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Unit 7: Development of Georgia

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1 Unit 7: Development of Georgia 1789-1840
Georgia Performance Standards: SS8H5: The student will explain significant factors that affected the development of Georgia as part of the growth of the United States between

2 The First Five January 6, 2016 Highlights:
Why is the University of Georgia known as the oldest public university in the USA? What was the purpose of moving Georgia’s capital city to Louisville in 1796? How did the Baptist church/denomination spread in Georgia? What are some other changes that occurred in Georgia from ? Today’s Warm-up: What are five facts that you know about the University of Georgia?

3 Development of Georgia (1789-1840) Education
1784-The General Assembly set aside 20,000 acres of land and named trustees to establish a college in Georgia. Abraham Baldwin was selected to be the 1st President of UGA. 1785-The University of Georgia was chartered as a land grant university (a school for which the state government gave public land). UGA is the 1st and oldest state supported university chartered in the USA. The university has no religious affiliation. SS8H5a: Explain the establishment of UGA, Louisville, and the spread of Baptist & Methodist churches.

4 CRCT Practice Question
Which statement BEST describes a “land grant university,” such as the University of Georgia? The college was established as an agricultural college to improve farming. The college was a public university with free tuition to state residents. The land for the college was donated by the Georgia General Assembly. The land could not be used for any purpose other than a college.

5 Development of Georgia (1789-1840)
Louisville was Georgia’s 3rd state capital following Savannah and Augusta. It was named after French King Louis XVI for his support during the American Revolution, This city was Georgia’s capital from Located in Jefferson County, Louisville was selected as the capital due to, what at the time was its location as the center of Georgia population. This was driven by the state’s westward expansion. The state’s legislators hoped that the town would also serve as a trading center due to its location on the Ogeechee River. Once it was established, Louisville developed both socially and financially. Also, it illustrates Georgia’s population growth and movement from the coast to the Northwestern part of the state. SS8H5a: Explain the establishment of UGA, Louisville, and the spread of Baptist & Methodist churches.

6 Development of Georgia (1789-1840)
An easy way to remember the name of all of Georgia’s capital cities is to use the acronym S.A.L.M.A. which stands for… Savannah Augusta Louisville Milledgeville Atlanta

7 G-MASS Practice Question
2. From the colonial era until Reconstruction, the capital of Georgia was moved many times in response to what factor? Changing transportation patterns in the state. The changing geographic center of the state. The changing population of the state. Changing political influences in the state.

8 G-Mass Question 3. What is significant about the history of the University of Georgia? Its construction was the most expensive in U.S. history. It is affiliated with the Baptist Church. It was the 1st public university created in the USA. It is affiliated with the Methodist Church. Agenda Message: Use your class notes to answer tonight’s homework questions… What were the differences between the Headright System and the land lottery? Explain why the Compact of 1802 was bad news for Georgia’s Native Americans. Why did the land lottery system replace the Headright System?

9 Development of Georgia (1789-1840) Religion
John & Charles Wesley, the founders of the Methodist Church, preached in colonial Georgia, Georgians did not begin identifying themselves with the denomination until 1790. During the same time period, the Baptist Church also dramatically increased its membership. By the 1830’s, these two denominations became the largest in the state. Both churches gained popularity amongst working class Georgians. In addition, due to these denominations’ mission work on plantations, many slaves converted to either the Baptist or Methodist churches. SS8H5a: Explain the establishment of UGA, Louisville, and the spread of Baptist & Methodist churches.

10 Development of Georgia (1789-1840) Religion
Both the Baptists and Methodists used revivals and camp meetings to help increase their membership. These meeting were all day affairs where famers and other townspeople could listen to the sermon, but also get together and socialize with their friends and family after weeks of laboring on their farms. The Methodist Church also incorporated the use of circuit riders, ministers who would ride from small town to small town and preach.

11 Development of Georgia (1789-1840) Religion
These denominations became involved in higher education by establishing colleges: The Methodists created Wesleyan College (1836) for females and Emory University (1836) for males. The Baptists created Mercer College (1833), Morehouse College for African American males (1867), & Spelman College for African American females (1881). SS8H5a: Explain the establishment of UGA, Louisville, and the spread of Baptist & Methodist churches.

12 Ticket Out the Door Questions http://www. gpb
Respond to the following questions, while viewing the media clip: What were some of the fears that people had about educating females in the 1800s? Who created Wesleyan College? What year was the 1st college degree awarded to a female student at Wesleyan College?

13 G-MASS Practice Question
5. Which church sent traveling ministers called circuit riders to and from different counties to preach monthly Sunday services? Baptist Catholic Episcopal Methodist 4. By 1860, the two largest denominations of Christianity in Georgia were the _____. Baptist & Jewish Methodist & Baptist Episcopal & Methodist Episcopal & Catholic

14 How does this word apply to History?
The First Five January 08, 2016 Warm-up: Use the Georgia: In the American Experience textbook to complete the Georgia Land Policies Graphic Organizer of Standards: Evaluate the impact of land policies pursued by Georgia; include the headright system, land lotteries, and the Yazoo land fraud. Frayer Model Template WORD & DEFINITION FACT PICTURE/SYMBOL THINK LIKE A HISTORIAN How does this word apply to History?

15 Development of Georgia (1789-1840)
Land was valuable and in high demand. Land east of the Oconee River that belonged to the Native Americans was given to Georgians by means of the Headright System. The Headright System counted each white male as a “head” of a family. White males deemed the “head” of their family was given up to 1,000 acres of land. This system ended when there were too many claimants and not enough land. It lasted until 1803. SS8H5b: Evaluate the impact of land policies pursued by Georgia (Headright system, land lotteries, and the Yazoo Land Fraud).

16 Land Policies After the Revolutionary War, Georgia gained access to a large amount of land from the Native Americans who sided with the British. The land Georgia claimed stretched all the way to Mississippi River. The Revolutionary War veterans believed that all citizens had the right to land ownership. Georgia’s political leadership agreed. The question became what was the best way to allocate the land to the people of the state.

17 G-MASS Practice Question
6. What was the purpose of the headright system in Georgia? It provided an organized system of collecting taxes. It established a method of counting population. It administered voting and election districts. It distributed Indian lands to new settlers.

18 Development of Georgia (1789-1840)
When public domain land (lands owned by the state or federal government) were opened for settlement, Georgia surveyed land lots of different sizes. These land lots, which were located west of the Oconee River, were known as “lottery land.” For a fee, any white male 21 years of age or older could buy a chance and, on the spin of a wheel, win land. Heads of households with children, war veterans, and widows were given extra chances in the land lottery. SS8H5b: Evaluate the impact of land policies pursued by Georgia (Headright system, land lotteries, and the Yazoo Land Fraud).

19 CRCT Practice Questions
7. What was the purpose of land lotteries in Georgia, during the early 1800s? Open the land to yeoman farmers (white middle class males). Encourage the development of large cities. Introduce new crops and farming methods. Ensure peaceful relations with Native Americans. 8. Which was NOT a requirement of the land lotteries in Georgia? Only men could participate. A person had to pay a fee to participate. A person had to be over 18 to participate. War veterans were given extra chances.

20 Vocabulary Land speculator: someone who buys property expecting that its value will increase and it will be sold at a profit bribe: money paid to someone to get her or him to do something cede: to surrender ownership to land

21 Development of Georgia (1789-1840)
By 1795, Georgians hunger for land had peaked. Georgia’s western borders were to the Mississippi River and the Yazoo River (included in this territory were the present states of Alabama and Mississippi. In addition, both South Carolina and Spain claimed some of the same land…so this battle for land was taken to court for a settlement.

22 Development of Georgia (1789-1840)
Before any settlement was made, four land companies approached Governor George Matthews and the members of the General Assembly, and bribed them to pass a bill allowing the land companies to buy up western lands. When the General Assembly enacted the bill into law, the land companies bought between 35 and 50 million acres of land for only $500,000 (1¢ per acre).

23 Yazoo Act Other land speculators wanted the vast amount of territory that is Alabama and Mississippi. Speculators in four companies bribed legislators to pass a bill that sold them huge tracks of land in the Yazoo area (currently Alabama and Mississippi) for a really cheap price. This came to be known as the Yazoo Land Fraud. When the citizens found out, they were furious!

24 Yazoo Land Fraud Map

25 Development of Georgia (1789-1840)
When the public found out what happened, this scandal was called the Yazoo Land Fraud. As a result, the guilty legislators of the General Assembly were voted out of office and the law allowing this land to be sold were repealed. People who bought land from the four land companies sued the state of Georgia, in order to keep their land. The federal government resolved this scandal by paying over $4 million to settle land claims.

26 Development of Georgia (1789-1840)
In 1802, Georgia ceded (gave up) its land west of the Chattahoochee River to the federal government for $1.25 million. The Chattahoochee River became Georgia’s western boundary. SS8H5b: Evaluate the impact of land policies pursued by Georgia (Headright system, land lotteries, and the Yazoo Land Fraud).

27 Compact of 1802 Georgia gave up its land involved in the Yazoo fraud case. Creating its current boundaries. In return the national government gave Georgia 1.2 million dollars and promised to remove all Native Americans from Georgia as soon as it should become practicable.

28 CRCT Practice Questions
9. What scandal took place when Georgia’s governor and some legislators were bribed to sell public land to private developers at below- market prices? Trail of Tears Yazoo Land Fraud General Assembly Georgia’s land lottery 10. Why did Georgia give up land claims in what is now Alabama and Mississippi? The federal government paid millions to settle the Yazoo Land Fraud and disputed Georgia’s right to the land. The state could not claim the land because the General Assembly illegally sold it to private companies. The state did not have the millions of dollars required to purchase the land from Spain. The federal government wanted to set that land aside for the Indian population.

29 The First Five January 8, 2016 Agenda Message: Unit 7 Frayer Models = due on Friday Go over/Collect homework Today’s Warm-up: Writing Prompt Topic: In a paragraph, please explain how inventions can improve the lives of people? What is an invention that has enhanced your life? Please explain how the invention has helped to make your life better.

30 During the late 1800s, tobacco was one of Georgia’s most important crops. However, it was destroying the soil. As an alternative to tobacco, the state was looking for ways to make growing cotton profitable.

31 Until that point, cotton had to be, for lack of a better word, “deseeded” by hand.
This process took a long time to accomplish, and most farmers could not “clean” more than one pound of cotton a day.

32 Development of Georgia (1789-1840) Technological Developments
In 1793, Eli Whitney invented the cotton gin. This invention was a machine with wire teeth on a turning cylinder, which separated the cotton from the seed. Cotton planters loved the cotton gin, because workers were able to separate about 50 lbs of cotton day (prior only 6-7 lbs a day). n_gin SS8H5d: Explain how technological developments, including the cotton gin and railroads had an impact on Georgia’s growth.

33 Development of Georgia (1789-1840) Technological Developments

34 Think, Pair, Share Describe a positive effect of the invention of the cotton gin on the development of Georgia. What might be a negative effect of the invention of the cotton gin on the development of Georgia.

35 Development of Georgia (1789-1840) Technological Developments
The production of cotton increased tremendously in the 1800s. Nicknamed “King Cotton” in Georgia White settlers needed more land to produce cotton which led to the removal of Creek Indians in Georgia. The South became more dependent on slave labor and the plantation system of agriculture dominated the southern states, whereas the northern states were more industrial.

36 Cotton Gin [select 1-2 videos]
Bill Nye's Greatest Inventions: The Cotton Gin (approximately 4 minutes) The Invention of the Cotton Gin, (approximately 2 minutes) The Growth of Slavery (approximately 7 minutes)

37 CRCT Practice Questions
11. How did Eli Whitney’s invention influence the growth of slavery in the South? It made it easier for slaves to pick cotton. It increased the profits from growing cotton. It made it easier to produce cloth from cotton. It replenished the soil so that more cotton could be grown. 12. The chief crop in Georgia before the Civil War was… cotton. Apples. Pecans. Grapes. 13. The cotton gin was used to do what? Pick cotton. Plant cotton. Turn cotton fiber into thread. Separate the seeds from the cotton fiber.

38 Railroads Think, Pair, Share
What do Atlanta, Augusta, Columbus, Macon, and Savannah all have in common? Railroads

39 Development of Georgia (1789-1840) Technological Developments
During the 1800s, a major economic development was the building of railroads. Prior to railroads, people traveled on horses, boats, or stagecoaches. Freight (goods shipped by boat) was sent to the market by steamboats, ferries, or wagon trains. SS8H5d: Explain how technological developments, including the cotton gin and railroads had an impact on Georgia’s growth.

40 Railroads in Georgia The first Georgia railroad was created to provide a better way to transport cotton to Augusta due to poor road conditions. In the 1840s and 1850s, railroads had spread across much of the state Georgia had the most miles of track in the Deep South

41 The city of Atlanta was created as a railroad hub for the Western and Atlantic Railroad.
The track ran from Chattanooga, Tennessee to a small hub called “Terminus”. Terminus changed its name to Marthasville and then finally to Atlanta in 1845. Later two other railroad lines combined with this hub, causing the city to grow even more.

42 Chattanooga “Terminus” Atlanta

43 Due to the invention of the railroad, Atlanta became the first major American city to be built on a location without a navigable river.

44 CRCT Practice Questions
13. Which mode of transportation was developing in Georgia just before the Civil War, which was very important to Georgia’s war effort and post-war economic development? Canals Railroads Highways Riverboats 14. Why was Atlanta at one time was called Terminus? majority of the railroads went through the city. The railroad line ended there at one time. No major railroad went through the city. All the railroads ended there. 15. Which railroad became the primary railroad in Georgia, during the 1830s? Baltimore & Ohio Norfolk and Western Western & Atlantic Chesapeake and Ohio

45 Quick Review ___________________ were the means to transport cotton faster. _____________________ was the center of railroad traffic in the South. The cotton gin made little impact on Georgia’s economy. (T/F) Explain your answer. Railroads were an important factor in Georgia’s growth in the 1800s. (T/F) Explain your answer.

46 References Blankenship, G. and Wood, V. (2009). Georgia CRCT test prep: 8th grade Georgia studies. Atlanta, GA: Clairmont Press, Inc. Klein, P. and Pascoe, C. (2005). Georgia: In the American experience. Evanston, IL: McDougal Littell, Inc. London, B. B. (1999). Georgia: The history of an American state. Montgomery, AL: Clairmont Press.

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