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BRITISH IMPERIALISM SOUTH AFRICA AND INDIA. IMPERIALISM Stronger nation seeks to dominate a weaker nation politically, economically, and socially Broken.

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Presentation on theme: "BRITISH IMPERIALISM SOUTH AFRICA AND INDIA. IMPERIALISM Stronger nation seeks to dominate a weaker nation politically, economically, and socially Broken."— Presentation transcript:


2 IMPERIALISM Stronger nation seeks to dominate a weaker nation politically, economically, and socially Broken down into 2 periods The Old Imperialism The New Imperialism

3 OLD IMPERIALISM 1500-1800 Europeans establish colonies in Americas, India, Southeast Asia, Africa, & China European power was limited

4 NEW IMPERIALISM 1870-1914 Japan, U.S. & industrialized nations of Europe became more aggressive in expanding into other lands Focused mainly in Asia & Africa Declining empires & wars left them vulnerable

5 From 1880 to 1914 European nations used imperialism to dominate the continent of Africa

6 The arrival of Europeans changed Africa Before Europeans, Africa was divided into tribal clans …and powerful Islamic kingdoms During the Age of Exploration, Europeans explored the African coast …and brought African slaves to their colonies in America The Industrial Revolution led to imperialism in Africa in the mid-1800s

7 The first Europeans to explore the interior of Africa were missionaries & explorers In the 1870s, the discoveries of a missionary named David Livingstone increased European interest in Africa Reports of large deposits of natural resources & the rise of nationalism in Europe set off a race for African colonies Social Darwinism, steamboats, & industrial weapons encouraged the conquest of Africa

8 The race for African colonies was so fierce that Europeans became afraid wars would break out In 1884, 14 nations met at the Congress of Berlin to “set the rules” for colonizing in Africa Quick class discussion: What kind of rules do you think they came up with? Any nation could claim land in Africa by notifying other nations & showing it could control the area No African nations were invited to attend; No concern was given to ethnic divisions in Africa

9 By 1914, Europeans controlled 90% of Africa France took most of west Africa Belgium claimed the Congo in central Africa Germany had many colonies throughout Africa These nations used African colonies to gain diamonds, tin, gold, rubber & built cash-crop plantations

10 Scattered throughout Africa Controlled heavily populated regions heavy in resources Parts of West & East Africa, Egypt, & most of Southern Africa

11 Dutch Farmers(Boers) settle Cape town in 1652 English acquired Cape colony from Dutch in 1806 Boers resented English rule & Migrated north (The Great Trek)

12 1816 African leader Shaka unites the Zulu Nation Zulu warriors fight against European slave traders & Ivory hunters


14 The Great Trek causes conflict between Boers & Zulus Boers aided by British defeat Zulus Boers establish independent Republics of Transvaal & Orange Free State

15 1867 diamond & gold deposits discovered in Boer territory 1890 Cecil Rhodes expands control of South Africa Annexes the Boar Republics Boers resist & fighting lasts from 1899-1902 1910 British form Union of South Africa( *Racial segregation until1993)


17 Reduced local warfare Improved sanitation, hospitals & education African products popular in European Market Improved infrastructure Railroads,dams, telephones & telegraph lines

18 Lost land & independence Death caused by new disease & resistance Change to cash crops resulted in famine Breakdown of traditional culture  European establishment of boundaries (Problem today)

19 BRITISH IMPERIALISM IN INDIA Location: Southern Asia Mountains: Himalayas Rivers:Brahmaputra, Ganges, & Indus Religions- Hinduism (Caste System), Islam, Buddhism, Christian, Sikh Early Civilizations- Mohenjo Daro, Harappa, Mauryas, Mughals *Monsoons

20 After Vasco da Gama’s discovery of a water route to India in 1498, European trade with India increased In the 1600s, Europeans gained a foothold in the Indian Ocean trade

21 Nations: India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Nepal, & Sri Lanka

22 During the Age of Imperialism from 1850 to 1914, Europeans dominated Africa & Asia During this era, no nation could match the industrial, military, or colonial power of Britain

23 Britain had so many colonies that it was said that the “sun never set on the British Empire” Among all of Britain’s colonies, the most valuable was India How did India become the “brightest jewel in the crown”?

24 British East India Company (1600) govt. chartered trading monopoly 1613 received permission to trade from Mughal Empire Company had its own army(Sepoys) W/ decline of Mughals & defeat of French, Company controlled 3/5’s of India Exercised power usually associated with a government

25 The British East India Company was formed to trade exotic Asian goods in Europe & America The East India Company set up trade posts in major port cities in India By 1700, India’s Mughal Empire was in decline & small states ruled by a maharajah were formed Conflicts between Hindus & Muslims further weakened India The East India Co gained more control of India

26 The East India Company made huge profits creating plantations to harvest tea, coffee, cotton, & opium Raw materials like cotton helped fuel Britain’s industrial revolution Opium was refined in India & smuggled into China; Opium addition helped the British gain access to Chinese trade The East India Company sold cheap, British-made textiles to Indian people


28 From 1750 to 1850, the British East India Co ruled most of India with little interference from Britain To protect their trade & territories, British officials hired Indian soldiers called sepoys

29 By the 1850s, Indian resentment for the British was growing In 1857, rumors spread that sepoy gun cartridges supplied by the British by were greased with pork & beef fat Hindu & Muslim sepoys were outraged & rebelled against the British The Sepoy Mutiny lasted over 1 year; The British gov’t had to send troops to help the East India Co Execution of sepoys

30 The Sepoy Mutiny was a turning point in Indian history In 1858, the British gov’t took control from the East India Company & ruled India directly; British rule was called the Raj & lasted until 1947 The British government made important improvements in India including railroads, telegraph & telephone lines, roads, canals, dams, bridges British Queen Victoria assumed the title of “Empress of India” Britain also built schools, hospitals, irrigation projects, & medical improvements


32  The Raj- British Rule in India 1757- 1947  Cabinet minister in England directed policy  British Governor General (Viceroy) carried out government orders in India  British established a single law for everybody( All castes were equal)  Established English as the official language


34 The British emphasis on cash-crop plantations led to food shortages & famine in India (7 million Indians died due to starvation in 1876) British rule hurt the native Indian economy, further divided social classes, increased hostility between Muslims & Hindus

35 India was not the only European colony in Southeast Asia The Dutch East India Co gained control of the East Indies in the 1600s The Dutch profited from rubber, tin, oil resources & cash-crop plantations

36 India was not the only European colony in Southeast Asia In the 1840s, France seized control of Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia in Indochina The French profited from rice plantations

37 MOHANDAS KARAMCHAND GANDHI 1869-1948 Political & spiritual leader of India during British Imperialism Promoted passive boycotts (non-violence)  Ex) Spinning wheel 1921, Gained leadership of Indian National Congress Achieved Swaraj

38 HOW THE IMPERIAL POWER WAS REMOVED Two nationalist groups, the Indian National Congress and the Muslim League, were formed. Mahatma Gandhi led millions of people in national campaigns of non-violent civil disobedience. On August 15, 1947, India gained independence from British rule

39 Geography- Huang He (Yellow) & Yangtze Rivers; Kunlun & Himalayan Mts.; Great Wall Geographic Isolation=Ethnocentrism (Middle Kingdom) Viewed others as inferior or barbarians  Dynastic Cycles/Mandate of Heaven

40  Europeans interested in tea, silk, & porcelain Also hoped to tap into huge market &source of cheap labor  Manchu's looked down on foreigners Interest in foreign goods was non-existent  Chinese Ethnocentrism led to its downfall Could not repel European advances

41  Late 1700’s British trade opium in China (leads to addiction)  Chinese try to halt opium trade  1839 War breaks out – British easily defeat Chinese  1842 British force Chinese to sign harsh Treaty of Nanjing

42  First in a series of uneven treaties signed with foreigners  China had to open more ports, pay for cost of war  Gave Britain Hong Kong  Granted foreigners extraterritoriality Right to be tried by their own courts & laws rather than those of China

43  1898 China was divided into Spheres of Influence by foreign powers  1899 U.S. Proposes that China’s “doors” be open to merchants of all nations  Protected the trade rights of all nations & made sure no one country colonized China


45  Taiping Rebellion-(1850-1864) Chinese peasants inspired by Hong Xiuquan try to overthrow Manchu Dynasty  Takes 14 years to crush & costs millions of lives

46  The Boxer Rebellion- (1900)  Secret society of Boxers rises up against foreign powers  Combined force of European, American, & Japanese forces crush revolt  Resulted in Chinese govt. conceding more to foreign powers

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