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Chapter 1 MGT 321 INTRODUCTION TO ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR BY: Sarah Sabir Ahmad.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 1 MGT 321 INTRODUCTION TO ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR BY: Sarah Sabir Ahmad."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 1 MGT 321 INTRODUCTION TO ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR BY: Sarah Sabir Ahmad

2 Chapter 1 MGT INTRDOUCTION 1.2 FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS 1.3 BASIC APPROACHES IN THE STUDY Of ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR

3 Chapter INTRODUCTION WHAT IS AN ORGANIZATION A consciously coordinated social unit, composed of two or more people, that functions on a relatively continuous basis to achieve a common goal or set of goals.

4 Chapter 1 ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR A field of study that investigates the impact that individuals, groups, and structure on behavior Within the organization itself For the purpose of applying such knowledge toward improving an organization’s effectiveness.

5 Chapter 1 Organization System

6 Chapter 1 ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR OB is a combination of science, conceptual & applied discipline. Science – large number of research Conceptual – constantly add concepts to the basic concept of OB Applied – the information is about effective practice aspects

7 Chapter 1 OB provides useful sets of tools at all levels (4 issues) 1. Assist managers to understand individual behavior 2. Increases manager’s understanding of interpersonal relations when 2 or more interact

8 Chapter 1 OB provides useful sets of tools at all levels 3. It examines relationship within small groups 4. It provides insight of the whole systems that have inter-organizational relationships

9 Chapter 1 WHAT MANAGERS DO? Managers (or administrators) Individuals who achieve goals through other people. Managerial Activities Make decisions Allocate resources Direct activities of others to attain goals

10 Chapter 1 MANAGER’S ROLE  To understand employees & use the understanding to get employees function effectively & efficiently to achieve the organization's goal

11 Chapter 1 Management Functions (POLC) PlanningPlanningOrganizingOrganizingLeadingLeadingControllingControlling Management Functions

12 Chapter 1 Directly, OB improve people-organization relationship: Manager & administrative systems Human & social systems Organization & technical systems

13 Chapter 1  Thus, org. must benefit these relationships as it would bring quality, lower cost & harmony working climate  Due to the inter-relationship emerge, the org. basically practices mgmt  This mgmt practices implies the input process-output model

14 Chapter FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS OB start with a set of fundamental concepts revolving around the nature of people & organization.

15 Chapter 1 Nature of People  Individual Differences  A whole Person  Motivated Behavior  Human Dignity Nature of Org.  Social Systems  Mutual Interest HOLISTIC OB

16 Chapter 1 NATURE OF PEOPLE (4)  INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES Individual differs from one to another Thus, mgmt must treat each employee differently though there are standard to be followed

17 Chapter 1  A WHOLE PERSON A person can not be separated from his skills, knowledge & so on Brain only = not possible. Employee’s emotion + personal matters as well. When mgmt develop a better employee, they actually shaping better person

18 Chapter 1  MOTIVATED BEHAVIOR Normal behavior occur for certain causes  E.g. eating due to hunger Thus, it relates to the person’s need & the consequences of certain act Thus, mgmt has 2 choices either to:  Provide reasons to do certain action that will increase need fulfillment, or  Provide threat to decrease the need fulfillment if they do undesired behavior

19 Chapter 1  HUMAN DIGNITY People will be placed above all because of the universe rule Therefore must be treated with respect, dignity & need to be recognized Employees always want to be valued either for their skills,abilities and knowledge. Employees need to be provided with opportunities to improve themselves.

20 Chapter 1 NATURE OF ORGANIZATION (2)  SOCIAL SYSTEM Organization is a social systems which is governed by social laws & psychological laws Two types  Formal/official – interaction set by the org.  Informal – interaction between members to fulfill social needs for affiliation

21 Chapter 1 This system implies that org environment is dynamic and due to changes at all times. All parts of systems in the organization is interdependent and each system would influence the other system.

22 Chapter 1  MUTUAL INTEREST Org. needs people and people need org. They are formed and maintained on this basis Both parties has goals to achieve. Mutual interaction will lead to ability for both parties to achieve their own goals

23 Chapter 1  MUTUAL INTEREST (con’t) If mutuality is lacking, it makes no sense to try to assemble a group & develop cooperation Therefore, it provides a super-ordinate goal  Goal that can be accomplished through the integrated of individuals & their employers

24 Chapter 1 BASIC APPROACHES IN OB  There are 5 approaches: Interdisciplinary approach Human Resources / Supportive Approach A Contingency Approach Productivity / Results Oriented Approach Systems Approach

25 Chapter 1 1. INTERDISCIPLINARY  It integrates social science & other disciplines such as medical & biology  The combination of disciplines will improve the people-org relationship  This knowledge then known as behavioral science which represents a systemized body of knowledge that pertains to why & how people behave as they do  Such knowledge could help managers to deal with people at work in order to function as a whole social unit

26 Chapter 1 2. HUMAN RESOURCES  It directs all resources to growth & development of people. Why?  Traditionally, managers make decision, supervise & control employees closely. However with basic approach in OB, managers are trained to be more supportive & create opportunities for employees & support employees’ growth & performance

27 Chapter 1 3. A CONTINGENCY  Traditionally, management practiced “one best way” to all types of organizations  As time goes by, many complex situation influence the organization & this results the contingency approach Different situation require different behavioral practices for effectiveness  Strength – it encourages analysis of each situation prior to action

28 Chapter 1 4. PRODUCTIVITY  All organization aim to achieve relevant outcome (results) = productivity orientation  It defined as a ratio that compares units of output with units of input.  Productivity measures level of output produced & how efficient one produces desired output  It also takes account on human & social input & output such as job satisfaction & performance

29 Chapter 1  System is made up of several subsystems which actively interact & influences each other.  An event that appears to affect one individual or department may have significant influences elsewhere in the org.  It is necessary to make a cost-benefit analysis to identify whether the potential action will have positive or negative effect 5. SYSTEMS

30 Chapter 1 CONCLUSION What makes an organization successful? HUMAN = EMPLOYEES Managers need to understand each individual. It is through good understanding about nature of humans and the nature of organizations, effectiveness could be achieved. This will lead to greater productivity and pleasant working environment.


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