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Chapter 25: The Consolidation of Latin America,

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1 Chapter 25: The Consolidation of Latin America, 1830-1920
AP World History

2 Causes of Independence
Multiple events affected Latin American independence. European Enlightenment American/French Revolutions Haitian Revolution By 1824, almost all of Spanish America will be independent republics.

3 Haitian Revolution (1791-1804)
Haiti was originally Saint-Domingue, a French Caribbean island colony for sugar plantations. Mixed society: slave workers on sugar plantations, freed blacks, and French colonists. In 1791, Haitian slaves rebel against French control. Led by Toussaint L’Ouverture, a free man. Slaves freed with DOROMAC Napoleon reinstates slavery, and the Haitians revolt again 1804: Republic of Haiti declared its independence. First incident of a successful slave rebellion

4 Independence in Mexico
1810: Creole Father Miguel de Hidalgo urged mestizos and Indians to join a rebellion against Spain 1821: Creole Officer Augustin de Iturbide successfully negotiates an agreement with rebels, and is named Emperor of the newly independent Mexico. 1824: Mexican Empire collapsed; Republic of Mexico was created.

5 Mexican Republic Mexico’s political instability made it a target for foreign invasion. 1845: United States voted to annex Texas. Mexican-American War ( ) Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo (1848) : US receives ½ of Mexican territory but 5% of pop. Liberal revolt -> new constitution in 1857 Church privileges ended and land put on sale…intention was to create a nation of independent farmers, but businessmen bought the land and rural population lost it all

6 Mexican-American War (1846-1848)
Gadsden Purchase (1854): territory purchased by US from Mexico for $10 million so that the US could construct a transcontinental railroad

7 Independence in New Granada and Rio de la Plata
: Viceroyalty of New Granada becomes independent; now known as Gran Colombia Leader Simon Bolívar Fragment in 1830 into Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador 1816: Viceroyalty of Rio de la Plata gains independence led by José de San Martín; now United Provinces of Rio de la Plata with republican government Buenos Aires resented trade restrictions placed upon them by Spain

8 Simon Bolivar

9 Argentine Republic 1816: United Provinces of Rio de la Plata
Begins to fragment 1820s: Liberals instituted reforms in education, finance, agriculture, immigration. New liberal constitution in 1853 1862: Argentine Republic Led by Domingo F. Sarmiento; period of political stability and liberal control By 1890, Argentina represented the achievement of liberal program in Latin America – perhaps the only successful liberal rebellion in Spanish South America Argentina received 3.5 million immigrants between

10 Independent States of Latin America by 1830

11 Brazilian Independence
Brazil was economically important to Portugal (sugar, cotton, cacao, slave labor) 1807: Napoleon’s invasion of Portugal causes Portuguese royal family to flee to Brazil. Rio de Janeiro set up as capital with gov. functions Dom João VI ruled Portugal from Brazil until 1820 After Napoleon is defeated in Europe and a liberal revolution has occurred in Portugal, Dom João VI returned to Portugal and left his son Dom Pedro as regent in Brazil 1822: Dom Pedro I became constitutional emperor of Brazil after declaring Brazil independent Joao VI Pedro I

12 The Brazilian Empire 1824: Liberal constitution issued
Conflicts between liberals and conservatives were complicated by the existence of a monarchy  regional revolts erupt. Coffee surpasses sugar; coffee now comprised 60% of Brazil’s economy and helped Brazilian agriculture to grow. Coffee estates (fazendas) intensified slavery Slavery finally abolished in 1888

13 Confronting Socio-Political Problems
Ideals of early leaders were often egalitarian, but it often didn’t work out that way. “Liberal” constitutions were often short-lived 1854: Slavery abolished everywhere except Cuba [1886], Puerto Rico [1873] and Brazil [1888] Taxes on American Indian ended slowly.

14 Confronting Socio-Political Problems
Most attempts for consolidation and unification failed (ex: Gran Columbia, Rio de La Plata); why? Geographic barriers and distances Poor roads/transportation Regional interests and political divisions Caudillos: independent military leaders that rose to power as instability increased; begin Latin Am. trend of military involvement in governments.

15 Latin American Economies, 1820-1870
Brazilian and Caribbean sugar plantations remained the center of Latin American economies and trade with Europe. New staples: Mexican copper and silver; Argentinian beef; Cuban tobacco; Brazilian coffee, rubber, and cacao. Ports opened them up to global trade, which introduced foreign goods to region. Latin America became dependent on the importation of foreign goods and exportation of raw materials to European markets, as well as foreign loans.

16 The Great Boom Between , Latin America experienced tremendous spurts of economic and urban growth; capitalism and limited gov’t intervention triumphed. Immigrants from Europe came to Argentina and Brazil to fill labor needs on plantations and haciendas. Mostly male labor due to physical strength required in plantation labor. Steamships and railroads improved communication and transportation of goods.

17 U.S. Involvement in Latin America
1823: Monroe Doctrine “Hands off” policy: any attempt by Europe to colonize in the Americas would be seen as an attack on United States; extension of US foreign policy American industry was seeking new markets and raw materials after their industrial revolution and the American Civil War. Panama Canal opened in 1914: shortens route between Atlantic and Pacific.

18 Cuba and the U.S. Cubans rebelled against Spanish rule in 1895
US businessmen concerned about their investments in Cuban sugar and tobacco plantations  USS Maine sent to Havana Spanish-American War (1898) USS Maine exploded in Havana harbor Remember the Maine! US went to war against Spain US victory resulted in Spanish cession of Puerto Rico and Guam to the US and the US purchase of the Philippines. Allowed for direct US involvement in Caribbean Cuba became independent republic, subject to manipulation by the US.

19 Latin American Culture
Tension overall between European influences and desire to express an American identity. Elites adopted tastes and fashions of Europe (neo-classical; romanticism) Popular culture changes little: stays traditional Social change came slowly for Indians, blacks, and women. Women actively participated in independence movements; little political change Women could participate in public education (ages 7-15)  creates new opportunities for women José María Obregón

20 Which group led the independence movements in most of Latin America?
American-born whites or creoles Indians/Native Americans Mestizos, or people of mixed Indian and European descent Mulattoes, or people of mixed African and European descent

21 Haiti’s independence differed from other Latin American movements in that
It began as a slave revolt against slave owners and led to independence The United States supported the Haitians in their revolution with supplies France and Napoleon welcomed and recognized Haiti’s independence Spain supported the movement to independence

22 Leaders of Latin American independence revolts were generally
Monarchists, who wanted monarchs to govern their states Radicals, who wanted democratic republics and universal male suffrage Liberals, who wanted some representative institutions but feared the masses Conservative republicans, who favored the church and rich landowners

23 Brazil’s independence differed from the rest of Latin America in that it was
The result of a successful slave rebellion Not supported by the locally-born European population Declared and led by the Portuguese prince in Brazil, who then named himself emperor Extremely violent with multiple armies led by different factions

24 Throughout Latin America, the Indian population
Generally supported the new republican governments Remained largely outside the national political life Revolted against Europeans and later the new governments Acquired rights in some countries but not all

25 The fifty years following independence in most Latin American countries was marked by
Political instability Social experimentations Religious experimentation with evangelical movements Economic industrialization

26 Which economic pattern continued to prevail in post-independence Latin America?
Plantation economies with slave or peasant labor Dependency on foreign markets and imports Government-sponsored socialism US manipulation of tariffs and infrastructure projects

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