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ecological sanitation planning and economics

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Presentation on theme: "ecological sanitation planning and economics"— Presentation transcript:

1 ecological sanitation planning and economics
Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) GmbH ecological sanitation programme, Division 44 – environment and infrastructure Commissioned by: In depth workshop on ecological sanitation, May 2005, Asmara,

2 tourists, employees, pupils ... household / neigbourhood
ecosan-project archetypes user institution     public/ private service provider household  household    Service provision for operation, transport, treatment and marketing faeces + urine + greywater + stormwater- manage- ment   plus rainwater harvesting, organic waste ment   plus + greywater only  stormwater management, faeces + urine only plus greywater, Considered resources (minimum / optimum) user-institution (partly)     farmer, external user (partly)      farmer, external      farmer, external User of the end products tourists, employees, pupils ... household / neigbourhood User of sanitation facilities Project-type A B C D new urban development areas particular objects (tourism, schools ..) Characteristics rural upgrading urban upgrading

3 The foundation of planning for ecological sanitation
The Bellagio-Principles of WSSCC: Bellagio Principles: household centered participation of all stakeholders Waste to be considered as resource Level of problem solving 1. Human dignity, quality of life and environmental security at household level should be at the centre of the new approach, which should be responsive and accountable to needs and demands in the local and national setting. 2. In line with good governance principles, decision-making should involve participation of all stakeholders, especially the consumers and providers of services. 3. Waste should be considered a resource, and its management should be holistic and form part of integrated water resources, nutrient flows and waste management processes. 4. The domain in which environmental sanitation problems are resolved should be kept to the minimum practicable size (household, community, town, district, catchment, city) and wastes diluted as little as possible. The Bellagio Principles were endorsed by the members of the Water Supply and Sanitation Collaborative during its 5th Global Forum in November 2000 in Iguacu (Brasil).

4 The 10-Step HCES approach
The HCES of the WSSCC Participation of stakeholders Level of problem solving HCES = Household (neighborhood) centered environmental sanitation WSSCC = Water Supply and Sanitation Collaborative Council

5 A new planning approach - household centred
The HCES of the WSSCC Participation of stakeholders Level of problem solving National Government District Government Local Government Neighbourhood Household Past Future HCES = Household (neighborhood) centered environmental sanitation WSSCC = Water Supply and Sanitation Collaborative Council

6 The 10-Step HCES approach
10-STEP-Process for Developing and Implementing the HCES-Bellagio Principles Approach STEP 1: Request for assistance STEP 2: Launch of the planning and consultative process STEP 5: Identification of options STEP 4: Assessment of user priorities STEP 3: Assessment of current status STEP 6: Evaluation of feasible service combinations STEP 8: Finalising of consolidated UESS plans STEP 7: Consolidated Urban Environmental Sanitation Service (UESS) plans for the study area STEP 10: Implementation STEP 9: Monitoring, evaluation and feedback (MEF)

7 Adaptation of the HCES 10 – STEP process to ecosan-projects
STEP 9: Monitoring, evaluation and feedback (MEF) STEP 0: Raising awareness STEP 1: Request for assistance STEP 2: Launch of the planning and consultative process STEP 3: Assessment of current status STEP 4: Assessment of user priorities STEP 5: Identification of options STEP 6: Evaluation of feasible service combinations STEP 7: Consolidated ecosan plans for the study area STEP 8: Finalising of consolidated ecosan plans STEP 9: Implementation STEP 9: Monitoring, evaluation and feedback (MEF) STEP 10: Implementation

8 Main activities during an ecosan-project
The 10 – Step approach to planning ecosan projects Main activities during an ecosan-project STEP 9: Monitoring, evaluation and feedback (MEF) STEP 0: Raising awareness Advocacy, lobbying, information, demand creation STEP 1: Request for assistance STEP 2: Launch of the planning and consultative process STEP 3: Assessment of current status STEP 4: Assessment of user priorities STEP 5: Identification of options STEP 6: Evaluation of feasible service combinations STEP 7: Consolidated ecosan plans for the study area STEP 8: Finalising of consolidated ecosan plans STEP 9: Monitoring, evaluation and feedback (MEF) STEP 9: Implementation STEP 10: Implementation

9 Main activities during an ecosan-project
The 10 – Step approach to planning ecosan projects Main activities during an ecosan-project STEP 9: Monitoring, evaluation and feedback (MEF) STEP 0: Raising awareness STEP 1: Request for assistance Formulation of request STEP 2: Launch of the planning and consultative process STEP 3: Assessment of current status STEP 4: Assessment of user priorities STEP 5: Identification of options STEP 6: Evaluation of feasible service combinations STEP 7: Consolidated ecosan plans for the study area STEP 8: Finalising of consolidated ecosan plans STEP 9: Monitoring, evaluation and feedback (MEF) STEP 9: Implementation STEP 10: Implementation

10 Main activities The 10 – Step approach to planning ecosan projects
STEP 9: Monitoring, evaluation and feedback (MEF) STEP 0: Raising awareness STEP 1: Request for assistance STEP 2: Launch of the planning and consultative process Facilitation Information on process and ecosan Active participation in start-up workshop STEP 3: Assessment of current status STEP 4: Assessment of user priorities STEP 5: Identification of options STEP 6: Evaluation of feasible service combinations STEP 7: Consolidated ecosan plans for the study area STEP 8: Finalising of consolidated ecosan plans STEP 9: Monitoring, evaluation and feedback (MEF) STEP 9: Implementation STEP 10: Implementation

11 Main activities The 10 – Step approach to planning ecosan projects
STEP 9: Monitoring, evaluation and feedback (MEF) STEP 0: Raising awareness STEP 1: Request for assistance STEP 2: Launch of the planning and consultative process STEP 3: Assessment of current status Participatory development of TOR Investigation of status quo including WSS, socio-cultural, legal aspects, town planning, economies, reuse aspects, agricultural practises, fertiliser use etc. Elaboration of report STEP 4: Assessment of user priorities STEP 5: Identification of options STEP 6: Evaluation of feasible service combinations STEP 7: Consolidated ecosan plans for the study area STEP 8: Finalising of consolidated ecosan plans STEP 9: Monitoring, evaluation and feedback (MEF) STEP 9: Implementation STEP 10: Implementation

12 Main activities The 10 – Step approach to planning ecosan projects
STEP 9: Monitoring, evaluation and feedback (MEF) STEP 0: Raising awareness STEP 1: Request for assistance STEP 2: Launch of the planning and consultative process STEP 3: Assessment of current status STEP 4: Assessment of user priorities Presentation of findings of step 3 Correction of possible factual errors Establish „ground rules“ for STEP 5, (decision on priorities, service levels, institutio-nal arrangements, cul-tural acceptability, etc.) STEP 5: Identification of options STEP 6: Evaluation of feasible service combinations STEP 7: Consolidated ecosan plans for the study area STEP 8: Finalising of consolidated ecosan plans STEP 9: Monitoring, evaluation and feedback (MEF) STEP 9: Implementation STEP 10: Implementation

13 Main activities The 10 – Step approach to planning ecosan projects
STEP 9: Monitoring, evaluation and feedback (MEF) STEP 0: Raising awareness STEP 1: Request for assistance STEP 2: Launch of the planning and consultative process STEP 3: Assessment of current status STEP 4: Assessment of user priorities STEP 5: Identification of options Elaboration of adequate ecosan-solutions including technical, institutional, financial and social feasibility and environmental impact STEP 6: Evaluation of feasible service combinations STEP 7: Consolidated ecosan plans for the study area STEP 8: Finalising of consolidated ecosan plans STEP 9: Monitoring, evaluation and feedback (MEF) STEP 9: Implementation STEP 10: Implementation

14 Main activities The 10 – Step approach to planning ecosan projects
STEP 9: Monitoring, evaluation and feedback (MEF) STEP 0: Raising awareness STEP 1: Request for assistance STEP 2: Launch of the planning and consultative process STEP 3: Assessment of current status STEP 4: Assessment of user priorities STEP 5: Identification of options STEP 6: Evaluation of feasible service combinations Participatory determination of feasible service and reuse combinations STEP 7: Consolidated ecosan plans for the study area STEP 8: Finalising of consolidated ecosan plans STEP 9: Monitoring, evaluation and feedback (MEF) STEP 9: Implementation STEP 10: Implementation

15 Main activities The 10 – Step approach to planning ecosan projects
STEP 9: Monitoring, evaluation and feedback (MEF) STEP 0: Raising awareness STEP 1: Request for assistance STEP 2: Launch of the planning and consultative process STEP 3: Assessment of current status STEP 4: Assessment of user priorities STEP 5: Identification of options STEP 6: Evaluation of feasible service combinations STEP 7: Consolidated ecosan plans for the study area Assembling and integrating the service and reuse combinations into a broader water supply, sanitation, and reuse framework STEP 8: Finalising of consolidated ecosan plans STEP 9: Monitoring, evaluation and feedback (MEF) STEP 9: Implementation STEP 10: Implementation

16 Main activities The 10 – Step approach to planning ecosan projects
STEP 9: Monitoring, evaluation and feedback (MEF) STEP 0: Raising awareness STEP 1: Request for assistance STEP 2: Launch of the planning and consultative process STEP 3: Assessment of current status STEP 4: Assessment of user priorities STEP 5: Identification of options STEP 6: Evaluation of feasible service combinations STEP 7: Consolidated ecosan plans for the study area STEP 8: Finalising of consolidated ecosan plans Presentation of assembled plans to the stakeholders Achievement of a consensus on the consolidated plans STEP 9: Monitoring, evaluation and feedback (MEF) STEP 9: Implementation STEP 10: Implementation

17 Main activities The 10 – Step approach to planning ecosan projects
STEP 9: Monitoring, evaluation and feedback (MEF) STEP 0: Raising awareness STEP 1: Request for assistance STEP 2: Launch of the planning and consultative process Decision on infrastructure Elaborating working plans Tendering Hardware investment Grant of financial support/subsidies Provision of equipment Construction Training /advice to users, service providers etc Use of sanitary systems Maintenance Collection / treatment Storage / transport Marketing of recyclates Reuse of recyclates STEP 3: Assessment of current status STEP 4: Assessment of user priorities STEP 5: Identification of options STEP 6: Evaluation of feasible service combinations STEP 7: Consolidated ecosan plans for the study area STEP 8: Finalising of consolidated ecosan plans STEP 9: Implementation

18 The 10 – Step approach to planning ecosan projects

19 How does this fit into conventional planning approaches?
Step 0 – Raising awareness Step 1 - Request for assistance Step 2 - Launch of planning & consultation process Step 3 - Assessment of current status Step 4 - Assessment of priorities Step 5 - Identification of options Step 6 - Evaluate feasible service and reuse options Step 7 - Consolidate ecosan plans for the study area Step 8 - Finalise consolidated ecosan plans for study area Step 9 – Implementation The ecosan project steps Baseline- & Feasibility-study; Implementation & Maintenance Tendering Construction, Use Maintenance Feasibility- Study Baseline-Study Awareness raising Detailed technical & operational plans

20 New aspects to be considered in the planning and implementation of ecosan projects
the integration of reuse aspects in the assessment of the current situation and in all the planning activities and conceptual work • the integration of aspects concerning water supply (rainwater harvesting, grey water treatment and reuse, …) • the integration of aspects of urban planning (minimise transport, support urban agriculture, …) • the integration of aspects of solid waste management • the consideration of a much wider variety of sanitation solutions with respect to centralised or decentralised, conventional or closed-loop oriented, high tech or low tech, well-known or brand-new, split-stream or combined technical solutions and the corresponding institutional and management solutions the application of new and wider ranging evaluation criteria for water supply and sanitation services

21 New aspects to be considered in the planning and implementation of ecosan projects
• the adaptation to the information and output needs of the stepwise and participatory project preparation and implementation process, in order to supply the relevant information to enable the stakeholder to make an “informed choice” • the necessity to focus on the assessment of the needs of the user of the sanitary facilities and other relevant stakeholders, particularly the service providers and the end users of the recyclates. • the consideration of smaller planning units and a greater number of decentralised options and • the integration of education, institution and capacity building aspects into planning instruments

22   The future is to separate … Stakeholders in an ecosan project
household in an urban flat (peri )urban household Tourists, students, employees, etc. Rural The future is to separate … ( IX ) Research Institutions ( I ) Users of Sanitation facilities ( II ) User of recyclates Stakeholders in an ecosan project ( III ) CBOs and self- help groups ( VIII ) Financial Institutions ecosan project ( IV ) NGOs ( VII ) Developers & Investors ( VI ) Service providers ( V ) Local authorities, governments Providers for collection treatment and transport Educational institutions Consultant companies Supplier of water gas and electricity Construction companies maintenance companies Producers/ provider of equipment Distributors and marketers of recyclates

23 Principal stakeholders – what are their motivations and concerns:

24 Tables “Tasks and roles of stakeholders” - example:

25 Tables “Tasks and roles of stakeholders” - example:

26 Economic aspects of ecological sanitation systems

27 cost comparison: ecosan vs. conventional
Germany Conventional concept: - Flush toilets, gravity sewer, pumping station operated by the public supplier Source separation concept I (gravity, composting of faeces): - separation toilets and storage of urine, transport and agricultural use on a nearby farm - faeces transported in gravity sewer and composted, used in horticulture - transport of greywater in gravity sewer system, treatment in a constructed wetland, transport to the receiving water Source separation concept II (vacuum, digestion of faeces): - Vacuum separation toilets, gravity urine transport, storage and use on farm - Faeces by vacuum, common treatment with organic waste in biogas plant, - Transport of greywater in gravity sewer. treatment in a constructed wetland, transport to the receiving water

28 cost comparison: ecosan vs. conventional
Vacuum urine-diversion toilet Conventional toilet (WC) Cost Composting urine diversion toilet source: Berliner Wasserbetriebe Time (year) Projected costs for sanitation service for 5000 inhabitants, Germany

29 cost comparison: ecosan vs. conventional
Uganda 1 - Source separation concept: - dry urine diversion toilets - sewer line for greywater - horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetland. - products from the toilets are to be used in gardening within the school grounds Conventional concept: - flush toilets - separate sewer system for black water, - mechanical pre-treatment - pumping station and a vertical subsurface flow constructed wetland.

30 cost comparison: ecosan vs. conventional
alternative Projected costs for sanitation service for girls school, Uganda

31 cost comparison: ecosan vs. conventional
- Lower overall costs - Costs to be covered by private household may increase as a result of having to replace domestic sanitary facilities (for example by installing a urine diversion toilet) - Innovative financing alternatives needed

32 cost comparison: ecosan vs. conventional

33 cost comparison: ecosan vs. conventional

34 cost comparison: ecosan vs. conventional
Difficulty of traditional economic appraisals for sanitation is that the setting of the boundaries for the system often leads to many important external costs or benefits being overlooked completely Examples conventional systems: - Effect on drinking water treatment, degradation of soils, the costs of using high quality drinking water to flush the system, the environmental problems arising in the receiving water must be considered, loss of a recreational area, loss of natural habitats and effects on coastal areas, the effect of medical residues which pass through the treatment works virtually intact, eventual rehabilitation costs Examples from eco-sanitation systems: - Transformation costs, awareness raising activities - Secured drinking water supply, improved soil structure and fertility, increased access to fertiliser and harvest, reduced energy consumption and possible energy production, resource conservation

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