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Planning for ecological sanitation In depth workshop on ecological sanitation, 7 - 8 May 2005, Asmara, 1 ecological sanitation planning and economics Deutsche.

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Presentation on theme: "Planning for ecological sanitation In depth workshop on ecological sanitation, 7 - 8 May 2005, Asmara, 1 ecological sanitation planning and economics Deutsche."— Presentation transcript:

1 Planning for ecological sanitation In depth workshop on ecological sanitation, May 2005, Asmara, 1 ecological sanitation planning and economics Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) GmbH ecological sanitation programme, Division 44 – environment and infrastructure Commissioned by: In depth workshop on ecological sanitation, May 2005, Asmara,

2 Planning for ecological sanitation In depth workshop on ecological sanitation, May 2005, Asmara, 2 ecosan-project archetypes user institution public/ private service provider household public/ private service provider household public/ private service provider household 4.Service provision for operation, transport, treatment and marketing faeces + urine + greywater + stormwater- manage- ment plus rainwater harvesting, organic waste faeces + urine + greywater + stormwater- manage- ment plus rainwater harvesting, organic waste faeces + urine + greywater only rainwater harvesting, stormwater management, organic waste faeces + urine only plus greywater, rainwater harvesting, organic waste 3.Considered resources (minimum / optimum) user-institution (partly) farmer, external user (partly) household (partly) farmer, external user (partly) household (partly) farmer, external user (partly) household 2.User of the end products tourists, employees, pupils... household / neigbourhood household1.User of sanitation facilities rural upgrading A urban upgrading C new urban development areas D particular objects (tourism, schools..) Characteristics Project-typeB

3 Planning for ecological sanitation In depth workshop on ecological sanitation, May 2005, Asmara, 3 The foundation of planning for ecological sanitation Bellagio Principles: household centered participation of all stakeholders Waste to be considered as resource Level of problem solving 1.Human dignity, quality of life and environmental security at household level should be at the centre of the new approach, which should be responsive and accountable to needs and demands in the local and national setting. 2.In line with good governance principles, decision-making should involve participation of all stakeholders, especially the consumers and providers of services. 3.Waste should be considered a resource, and its management should be holistic and form part of integrated water resources, nutrient flows and waste management processes. 4.The domain in which environmental sanitation problems are resolved should be kept to the minimum practicable size (household, community, town, district, catchment, city) and wastes diluted as little as possible. The Bellagio Principles were endorsed by the members of the Water Supply and Sanitation Collaborative during its 5 th Global Forum in November 2000 in Iguacu (Brasil). The Bellagio-Principles of WSSCC:

4 Planning for ecological sanitation In depth workshop on ecological sanitation, May 2005, Asmara, 4 The HCES of the WSSCC Participation of stakeholders Level of problem solving HCES = Household (neighborhood) centered environmental sanitation WSSCC = Water Supply and Sanitation Collaborative Council The 10-Step HCES approach

5 Planning for ecological sanitation In depth workshop on ecological sanitation, May 2005, Asmara, 5 The HCES of the WSSCC Participation of stakeholders Level of problem solving HCES = Household (neighborhood) centered environmental sanitation WSSCC = Water Supply and Sanitation Collaborative Council National Government District Government Local Government Neighbourhood Household Past Future A new planning approach - household centred

6 Planning for ecological sanitation In depth workshop on ecological sanitation, May 2005, Asmara, 6 The 10-Step HCES approach 10-STEP-Process for Developing and Implementing the HCES-Bellagio Principles Approach STEP 1: Request for assistance STEP 2: Launch of the planning and consultative process STEP 5: Identification of options STEP 4: Assessment of user priorities STEP 3: Assessment of current status STEP 6: Evaluation of feasible service combinations STEP 8: Finalising of consolidated UESS plans STEP 7: Consolidated Urban Environmental Sanitation Service (UESS) plans for the study area STEP 10: Implementation STEP 9: Monitoring, evaluation and feedback (MEF)

7 Planning for ecological sanitation In depth workshop on ecological sanitation, May 2005, Asmara, 7 Adaptation of the HCES 10 – STEP process to ecosan-projects STEP 10: Implementation STEP 1: Request for assistance STEP 2: Launch of the planning and consultative process STEP 3: Assessment of current status STEP 4: Assessment of user priorities STEP 5: Identification of options STEP 6: Evaluation of feasible service combinations STEP 7: Consolidated ecosan plans for the study area STEP 8: Finalising of consolidated ecosan plans STEP 9: Monitoring, evaluation and feedback (MEF) STEP 0: Raising awareness STEP 9: Monitoring, evaluation and feedback (MEF) STEP 9: Implementation

8 Planning for ecological sanitation In depth workshop on ecological sanitation, May 2005, Asmara, 8 STEP 10: Implementation STEP 1: Request for assistance STEP 2: Launch of the planning and consultative process STEP 3: Assessment of current status STEP 4: Assessment of user priorities STEP 5: Identification of options STEP 6: Evaluation of feasible service combinations STEP 7: Consolidated ecosan plans for the study area STEP 8: Finalising of consolidated ecosan plans STEP 9: Monitoring, evaluation and feedback (MEF) STEP 0: Raising awareness STEP 9: Monitoring, evaluation and feedback (MEF) STEP 9: Implementation Advocacy, lobbying, information, demand creation The 10 – Step approach to planning ecosan projects Main activities during an ecosan-project

9 Planning for ecological sanitation In depth workshop on ecological sanitation, May 2005, Asmara, 9 STEP 10: Implementation STEP 1: Request for assistance STEP 2: Launch of the planning and consultative process STEP 3: Assessment of current status STEP 4: Assessment of user priorities STEP 5: Identification of options STEP 6: Evaluation of feasible service combinations STEP 7: Consolidated ecosan plans for the study area STEP 8: Finalising of consolidated ecosan plans STEP 9: Monitoring, evaluation and feedback (MEF) STEP 0: Raising awareness STEP 9: Monitoring, evaluation and feedback (MEF) STEP 9: Implementation Formulation of request The 10 – Step approach to planning ecosan projects Main activities during an ecosan-project

10 Planning for ecological sanitation In depth workshop on ecological sanitation, May 2005, Asmara, 10 STEP 10: Implementation STEP 1: Request for assistance STEP 2: Launch of the planning and consultative process STEP 3: Assessment of current status STEP 4: Assessment of user priorities STEP 5: Identification of options STEP 6: Evaluation of feasible service combinations STEP 7: Consolidated ecosan plans for the study area STEP 8: Finalising of consolidated ecosan plans STEP 9: Monitoring, evaluation and feedback (MEF) STEP 0: Raising awareness STEP 9: Monitoring, evaluation and feedback (MEF) STEP 9: Implementation Facilitation Information on process and ecosan Active participation in start-up workshop The 10 – Step approach to planning ecosan projects Main activities

11 Planning for ecological sanitation In depth workshop on ecological sanitation, May 2005, Asmara, 11 STEP 10: Implementation STEP 1: Request for assistance STEP 2: Launch of the planning and consultative process STEP 3: Assessment of current status STEP 4: Assessment of user priorities STEP 5: Identification of options STEP 6: Evaluation of feasible service combinations STEP 7: Consolidated ecosan plans for the study area STEP 8: Finalising of consolidated ecosan plans STEP 9: Monitoring, evaluation and feedback (MEF) STEP 0: Raising awareness STEP 9: Monitoring, evaluation and feedback (MEF) STEP 9: Implementation Participatory development of TOR Investigation of status quo including WSS, socio-cultural, legal aspects, town planning, economies, reuse aspects, agricultural practises, fertiliser use etc. Elaboration of report The 10 – Step approach to planning ecosan projects Main activities

12 Planning for ecological sanitation In depth workshop on ecological sanitation, May 2005, Asmara, 12 STEP 10: Implementation STEP 1: Request for assistance STEP 2: Launch of the planning and consultative process STEP 3: Assessment of current status STEP 4: Assessment of user priorities STEP 5: Identification of options STEP 6: Evaluation of feasible service combinations STEP 7: Consolidated ecosan plans for the study area STEP 8: Finalising of consolidated ecosan plans STEP 9: Monitoring, evaluation and feedback (MEF) STEP 0: Raising awareness STEP 9: Monitoring, evaluation and feedback (MEF) STEP 9: Implementation Presentation of findings of step 3 Correction of possible factual errors Establish ground rules for STEP 5, (decision on priorities, service levels, institutio- nal arrangements, cul- tural acceptability, etc.) The 10 – Step approach to planning ecosan projects Main activities

13 Planning for ecological sanitation In depth workshop on ecological sanitation, May 2005, Asmara, 13 STEP 10: Implementation STEP 1: Request for assistance STEP 2: Launch of the planning and consultative process STEP 3: Assessment of current status STEP 4: Assessment of user priorities STEP 5: Identification of options STEP 6: Evaluation of feasible service combinations STEP 7: Consolidated ecosan plans for the study area STEP 8: Finalising of consolidated ecosan plans STEP 9: Monitoring, evaluation and feedback (MEF) STEP 0: Raising awareness STEP 9: Monitoring, evaluation and feedback (MEF) STEP 9: Implementation Elaboration of adequate ecosan-solutions including technical, institutional, financial and social feasibility and environmental impact The 10 – Step approach to planning ecosan projects Main activities

14 Planning for ecological sanitation In depth workshop on ecological sanitation, May 2005, Asmara, 14 STEP 10: Implementation STEP 1: Request for assistance STEP 2: Launch of the planning and consultative process STEP 3: Assessment of current status STEP 4: Assessment of user priorities STEP 5: Identification of options STEP 6: Evaluation of feasible service combinations STEP 7: Consolidated ecosan plans for the study area STEP 8: Finalising of consolidated ecosan plans STEP 9: Monitoring, evaluation and feedback (MEF) STEP 0: Raising awareness STEP 9: Monitoring, evaluation and feedback (MEF) STEP 9: Implementation Participatory determination of feasible service and reuse combinations The 10 – Step approach to planning ecosan projects Main activities

15 Planning for ecological sanitation In depth workshop on ecological sanitation, May 2005, Asmara, 15 STEP 10: Implementation STEP 1: Request for assistance STEP 2: Launch of the planning and consultative process STEP 3: Assessment of current status STEP 4: Assessment of user priorities STEP 5: Identification of options STEP 6: Evaluation of feasible service combinations STEP 7: Consolidated ecosan plans for the study area STEP 8: Finalising of consolidated ecosan plans STEP 9: Monitoring, evaluation and feedback (MEF) STEP 0: Raising awareness STEP 9: Monitoring, evaluation and feedback (MEF) STEP 9: Implementation Assembling and integrating the service and reuse combinations into a broader water supply, sanitation, and reuse framework The 10 – Step approach to planning ecosan projects Main activities

16 Planning for ecological sanitation In depth workshop on ecological sanitation, May 2005, Asmara, 16 STEP 10: Implementation STEP 1: Request for assistance STEP 2: Launch of the planning and consultative process STEP 3: Assessment of current status STEP 4: Assessment of user priorities STEP 5: Identification of options STEP 6: Evaluation of feasible service combinations STEP 7: Consolidated ecosan plans for the study area STEP 8: Finalising of consolidated ecosan plans STEP 9: Monitoring, evaluation and feedback (MEF) STEP 0: Raising awareness STEP 9: Monitoring, evaluation and feedback (MEF) STEP 9: Implementation Presentation of assembled plans to the stakeholders Achievement of a consensus on the consolidated plans The 10 – Step approach to planning ecosan projects Main activities

17 Planning for ecological sanitation In depth workshop on ecological sanitation, May 2005, Asmara, 17 STEP 1: Request for assistance STEP 2: Launch of the planning and consultative process STEP 3: Assessment of current status STEP 4: Assessment of user priorities STEP 5: Identification of options STEP 6: Evaluation of feasible service combinations STEP 7: Consolidated ecosan plans for the study area STEP 8: Finalising of consolidated ecosan plans STEP 0: Raising awareness STEP 9: Monitoring, evaluation and feedback (MEF) STEP 9: Implementation Decision on infrastructure Elaborating working plans Tendering Hardware investment Grant of financial support/subsidies Provision of equipment Construction Training /advice to users, service providers etc Use of sanitary systems Maintenance Collection / treatment Storage / transport Marketing of recyclates Reuse of recyclates The 10 – Step approach to planning ecosan projects Main activities

18 Planning for ecological sanitation In depth workshop on ecological sanitation, May 2005, Asmara, 18 The 10 – Step approach to planning ecosan projects

19 Planning for ecological sanitation In depth workshop on ecological sanitation, May 2005, Asmara, 19 Step 0 – Raising awareness Step 1 - Request for assistance Step 2 - Launch of planning & consultation process Step 3 - Assessment of current status Step 4 - Assessment of priorities Step 5 - Identification of options Step 6 - Evaluate feasible service and reuse options Step 7 - Consolidate ecosan plans for the study area Step 8 - Finalise consolidated ecosan plans for study area Step 9 – Implementation The ecosan project steps Baseline- & Feasibility-study; Implementation & Maintenance Tendering Construction, Use Maintenance Feasibility- Study Baseline-Study Awareness raising Detailed technical & operational plans How does this fit into conventional planning approaches?

20 Planning for ecological sanitation In depth workshop on ecological sanitation, May 2005, Asmara, 20 the integration of reuse aspects in the assessment of the current situation and in all the planning activities and conceptual work the integration of aspects concerning water supply (rainwater harvesting, grey water treatment and reuse, …) the integration of aspects of urban planning (minimise transport, support urban agriculture, …) the integration of aspects of solid waste management the consideration of a much wider variety of sanitation solutions with respect to centralised or decentralised, conventional or closed-loop oriented, high tech or low tech, well-known or brand-new, split-stream or combined technical solutions and the corresponding institutional and management solutions the application of new and wider ranging evaluation criteria for water supply and sanitation services New aspects to be considered in the planning and implementation of ecosan projects

21 Planning for ecological sanitation In depth workshop on ecological sanitation, May 2005, Asmara, 21 the adaptation to the information and output needs of the stepwise and participatory project preparation and implementation process, in order to supply the relevant information to enable the stakeholder to make an informed choice the necessity to focus on the assessment of the needs of the user of the sanitary facilities and other relevant stakeholders, particularly the service providers and the end users of the recyclates. the consideration of smaller planning units and a greater number of decentralised options and the integration of education, institution and capacity building aspects into planning instruments New aspects to be considered in the planning and implementation of ecosan projects

22 Planning for ecological sanitation In depth workshop on ecological sanitation, May 2005, Asmara, 22 The future is to separate … ecosan project ( II ) User of recyclates ( IV ) NGOs ( IX ) Research Institutions ( I ) Users of Sanitation facilities ( VIII ) Financial Institutions ( V ) Local authorities, governments ( VII ) Developers & Investors ( VI ) Service providers ( III ) CBOs and self- help groups household in an urban flat (peri )urban household Tourists, students, employees, etc. Rural household Providers for collection treatment and transport Educational institutions Consultant companies Supplier of water gas and electricity Construction companies maintenance companies Producers/ provider of equipment Distributors and marketers of recyclates Stakeholders in an ecosan project

23 Planning for ecological sanitation In depth workshop on ecological sanitation, May 2005, Asmara, 23 Principal stakeholders – what are their motivations and concerns:

24 Planning for ecological sanitation In depth workshop on ecological sanitation, May 2005, Asmara, 24 Tables Tasks and roles of stakeholders - example:

25 Planning for ecological sanitation In depth workshop on ecological sanitation, May 2005, Asmara, 25 Tables Tasks and roles of stakeholders - example:

26 Planning for ecological sanitation In depth workshop on ecological sanitation, May 2005, Asmara, 26 Economic aspects of ecological sanitation systems

27 Planning for ecological sanitation In depth workshop on ecological sanitation, May 2005, Asmara, 27 Conventional concept: - Flush toilets, gravity sewer, pumping station operated by the public supplier Source separation concept I (gravity, composting of faeces): - separation toilets and storage of urine, transport and agricultural use on a nearby farm - faeces transported in gravity sewer and composted, used in horticulture - transport of greywater in gravity sewer system, treatment in a constructed wetland, transport to the receiving water Source separation concept II (vacuum, digestion of faeces): - Vacuum separation toilets, gravity urine transport, storage and use on farm - Faeces by vacuum, common treatment with organic waste in biogas plant, - Transport of greywater in gravity sewer. treatment in a constructed wetland, transport to the receiving water cost comparison: ecosan vs. conventional Germany

28 Planning for ecological sanitation In depth workshop on ecological sanitation, May 2005, Asmara, 28 Projected costs for sanitation service for 5000 inhabitants, Germany Vacuum urine-diversion toilet source: Berliner Wasserbetriebe Conventional toilet (WC) Composting urine diversion toilet Time (year) Cost cost comparison: ecosan vs. conventional

29 Planning for ecological sanitation In depth workshop on ecological sanitation, May 2005, Asmara, Source separation concept: - dry urine diversion toilets - sewer line for greywater - horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetland. - products from the toilets are to be used in gardening within the school grounds. 2 - Conventional concept: - flush toilets - separate sewer system for black water, - mechanical pre-treatment - pumping station and a vertical subsurface flow constructed wetland. Uganda cost comparison: ecosan vs. conventional

30 Planning for ecological sanitation In depth workshop on ecological sanitation, May 2005, Asmara, 30 Projected costs for sanitation service for girls school, Uganda conventional alternative cost comparison: ecosan vs. conventional

31 Planning for ecological sanitation In depth workshop on ecological sanitation, May 2005, Asmara, 31 - Lower overall costs - Costs to be covered by private household may increase as a result of having to replace domestic sanitary facilities (for example by installing a urine diversion toilet) - Innovative financing alternatives needed cost comparison: ecosan vs. conventional

32 Planning for ecological sanitation In depth workshop on ecological sanitation, May 2005, Asmara, 32 cost comparison: ecosan vs. conventional

33 Planning for ecological sanitation In depth workshop on ecological sanitation, May 2005, Asmara, 33 cost comparison: ecosan vs. conventional

34 Planning for ecological sanitation In depth workshop on ecological sanitation, May 2005, Asmara, 34 Difficulty of traditional economic appraisals for sanitation is that the setting of the boundaries for the system often leads to many important external costs or benefits being overlooked completely Examples conventional systems: - Effect on drinking water treatment, degradation of soils, the costs of using high quality drinking water to flush the system, the environmental problems arising in the receiving water must be considered, loss of a recreational area, loss of natural habitats and effects on coastal areas, the effect of medical residues which pass through the treatment works virtually intact, eventual rehabilitation costs Examples from eco-sanitation systems: - Transformation costs, awareness raising activities - Secured drinking water supply, improved soil structure and fertility, increased access to fertiliser and harvest, reduced energy consumption and possible energy production, resource conservation cost comparison: ecosan vs. conventional

35 Planning for ecological sanitation In depth workshop on ecological sanitation, May 2005, Asmara, 35 Thanks !!! subscribe the ecosan-newsletter by sending an with the text subscribe ecosan to:


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