Beta –Small, moderate energy –Will penetrate bunker gear Gamma –High Energy –High penetration power –Big cellular damage Neutron –High Energy –Most penetrating –Rare
Hazards & Harm Radiation Injury –Irradiation Injury ionizing radiation; not a threat to rescuers. Victim does not emit radiation. –Contamination Injury particle radiation; pose a risk to rescuers, internally & externally are a source.
Hazards & Harm Radiation Exposure Effects –effects of radiation may not be seen for days or weeks after exposure. Loss of hair bleeding gums nausea, vomiting immune deficiency
Hazards & Harm Radiation Exposure Effects –Radiation Sickness Exposure to high levels Several days for symptoms to appear 8 weeks to recover –Radiation Injury Local injury to exposed area, usually burns –Radiation Poisoning Internal radiation exposure. Alpha particles.
Recognition & Identification of Hazardous Materials Transportation Containers –Highway Carriers MC 306/DOT 406Atmospheric Pressure MC 307/DOT 407Low Pressure (40 psi) MC 312/DOT 412 Corrosive MC 331Liquefied Compressed Gas 100-500 psi MC 338Cryogenic Carrier 25-500 psi Tube Trailers 5000 psi
Recognition & Identification of Hazardous Materials Transportation Containers –Railway Carriers Box Cars Non Pressure Tank Car, general service 100 psi Pressure Tank Car, 100 psi + Cryogenic Car Dry Bulk/ Covered Hopper Car
Recognition & Identification of Hazardous Materials Markings & Colors –Rail Cars“B” end has the brake Reporting Marks and Numbers –Trains License Plate Specification Numbers –Specifies how rail car was built (DOT) Volume Marking on Tank –Capacity in Gallons Dedicated Car Stencil –Car Labeled for dedicated product
Recognition & Identification of Hazardous Materials Markings & Colors –NFPA 704 Hazard Degree 0 - 4 Health Fire Reactivity Special Hazard
Recognition & Identification of Hazardous Materials Markings & Colors –Haz-Mat Information System (HMIS) Designed to meet Right-to-Know Requirements –Provides info to handle under Normal Working Conditions. –Indicates PPE requirements. Color Scheme - similar to NFPA 704 –white indicates PPE
Recognition & Identification of Hazardous Materials Markings & Colors –Military Marking System Detonation & Fire Hazard –Class 1Mass Detonation Hazard –Class 2 Explosion w/fragmentation hazard –Class 3 Mass Fire Hazard –Class 4Moderate Fire Hazard Special Hazards –Chemical –Apply NO Water –Wear BA
Recognition & Identification of Hazardous Materials Markings & Colors –Pipeline Markers Locations –Crosses under road or RR Tracks –Crosses waterway –Along pipeline Information –Warning –Product –Company Name –Emergency Phone #
Recognition & Identification of Hazardous Materials Placards & Labels (DOT) –Label Use Small packages Affixed on 2 sides Indicate primary hazard Similar to placards
Recognition & Identification of Hazardous Materials Placards –Located on bulk packages & vehicles –Indicates primary hazard –Following commodities must be placarded in any amount Explosives A&BPoison Gas Dangerous when WetPoison (inhalation) Radioactive III
Recognition & Identification of Hazardous Materials Types of Placards –Worded word in center will ID primary hazard –Wordless no word / no number I nt’l shipments –UN/NA Number United Nations/North American 4 digit # displayed on placard # may also be on orange rectangle (bulk containers)
Recognition & Identification of Hazardous Materials Placards –4 sources of info Color of placard Symbol at top Word or UN/NA # UN hazard class or division
Recognition & Identification of Hazardous Materials Explosives-1.1, 1.2, 1.3 –Orange –Exploding bomb –Explosives –UN class 1 Explosives-1.4, 1.6 –Orange –UN Division # –Explosives –UN Class 1 Explosives-1.5 –Orange –UN Division # –Blasting Agents –UN Class 1
Recognition & Identification of Hazardous Materials Compressed Gas 2.1 –Red –White Flame –Flammable Gas –UN Class 2 Compressed Gas 2.2 –Green –Cylinder –Non-Flammable Gas –UN Class 2 Compressed Gas 2.2 –Liquefied Oxygen Yellow Flaming ball Oxygen UN Class 2 Compressed Gas 2.3 –Poison Gas White Skull/cross bones Poison gas UN Class 2
Recognition & Identification of Hazardous Materials Chlorine 2.3 –White –Skull/cross bones –Chlorine –UN Class 2 Flammable Liquid –Red –White Flame –Flammable –UN Class 3 Combustible Liquids –Red –White Flame –Combustible –UN Class 3 UN/NA panel & bottom are white Flammable Liquid placard is OK
Recognition & Identification of Hazardous Materials Flammable Solid 4.1 –Red & White vertical stripes –Black Flame –Flammable Solid –UN Class 4 Spontaneously Combustible 4.2 –White Top 1/2, Red Bottom 1/2 –Black Flame –Spontaneously Combustible –UN Class 4
Recognition & Identification of Hazardous Materials Dangerous when Wet 4.3 –Blue –White Flame –Dangerous when Wet –UN Class 4 Oxidizer 5.1 –Yellow –Flaming Ball –Oxidizer –UN Class 5.1 Organic Peroxide 5.2 –Yellow –Flaming Ball –Organic Peroxide –UN Class 5.2
Recognition & Identification of Hazardous Materials Poison 6.1 –Packing group I & II White Skull/cross bones Poison UN Class 6 Poison 6.1 –Harmful stow away from food stuffs White Skull/cross bones Harmful stow away from food stuffs UN Class 6
Recognition & Identification of Hazardous Materials Radioactive –Class III only Yellow top 1/2, White bottom 1/2 Trefoil/Propeller Radioactive UN Class 7 Corrosive –Black with symbol in white background –Test tube dripping liquid onto steel/hand –Corrosive –UN Class 8
Recognition & Identification of Hazardous Materials Miscellaneous –Black & White vertical stripes top 1/2, white on bottom 1/2 –UN Class 9 Dangerous –Red with white band across center –no symbol –Dangerous –UN Class None
Recognition & Identification of Hazardous Materials Residue Placards –On RR cars –3% car volume remains –Word “Residue” in black triangle on bottom of placard Subsidiary Risk Placards & Labels –Secondary hazard
Recognition & Identification of Hazardous Materials Agrochemical, Pesticide Labels –Signal words-placed on containers to indicate health hazard High Hazard Danger / Poison Moderate Hazard Warning Low Hazard Caution
Recognition & Identification of Hazardous Materials Agrochemical, Pesticide Labels –EPA registration number 3 group #12345-6789-11 –manufacturer –specific product –location where product may be used –EPA establishment number indicates production site of commodity
Recognition & Identification of Hazardous Materials Agrochemical, Pesticide Labels –Product Name Brand name or trade name on label –Statement of Treatment Initial first aid for EMS / MD –Statement of Hazard describes hazards of product
Recognition & Identification of Hazardous Materials Agrochemical, Pesticide Labels –Ingredient Statement breakdown of active ingredients –Environmental Info storage and disposal info and warnings PCB’s –label will ID % in mixture
Written Resources Shipping Papers –Modes of Transportation Location of Papers Term used for papers Responsible party
Written Resources Highway –Cab of truck, door pocket –Bill of Lading –Driver Air –Arms reach of pilot –Airbill –Pilot Waterway –Bridge/Pilot house in mail tube –Dangerous cargo manifest –Captain or master Train –Engine or Caboose, arms reach of conductor –Waybill/consist –Engineer/crew member
Written Resources Information on Shipping Papers –Proper shipping name –UN Hazard class –UN / NA # –Haz-Mat highlighted –Shipper and receivers (consignees) name & address –Emergency contact phone #
Written Resources MSDS –Required Info on MSDS Material Name Chemical Formula & Family Common Names / Synonyms Manufacturers Name & Emergency # Hazardous Ingredients Special Procedures & Precautions
Written Resources MSDS –Required Info (con’t) Regulated Exposure Limits Physical Properties Data Fire & Explosion Data Spill or Leak Procedure Reactivity Data Health Hazard Data
Written Resources Sources of MSDS –Manufacturer –Supplier –Facility –LEPC –Shipping Papers –CHEMTREC 1-800-424-9300
Written Resources Other MSDS Information –Prepared by Manufacturer –No Required Format –Regulated by OSHA –Must be provided to FD or LEPC Other Sources –Site Surveys / Pre-Plans –Site Inventories
Senses WARNING ! –Use of your senses can be Very Dangerous. –Never Expose Yourself to Haz-Mat.
Senses Other Clues –By-stander reports. –Odors or reports of odors. CAUTION! If you smell it, you’re in it. –Gas leaks, frosting, hissing. –Vapor clouds, pooled products.
Senses Other Clues –Dead animals, plants, cops. –Relief device operation –Unusual smoke, fire condition, fire behavior
Senses Recognizing Exposure –Touching, smelling, tasting, etc. lead to exposure. Examples: changes in; level of consciousness, respiration's, skin appearance, thirst, activity level. Flu-like symptoms; vomiting, headache, nausea, runny nose, etc.
Difficulties in Determining Specific Name Shipping papers not available. Inventories not available. Contents may be unknown or fly dumped
Information Sources by Incident Type Transportation –Shipping Papers –Vehicle operator / Crew Member –Shipper/receiver –DOT ERG –CHEMTREC –License #, Truck # –Placards & Labels Fixed Facility –Facility personnel –MSDS –Inspections/Pre-plans –NFPA 704
Use of the DOT ERG Primary source for first responder-awareness personnel. Determine the Guide to Use: –Yellow Section UN/NA Number –Blue Section Material Name –Use of Placard Picture of Placards with Guide # in front of book
Use of the DOT ERG Info Contained in the Guides: –Potential Hazards Primary hazard listed first Either HEALTH or FIRE & EXPLOSION –Emergency Action Recommendations Self-Protection PPE Scene Safety
Use of the DOT ERG Info Contained in Guides: –Recommendations for dealing with material on FIRE. –Recommendations for dealing with material SPILLS or LEAKS. –Recommendations for dealing with FIRST AID of victims exposed to material.
Use of the DOT ERG Initial Isolation & Protective Action Distances –Material in UN # or Name section is highlighted. –Not involved in FIRE –Protective action for Inhalation Hazard Materials –Calculated for first 30 minutes 1906Sulfuric Acid
Use of the DOT ERG Initial Isolation & Protective Action Distances –Small = 1 small package, 55 gals or less –Large = trailer, tank, unit load device –Night = sunset sunrise –Day = sunrise sunset
Use of the DOT ERG –Isolation Zones are shaped as a Circle. –Protective Action Zones are Square and extend downwind from spill or release. WIND
Role of Awareness Trained Personnel Recognize –Hazardous Materials using various clues. Isolate –the site using distances in the ERG –remove persons in the isolation area –Deny Entry to ALL unauthorized personnel
Role of Awareness Trained Personnel Isolate –Establish & Mark zones Police Barricades / Banner Tape Other personnel
Role of Awareness Trained Personnel Initial Isolation Distances –Use distances in Orange border guide for products not highlighted at al times. –Use distances in orange guides for all products on FIRE. –Use distances in Green border (Initial Isolation & Protective Action Section) if material is highlighted yellow or blue, not on fire, first 30 minutes.
Role of Awareness Trained Personnel Notify –Call for Help CFPD / MFD Haz-Mat Technicians Lake County Haz-Mat Team –Identify Survey Scene from a safe distance ID Material –Protective Action Do not place responders or others in danger.
Role of Awareness Trained Personnel Evacuation –Takes time –Start with people in most danger, expand downwind & crosswind. –Send evacuees to a specific location upwind. –Most desirable action to take if you have time.
Role of Awareness Trained Personnel Shelter-in-Place –Close all door & windows –Control ventilation systems –Use if evacuation would be greater danger –Not an option with explosive gases. Protective Action Distances –taken from DOT ERG
Know the PLAN Operate under SOG’s Use pre-plans, check off forms, other resources. Know your role as a Haz-Mat Awareness responder.
Incident Concerns Safety –Responders –Others –Environment Provide Medical Care –De-Con Eliminate Ignition Sources –Flares, vehicles, etc.