Presentation on theme: "Chapter 25: The Consolidation of Latin America,"— Presentation transcript:
1 Chapter 25: The Consolidation of Latin America, 1830-1920 AP World History
2 Causes of Independence Multiple events affected Latin American independence.European EnlightenmentAmerican/French RevolutionsHaitian RevolutionBy 1824, almost all of Spanish America will be independent republics.
3 Haitian Revolution (1791-1804) Haiti was originally Saint-Domingue, a French Caribbean island colony for sugar plantations.Mixed society: slave workers on sugar plantations, freed blacks, and French colonists.In 1791, Haitian slaves rebel against French control.Led by Toussaint L’Ouverture, a free man.Slaves freed with DOROMACNapoleon reinstates slavery, and the Haitians revolt again1804: Republic of Haiti declared its independence.First incident of a successful slave rebellion
4 Independence in Mexico 1810: Creole Father Miguel de Hidalgo urged mestizos and Indians to join a rebellion against Spain1821: Creole Officer Augustin de Iturbide successfully negotiates an agreement with rebels, and is named Emperor of the newly independent Mexico.1824: Mexican Empire collapsed; Republic of Mexico was created.
5 Mexican RepublicMexico’s political instability made it a target for foreign invasion.1845: United States voted to annex Texas.Mexican-American War ( )Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo (1848) : US receives ½ of Mexican territory but 5% of pop.Liberal revolt -> new constitution in 1857Church privileges ended and land put on sale…intention was to create a nation of independent farmers, but businessmen bought the land and rural population lost it all
6 Mexican-American War (1846-1848) Gadsden Purchase (1854): territory purchased by US from Mexico for $10 million so that the US could construct a transcontinental railroad
7 Independence in New Granada and Rio de la Plata : Viceroyalty of New Granada becomes independent; now known as Gran ColombiaLeader Simon BolívarFragment in 1830 into Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador1816: Viceroyalty of Rio de la Plata gains independence led by José de San Martín; now United Provinces of Rio de la Plata with republican governmentBuenos Aires resented trade restrictions placed upon them by Spain
9 Argentine Republic 1816: United Provinces of Rio de la Plata Begins to fragment1820s: Liberals instituted reforms in education, finance, agriculture, immigration.New liberal constitution in 18531862: Argentine RepublicLed by Domingo F. Sarmiento; period of political stability and liberal controlBy 1890, Argentina represented the achievement of liberal program in Latin America – perhaps the only successful liberal rebellion in Spanish South AmericaArgentina received 3.5 million immigrants between
11 Brazilian Independence Brazil was economically important to Portugal (sugar, cotton, cacao, slave labor)1807: Napoleon’s invasion of Portugal causes Portuguese royal family to flee to Brazil.Rio de Janeiro set up as capital with gov. functionsDom João VI ruled Portugal from Brazil until 1820After Napoleon is defeated in Europe and a liberal revolution has occurred in Portugal, Dom João VI returned to Portugal and left his son Dom Pedro as regent in Brazil1822: Dom Pedro I became constitutional emperor of Brazil after declaring Brazil independentJoao VIPedro I
12 The Brazilian Empire 1824: Liberal constitution issued Conflicts between liberals and conservatives were complicated by the existence of a monarchy regional revolts erupt.Coffee surpasses sugar; coffee now comprised 60% of Brazil’s economy and helped Brazilian agriculture to grow.Coffee estates (fazendas) intensified slaverySlavery finally abolished in 1888
13 Confronting Socio-Political Problems Ideals of early leaders were often egalitarian, but it often didn’t work out that way.“Liberal” constitutions were often short-lived1854: Slavery abolished everywhere except Cuba , Puerto Rico  and Brazil Taxes on American Indian ended slowly.
14 Confronting Socio-Political Problems Most attempts for consolidation and unification failed (ex: Gran Columbia, Rio de La Plata); why?Geographic barriers and distancesPoor roads/transportationRegional interests and political divisionsCaudillos: independent military leaders that rose to power as instability increased; begin Latin Am. trend of military involvement in governments.
15 Latin American Economies, 1820-1870 Brazilian and Caribbean sugar plantations remained the center of Latin American economies and trade with Europe.New staples: Mexican copper and silver; Argentinian beef; Cuban tobacco; Brazilian coffee, rubber, and cacao.Ports opened them up to global trade, which introduced foreign goods to region.Latin America became dependent on the importation of foreign goods and exportation of raw materials to European markets, as well as foreign loans.
16 The Great BoomBetween , Latin America experienced tremendous spurts of economic and urban growth; capitalism and limited gov’t intervention triumphed.Immigrants from Europe came to Argentina and Brazil to fill labor needs on plantations and haciendas.Mostly male labor due to physical strength required in plantation labor.Steamships and railroads improved communication and transportation of goods.
17 U.S. Involvement in Latin America 1823: Monroe Doctrine“Hands off” policy: any attempt by Europe to colonize in the Americas would be seen as an attack on United States; extension of US foreign policyAmerican industry was seeking new markets and raw materials after their industrial revolution and the American Civil War.Panama Canal opened in 1914: shortens route between Atlantic and Pacific.
18 Cuba and the U.S. Cubans rebelled against Spanish rule in 1895 US businessmen concerned about their investments in Cuban sugar and tobacco plantations USS Maine sent to HavanaSpanish-American War (1898)USS Maine exploded in Havana harborRemember the Maine!US went to war against SpainUS victory resulted in Spanish cession of Puerto Rico and Guam to the US and the US purchase of the Philippines.Allowed for direct US involvement in CaribbeanCuba became independent republic, subject to manipulation by the US.
19 Latin American Culture Tension overall between European influences and desire to express an American identity.Elites adopted tastes and fashions of Europe (neo-classical; romanticism)Popular culture changes little: stays traditionalSocial change came slowly for Indians, blacks, and women.Women actively participated in independence movements; little political changeWomen could participate in public education (ages 7-15) creates new opportunities for womenJosé María Obregón
20 Which group led the independence movements in most of Latin America? American-born whites or creolesIndians/Native AmericansMestizos, or people of mixed Indian and European descentMulattoes, or people of mixed African and European descent
21 Haiti’s independence differed from other Latin American movements in that It began as a slave revolt against slave owners and led to independenceThe United States supported the Haitians in their revolution with suppliesFrance and Napoleon welcomed and recognized Haiti’s independenceSpain supported the movement to independence
22 Leaders of Latin American independence revolts were generally Monarchists, who wanted monarchs to govern their statesRadicals, who wanted democratic republics and universal male suffrageLiberals, who wanted some representative institutions but feared the massesConservative republicans, who favored the church and rich landowners
23 Brazil’s independence differed from the rest of Latin America in that it was The result of a successful slave rebellionNot supported by the locally-born European populationDeclared and led by the Portuguese prince in Brazil, who then named himself emperorExtremely violent with multiple armies led by different factions
24 Throughout Latin America, the Indian population Generally supported the new republican governmentsRemained largely outside the national political lifeRevolted against Europeans and later the new governmentsAcquired rights in some countries but not all
25 The fifty years following independence in most Latin American countries was marked by Political instabilitySocial experimentationsReligious experimentation with evangelical movementsEconomic industrialization
26 Which economic pattern continued to prevail in post-independence Latin America? Plantation economies with slave or peasant laborDependency on foreign markets and importsGovernment-sponsored socialismUS manipulation of tariffs and infrastructure projects