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Alberts • Johnson • Lewis • Morgan • Raff • Roberts • Walterda Alberts • Johnson • Lewis • Morgan • Raff • Roberts • Walter Molecular Biology of the Cell Sixth Edition con integrazioni e modifiche Chapter 11 Membrane Transport of Small Molecules and the Electrical Properties of Membranes Copyright © Garland Science 2015
Ion concentration is different inside and outside cells
Synthetic lipid bilayers have different permeability to different classes of molecules
Permeability coefficients of different molecules are very different
The two main classes of membrane transport proteins are: transporters and channels
Transport across membranes can be:Passive or Active
The electrochemical gradient affects ion transport
Conformational changes of a transporter can mediate passive transport
Transporter-mediated diffusion reaches a maximum
Active transport is carried out in three main ways
Transporters can transfer one ion or two ions, in the same or in the opposite direction
Glucose transport is driven by Na gradientIon gradients represent an energy source
Glucose crosses the intestinal epithelium
There are three types of ATP-driven pumps
ER calcium pump is a P-type transporter
Na-K ATPase is also a P-type pump
ABC transporters are the largest family of membrane transport proteinsREM: MDR
Water crosses the membrane through channels: the aquaporins
Channels can have a closed or open conformation
Channels can be regulated by several mechanisms
Ion distribution determines membrane potential
Channel structure determines ion selectivity
Mechanosensitive channels open and close
Ion transport is fundamental for nerve cell function
Sodium channels have a key role in the generation of a membrane potential
Individual ion channels can be monitored by patch clamp
Release of neurotransmitter occurs at synapses
Various channels are activated in sequence at the neuromuscular junction
Single neurons are complex computation devices
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