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An Introduction to how life works…

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1 An Introduction to how life works…
Biomolecules An Introduction to how life works…

2 What are biomolecules? A biomolecule is defined as –
Any organic (contains carbon) molecule that is produced by a living organism Biomolecules carry out a wide range of activities and processes within cells and organisms that are both a reflection and cause of the diversity of life we see today.

3 What are biomolecules? There are four main types of biomolecules we will study. These are carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids. Each type performs a different role in organisms and all are vital.

4 What are biomolecules? Carbohydrates – A compound (Cm(H2O)n) that is made only of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. In our food, we refer to foods that have high concentrations of starch or sugar as carbohydrates. Examples: bread, pasta, cereal, candy, jam, etc.

5 What are biomolecules? Lipids - A broad group of molecules which include fats, waxes, several vitamins (A, D, E, & K). Uses include energy storage, making the structure of cell membranes and cellular signaling.

6 What are biomolecules? Proteins - A large molecule composed of one or more chains of amino acids in a specific order determined by DNA coding for the protein Proteins are required for the body's cells, tissues, and organs. Proteins have unique functions and are essential components of muscles, skin, bones and the entire body. Proteins include whole classes of important molecules such as enzymes, hormones, and antibodies.

7 What are biomolecules? Nucleic Acids - A macromolecule (large molecule) that carries genetic information or forms structures within cells. (DNA & RNA) The largest single molecules known to man. DNA & RNA are found in all living organisms and viruses.

8 Biomolecule Nomenclature
Molecules can be broken down into two categories, monomers and polymers. Mono means “one” and poly means “many”. Meros (Greek) means “part.” We will identify whether a molecule is a monomer or a polymer throughout this unit. Monomer Polymer Which is which?

9 Carbohydrates Carbs you know (and love)… Sugar Starch Breads Sweets
Non-Green “Veggies” Baked Goods

10 Carbohydrates How can all these things be carbohydrates?
A carbohydrate is any molecule that is made of only carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. They have the chemical formula Cm(H2O)n. They are carbo (carbon) hydrates (water added). Example: Glucose (sugar)… C6H12O6 Write “Glucose” on the arrow pointing at the diagram.

11 Carbohydrates Sugars are used in cellular respiration (energy creation) by all aerobic organisms. Glucose is broken down and turned into ATP that gives cells the energy they need. BUT… Carbohydrates aren’t always sugary… Some organisms store sugar as starch… which isn’t sweet.

12 Carbohydrates Starch is the carbohydrate plants use to store extra sugar (energy). Starches take up less room than sugars because they are chemically linked together in tight chains, linked carbohydrates are referred to as polysaccharides. Write “Starch” on the arrow pointing at the diagram. Plants like potatoes (tubers) make starch to use for the next season’s growth. Organisms break starch bonds between sugar molecules to release the sugars, which are monosaccharides.

13 Carbohydrates Even though starchy foods do not taste sweet, once starch is in the body, the starch is quickly converted to pure sugar by digestion processes. This is why people with diabetes must be careful when eating breads, potatoes and other starches. Their blood sugar levels will spike quickly. Sugar and carbohydrates on a nutrition label will both turn into the same thing… Sugar.

14 Carbohydrates Which food would increase your blood sugar more?
Don’t look at sugar… all carbs turn into sugar… look at Total Carbohydrates.

15 Write “Lipid” on the arrow pointing at the diagram.
Lipids Gotta love lipids… (maybe) Lipids you know… Olive Oil Beeswax Vitamins Oils Waxes Vitamins Write “Lipid” on the arrow pointing at the diagram.

16 Lipids Different forms of lipids perform many different functions within organisms. The main functions of lipids are to build cell membranes, carry signals through the cell, and store energy for an organism. The body produces many types of lipids, but others can only be obtained through food.

17 Lipids Lipids in cell membranes
Glycerophospholipids make up cell membranes in animals. Because lipids do not mix with water, they form two layers on top of each other that keeps water either inside or outside of a membrane. Lipid membranes (called lipid Picture is a lipid bilayer. bilayers) help maintain homeostasis in organisms.

18 Lipids Lipids also help transmit signals within cells.
Several lipids regulate calcium concentration (bone growth), hormone levels (estrogen and testosterone), and the immune system. Molecule is Prostaglandin-E1, known pharmaceutically as alprostadil. Used in Erectile Dysfunction treatment. Messenger lipid imbalances can cause severe health issues for humans.

19 Lipids The lipid most commonly consumed in animal diets are the triglycerides. Triglycerides are important energy storage molecules in organisms. When broken down, they produce more than twice the energy of carbohydrates or proteins. Alton Brown from Good Eats on oils.

20 Lipids We consume triglycerides in vegetable oils and animal fats. When we talk about oils, we use the terms saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated to say how the oils are assembled. Write “Triglyceride” on the arrow pointing at the diagram. Triglycerides are stored in adipose tissue (fatty tissue). These cells are designed to constantly make and break down triglycerides.

21 Lipids Adipose tissue… Yum…
This is what you are eating when you eat the fat on a steak or piece of chicken. The body produces adipocytes to store triglycerides because they store huge amounts of energy… so it takes huge amounts of effort to get rid of them.

22 Lipids Lipids also do great things as well.
They make hair shiny, prevent hair loss, help wounds heal, and many other very beneficial things. Lipids DO NOT make you fat. Eating too many calories makes you fat. (your body will make triglycerides with extra calories) Carbohydrates and Proteins produce 4 k/cal per gram and Lipids produce 9 k/cal per gram. You will get just as fat eating 4,000 calories a day of broccoli as you would from eating 4,000 calories a day of ice cream (that’s a lot of broccoli… 26 lbs)

23 Lipids Sooo… Go eat a double cheeseburger… and love it…
I quote the following… The Nutrition Source, a website maintained by the Department of Nutrition at the Harvard School of Public Health, summarizes the current evidence on the impact of dietary fat: "Detailed research—much of it done at Harvard—shows that the total amount of fat in the diet isn't really linked with weight or disease." Quote from:^ "Fats and Cholesterol: Out with the Bad, In with the Good - What Should You Eat? - The Nutrition Source - Harvard School of Public Health". Retrieved Sooo… Go eat a double cheeseburger… and love it…

24 mmMMMMm……… Lipids… Also starch and proteins… I guess…

25 Legumes, Grains, and Nuts
Proteins Some foods have lots of proteins and you didn’t even know it... Proteins you know… Red Beans & Rice Steak Eggs & Milk Animal Products Legumes, Grains, and Nuts All Meats

26 Proteins Proteins are some of the most vital components of life.
Proteins provide the building blocks for many types of molecules that make blood, skin, cartilage, muscles and bones, hormones and enzymes . Aside from water, proteins are the most plentiful substance in the body1. Ref 1:

27 Proteins Proteins are, like lipids and carbohydrates, a large group of different molecules. Proteins are made from polypeptides(polymer), which are amino acids (monomer) joined together by peptide bonds. The prefix “poly” means many. Peptide: Peptide pictured is Glycylglycine. Peptide Bond

28 Proteins When you consume proteins, the acid in your stomach breaks the protein apart so that your body can use the amino acids for other purposes. These amino acids combine to make other molecules or proteins for skin, blood, muscles, bones, and hormones. Human bodies can only make some of the amino acids we need from scratch, we get the rest by eating animals or plants.

29 Proteins One example of an amino acid is Glycene
Glycene tastes sweet and is used by the body to make proteins and also to regulate nerve activity. It is found in protein drinks and high protein processed foods.

30 Proteins Proteins are unique because their structures allow them to form very unique molecular shapes. There are two primary types of protein shapes: Globular & Fibrous Globular proteins are shaped like a big balled up net, while Fibrous proteins are like ropes.

31 Proteins Globular Proteins:
Albumin helps to stabilize blood and keeps the liver from removing some compounds from the blood (like drugs). Albumin is the main protein in an egg white that helps keep baked foods together.

32 Proteins Fibrous Proteins:
Collagen holds Jell-O together. It is the same stuff that gets put in your lips during plastic surgery… (Think it’s cherry flavored?) Fibrous proteins give body tissues structure. Fibrous Proteins make your tendons, muscle fibers, and that nasty “gristle” stuff that feels and tastes like rubber in your steak. Add Good Eats Video for Jell-O

33 Nucleic Acids Nucleic Acid! OH NO!!! Dear lord…
what is a nucleic acid? Is it a nuclear? Is it an acid? Nucleic Acid! OH NO!!!

34 Nucleic Acid The short answer is…
It is not nuclear (it was discovered in a nucleus), but it is an acid… just not that kind. To qualify as an acid (acidic) a substance can donate protons or accept electrons (sorta). Don’t get confused by the acid part… that just has to do with how the compounds react.

35 Nucleic Acid Nucleic acids were first discovered in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells (hence the name). We now know that nucleic acids (DNA & RNA) are in all organisms including bacteria, archea, mitochondria, chloroplasts, and viruses.

36 Nucleic Acid The scientific name for nucleic acids are polynucleotides (many nucleotides). The basic unit of the nucleic acid is the nucleotide. Each nucleic acid is made of a chain of nucleotides. Each nucleotide is made of a pentose sugar (sugar with five points), a phosphate, and a nitrogen base.

37 Nucleic Acid Key Terms – Pentose Sugar Ribose Phosphate Deoxyribose
Base Take students through how the bonding works/where certain parts go and how. Start with Pentose Sugar, Phosphate, and Base, then advance the slide to talk about Ribose and Deoxyribose. The D & R before the NA (in DNA and RNA) tells you whether there is oxygen on the pentose ring.

38 Nucleic Acid DNA & RNA have a very important function in biology.
They provide the blueprints to make other molecules that make life work. For example, RNA provides the correct sequences for molecules like proteins to be assembled in the correct order. The amazing complexity of biological molecules is reliant upon the even more complicated nucleic acids.

39 Nucleic Acid When good nucleic acids go bad…
When DNA errors are not fixed by the body, we get diseases like cancer or physical deformities. Even very slight changes in DNA can have drastic consequences. Slight changes in DNA (genetic code) have resulted in evolution and creation of new species. The genetic difference between humans and chimpanzees is less than 2%1. 1 Chen, F.C. & Li, W.H. (2001). "Genomic divergences between humans and other hominoids and the effective population size of the common ancestor of humans and chimpanzees". Am J Hum Genet 68 (2): 444–456.

40 Life… It’s all about chemistry…
Biomolecules Life… It’s all about chemistry…

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