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Ancient Greece n importance to Western culture n fundamental ideas and categories n Individualism and Humanism n the rise of Reason –decline of superstition/religion.

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Presentation on theme: "Ancient Greece n importance to Western culture n fundamental ideas and categories n Individualism and Humanism n the rise of Reason –decline of superstition/religion."— Presentation transcript:

1 Ancient Greece n importance to Western culture n fundamental ideas and categories n Individualism and Humanism n the rise of Reason –decline of superstition/religion

2 Minoan Culture 2000BCE-1400 n elaborate towns and villages n complex religious ideas n sophisticated art n sports and leisure n High status for women n Island of Crete Knossos n Had own writing, used copper, and bronze, ship builders n Mysteriously collapsed

3 Contributions to Greeks n linguistic n olives, grapes, figs n place names n overseas movement

4 an artist’s rendering of the main building of the Palace of Minos at Knossos

5 From the Palace of Knossos: The famous "bull leaping" fresco from the East wing of the palace

6 Rand McNally, Atlas of World History, pp. 22

7 National Geographic, Dec 99, pp. 64

8 Mycenaeans 1400-1200BCE n Bonze Age Greeks n small, warrior states n war, trade, piracy n literate (Linear B) n Mainland Greece n Monarchs, fortified palace, tombs for royal families n Warriors, HOMER's Iliad, Agamemnon was king, Troy created foundation for later Greeks

9 Mycenae, ca.1450 B.C.

10 The great megaron at Mycenae

11 The death mask of “King Agamemnon” Mycenae

12 Greek cities and colonies, 750-650 B.C.

13 RELIGION Mount Olympus - Zeus, chief god and father of gods, Athena wisdom and craft Apollo sun and poetry. Ares war. Aphrodite love Poseidon brother of Zeus sea, earthquakes Hades, underworld Pray and give gifts, festivals, Olympics for Zeus, no women ORACLE, shrine where the future was revealed through priest, priestess DELPHI

14 Mt Olympus

15 Sanctuary of Apollo at Delphi

16 SECTION 1--THE POLIS n Polis- center of Greek life (City-State) n Acropolis- fortified hill temple to gods n Agora- open marketplace area n Polis- gave sense of belonging, good of the polis was top priority n If Born outside Greece—No citizenship n Citizens could Vote, fight in Army, hold office, speak for themselves in court. n Greatest City-States -- (Athens, Sparta

17 SPARTA (800b.c.--371b.c.) n Sparta greatest military power in Greece n Aristocrats took over government (ARMY) n Ephors controlled public affairs of Sparta (yearly) n Helots (slaves) farmed n Aristocrats stay in army from 7-60 yrs. Old n Sparta’s only goal: Military Strength

18 Sparta n no colonization, conquest of neighbors n the constitution of Lycurgus n a perpetual military state n all citizens are subordinated to the state n no private property

19 ATHENS nAnAthens was ruled by an Oligarchy-few people have ruling power nSnSolon set up first Athenian Constitution nCnCitizenship was offered to everyone n5n508b.c. first democratic government setup (favoring the people) nBnBecame citizens at age 18 n4n490b.c. the word “Nike” was first used (Greek goddess of victory upon defeat of the Persians. nDnDelian League was formed (city-states joined) (like the United Nations)

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21 Persian Wars n To punish the Athenians and discourage future interference, Darius attacked Athens in 490 n The Athenians repelled the invasion –Marathon

22 Xerxes n Darius’s successor Xerxes tried to avenge the Persian losses by launching another attack in 480 –Thermopylae

23 After Thermopylae n The Persians captured and burned Athens but were defeated by the Athenian navy at Salamis n In 479 the Persians were defeated at Plataea and forced back to Anatolia

24 n GOLDEN AGE OF GREEK CULTURE n 5th century BC Persia tried to conquer but failed Athens created a league to defeat Persia n Allowed Athens to develop empire n Pericles had democracy, taxes to rebuild Athens n Male citizens participated in direct democracy n Rebuilt after Persian wars

25 Delian League n After the Persian threat subsided, the Greek poleis had conflicts among themselves n The Athenians formed an alliance called the Delian League –Athens supplied most of the military force and the other poleis provided financial support –In the absence of the Persian threat, eventually the other poleis came to resent financing Athens’s bureaucracy and construction projects n The resulting tensions led to the Peloponnesian War (431-404) in which the poleis divided up into two sides led by Athens and Sparta

26 The Peloponnesian War (431-404 B.C.) n The war went back and forth until 404 when the Spartans and their allies forced Athens to surrender n Conflicts continued however and the world of the poleis steadily lost power –Alexander the Great is going to step into this power vacuum

27 SECTION 4--DECLINE OF THE CITY-STATES n After Peloponnesian War, Greeks had lost sense of community, and only wanted to make money n Sparta ruled all of Greece now n Thebes overthrew Sparta n The rule of Thebes was worse than that of Sparta n City-States were weakened n Greece was finally conquered by Phillip II of Macedonia SECTION 4– DECLINE OF THE CITY STATE

28 The Good Constitutions n monarchy (rule by one) n aristocracy (rule by the best) n constitutional government (rule by a body of law)

29 The Bad Ones n tyranny (extra-legal rule by one man) n oligarchy (rule by a faction) n democracy (rule by the people, without law)

30 Rise of Tyrants n many states moved from monarchy to tyranny n rise of disenfranchised classes ? n rise of a new military form –the Hoplite soldier

31 Hoplite phalanx: classical Greece

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33 The Fourth Century n power vacuums, struggle for hegemony n Thebes n Federal leagues n military monarchies –Thessaly –Macedonia

34 Philip II Ruled Macedonia from 359- 336 B.C. and transformed it into a powerful military machine Moved into northern Greece and met little resistance due to residual effects of Peloponnesian War –By 338 he had Greece under his control

35 Macedonia

36 Alexander the Great n Philip intended to use Greece as a launching pad to invade Persia, but he was assassinated before he could begin his plan n Instead the invasion of Persia would be left for Philip’s son Alexander who was just 20 when Philip was assassinated –“Alexander inherited from his father the most perfectly organized, trained, and equipped army of ancient times.” J.F.C. Fuller, The Generalship of Alexander the Great

37 Conquests of Alexander n Ionia and Anatolia333 n Syria, Palestine, Egypt332 n Mesopotamia331 n Persepolis331 n King of Persia330 n India327 n Returns to Susa324 n Dies (age 33)323

38 Warfare in the Age of Alexander n Phalanx: A formation of infantry carrying overlapping shields and long spears, developed by Philip II and used by Alexander the Great

39 Warfare in the Age of Alexander n Companions –Alexander’s elite cavalry, the offensive arm of his army, and his elite guard. –They would be used in conjunction with the phalanx. The phalanx would fix the enemy in place and then the companion cavalry would attack on the flank. –Alexander would lead the charge with his cavalry, normally in a wedge formation. –These troops would also protect the flanks of the Macedonian line during battle.

40 Empire of Alexander the Great

41 Successor Kingdoms

42 Monarchies was his influence on government Died young and empire fell apart HELLENISTIC to imitate Greeks Alexander spread Greek culture and his people adopted Eastern cultures. Hellenistic culture is the mix of Greek, Middle East and Indian cultures Library at Alexandria encouraged learning 4 Hellenistic societies from Alexander Syria, Pergamum, Macedonia Egypt all conquered by Rome All government in Greek so language spread and business

43 Greek Culture and Civilization n foundations of Western thought n asked the important questions for the first time n gave the answers--that made sense--for the first time n WOMEN n inferior, home, subject to man's will, were citizens, have children n Spartan women had more rights, education, physical training, own items, n most families owned a slave

44 Math and science SUN is the center of universe, Sculptors aimed for emotion in their art Statues of ordinary people and their flaws were popular Women studied philosophy architecture, baths, temples, theaters, JASON AND THE GOLDEN FLEECE

45 n DRAMA n Western culture influenced n Outdoor theaters n Tragedies common theme life n Oresteia by Aeschylus n Sophocles Oedipus Rex n Nature good and evil

46 n ART AND ARCHITECTURE n Humans objects of beauty, marble n sculptures and architectures, brightly painted, n Parthenon-temple built on top of the hill Acropolis n SCIENCE AND MATH n Eratosthenes earth round and it's circumference, prime numbers calculation n Archimedes geometry, levers, pulleys, volume, density, catapults, screw pump for water n Pythagoras Pythagorean theorem

47 Greek Religion n Homer n Hesiod n polytheistic n civic n tolerant

48 OPENING THE DOOR –questions once the age-old obstacle of relying on the gods for all answers had been overcome –What is man and what is the best society for man? –What is truth and how can one recognize it? –What is virtue and how can one acquire it?

49 INTRODUCTION n The Greeks had begun to speculate very early on such metaphysical questions as the origin and nature of the universe –As evidenced by the poems of Homer But Homer relied on mythology to provide the answers n Others would ultimately discard religious mythology as a means to answer these questions and develop a secular methodology based on observation, logic, and semantics –With this development came the birth of philosophy

50 Greek Religion, con’t n fully humanized gods n not concerned with morality n no regular priests or clergy n no “church and state”

51 n Epicureans free to follow self interest, be happy, pursuit of pleasure, no worries n Stoicism live in harmony only way to happiness, good citizen

52 THE SOPHISTS n Greeks quickly commercialized spirit of intellectual liberation –Men trained in philosophy set themselves up as teachers of various fields Their basic premise was that men were capable of self- improvement through education and education would make men more successful Offered idea of human progress through one’s own efforts –Became very popular and were concentrated in Athens

53 MORE SOPHIST ARGUMENTS n Sophists also attacked the traditional religious and moral values of Athenian society –Some argued that religion was useless and others asserted that religion was a human invention n Even argued that the law did not come from the gods, nor were they based on any objective or universal standard of justice and good –Argued that the law was something made by the most powerful citizens for their own benefit –Dangerous implications Law did not need to be obeyed since it rested on no higher principle than might –Disruptive of community life because it stressed the selfish interests of the individual over the general welfare of the city

54 CRITICISM OF THE SOPHISTS n Felt that sophists had taught skills but had no insight into the questions that really mattered –What is the purpose of life? –What are the values by which man should live? –How does man perfect his character? Felt sophists had attacked old system of beliefs but had not provided a constructive replacement

55 CENTRAL CONCERN n Central concern was the perfection of individual human character –Believed moral values were attained when the individual regulated his life according to objective standards arrived at through rational reflection –An individual would be able to ascertain the values necessary to live a good and just life when reason became the formative, guiding, and ruling agency of the soul –True education meant the shaping of character according to values discovered through the active and critical use of reason

56 THE POWER OF REASON n Socrates taught that rational inquiry was a priceless took that allowed one to test opinions, weigh the merit of ideas, and alter beliefs on the basis of knowledge n Believed that when people engaged in critical self-examination and strove to perfect their characters, they liberated themselves from accumulated opinions and traditions and based their conduct instead on convictions they could rationally defend

57 SOCRATIC METHOD n Would begin debates with students with searching questions into traditional assumptions that everyone took for granted and then proceed to show that these assumptions were rooted more in custom and prejudice than they were in logic –Would then lead students (with more questions) into developing more precise definitions of such concepts as piety, justice, good, and evil

58 PLATO n In 387, Plato founded the Academy in Athens –Intended to be a training ground for young men from all over Greece Where they would learn the Socratic Method n Plato had more ambitious goal than Socrates’ moral regeneration of the individual –Also wanted arrange political life according to rational rules Argued that quest for personal morality could not succeed unless the community was also transformed on the basis of reason

59 THE WORLD OF IDEAS I n Socrates had taught that universal standards of right and justice exist and could be found through the application of reason –Plato insisted on the existence of a higher world of reality One that was independent from the world of things that we experience everyday Called this the “World of Ideas” (or “Forms”) –Unchanging, eternal, absolute, and universal standards of beauty, justice, and truth One had to live according to these standards in order to live the good life –To know these forms was to know truth

60 ARISTOTLE n Studied in Plato’s Academy for 20 years –Left to become tutor to Alexander the Great –Returned after Alexander became ruler and founded Lyceum n Ranges of interests and intellect was extraordinary –Leading expert of his time in all subjects except mathematics –Wrote large number of books on various topics

61 ETHICS n People could achieve happiness when they applied knowledge relevantly to life and when their behavior was governed by intelligence –Not by whim, tradition, or authority n Realized that passionate element within the human personality could not be completely eradicated –To surrender to one’s passions was to sink to the level of animals –But to deny the passions was foolish and an unreasonable rejection of human nature –Argued that people could regulate their passions through rigorous training Could achieve virtue when they avoided extremes of behavior and rationally chose moderation

62 Stoics n concern with ethics, logic, and physics n cyclic universe n important for early Christianity


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