Superpower Geographies 3. Implications of the continued rise of the superpowers? a) Resource implications of continued growth of superpowers b) Implications of shifting power for older core regions b) rise of emerging powers and the implications for the world c) Tensions between cultures Learning Objectives: Understand the importance of the rise of BRICs Understand the implications that growth of superpowers have in terms of energy, water and land Identify the implications that shifting power has for older core regions
Emerging Superpowers Russia – large quantities of oil and gas Brazil – gold, diamonds, iron ore and rainforest India / China Large amounts of coal
Impacts on resources 1) Energy Rapid rise in oil prices in 2007 and 2008 Oil is being pumped out quicker then new reserves can be found 2) Environment China and India’s ecological footprints may be similar to those of the EU and USA by 2040 = pressure on water, energy and land resources
Global consumers India’s first budget airline, Air Deccan, gets 63% of its bookings online. Car sales 1.6 million by 2010 Energy consumption set to double 1995-2010 Around 1 million new mobile phone customers per month; 2 million in October 2005 (World IT report,2005) Evidence of ‘technological leapfrogging’.
As in other countries which have experienced rapid growth, only certain parts of India have benefited as the map above shows (data in $ per capita).
Chinese economic growth is staggering; its economy has grown 10-fold since 1990, rising from 10 th to 4 th place in terms of total GDP:
Factors Economic reforms begun in 1978 The setting up of Special Economic Zones (SEZs) beginning with Shenzhen on the Pearl River Delta in 1980. The size of the local market in China. A huge pool of low wage but highly skilled and motivated labour. A focus on exports that undercut MEDC prices Huge investment in infrastructure (ports, roads, airports, telecommunications and energy) by the PRC government Proximity to Asian markets and capital
Neo-colonialism? In the last few years, China has changed tack in terms of investment, and begun investing abroad. This is particularly the case in Africa, where China is increasingly seeking to secure resources – oil in the first instance, but also ores and timber. FDI from China to Africa has risen dramatically since 2003 from $75 million to $400 million by 2005. There are fears however, that some of the increasing trade is linked to arms sales to African nations.
Consumption worries: Chinese consumption has risen dramatically. If economic growth continues, consumption would reach USA levels by 2031: 1350 million tonnes grain /yr (66% of current world production) 180 million tonnes of meat / yr (80% of current world production) 2.8 billion tonnes coal /yr (current global production 2.6) 1.1 billion cars (800 million globally now)
China – an emerging superpower? Case Study! http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2007/08/26/world/asia/chokin g_on_growth.html#story3 http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2007/08/26/world/asia/chokin g_on_growth.html#story3 Complete table of costs and concerns of China’s growth – identify what problems it causes and how easy it could be to solve, include some suggestions Produce a cost-benefit analysis regarding China’s strengths and weakness in becoming a economic superpower Possible Exam questions – Assess the view that economic development is not possible without causing environmental degradation (15 marks) - What future threats could occur to China’s continued economic growth?